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2018, Vol.19, No.2

  • 1.

    Analysis of Korean Medical Interpreting Studies —Focusing on the Korea-specific Situation

    Soon Mi Kim | 2018, 19(2) | pp.7~37 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims to investigate the themes and methodology of two branches of Korean medical interpreting researches, public sector medical interpreting and commercial medical-tourism interpreting, which reflect the Korea-specific medical interpreting situation. Five themes (interpreting product, interpreting performance, communicative practices, service provision, diversity management policy) of medical interpreting researches suggested by Pöchhacker (2006) and 8 paradigms for Korean interpreting researches suggested by Won (2015) served as a basis for the categorization of Korean medical interpreting researches. A total of 28 (14 in public sector medical interpreting and 14 in commercial medical-tourism interpreting) papers were categorized in terms of research theme and method. The analysis reveals: (1) about 50% of researches are related to training and interpreting policy, revealing the rapid professionalization of the Korean medical interpreting field; (2) many studies have sociological themes such as the status of interpreters, conflicts between interpreters and patients, confusing identity, and power imbalance; (3) research methods in medical interpreting include surveys, in-depth interviews, and conversational analysis.
  • 2.

    An Audience-response Questionnaire Survey on Gender-biased Language in Korean Subtitling

    Kim, Sehyoun | 2018, 19(2) | pp.39~69 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims to explore aspects of gender-biased language in Korean subtitling and to investigate audience responses for gender-biased English-Korean translations. To this end, a small scale survey was conducted among 114 college students. The results show that most respondents have experienced gender-biased subtitle translations, and felt discomfort from them. And they thought the translations should be revised to rectify the gender bias. However, when respondents were asked to choose preferred translations between gender-biased and non-gender-biased ones, responses were rather varied depending on the characters and the context of the film. The directions of further studies were discussed with the limitations of this study.
  • 3.

    A study on professional translator training methods reflecting market demands

    Jeong-yeon Kim | 2018, 19(2) | pp.71~88 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The translator training at the graduate level aims to nurture talented professionals that can go into work directly after graduation. Therefore, trainees gain basic knowledge in various fields such as economy, politics, law, science and technology, media, arts and literature, while enhancing overall language and translation competences during their training course. However, translation practice is not only done in the text-to-text dimension, but also in other various ways depending on the market demands. Therefore, in parallel with theory or general practice-oriented classes, it is necessary to provide realistic training based on the actual market environment. This paper aims to present translation classrooms based on different translating methods according to the french market demands : project translation, abridged translation, computer aided translation, machine translation and post-editing, book review and transcreation among others.
  • 4.

    At the Boundary of Faithfulness and Performability in Drama Translation —Focusing on Equus

    Kim Hyekyung | 2018, 19(2) | pp.89~115 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to consider the characteristics of the drama translation focusing on the correlation between literary faithfulness and performability, and to compare each translation to see the differences of the translations that emphasize the performability or literary importance. It is obvious that the translation into literary text should be carried out in consideration of performability as well. However, when translated with an excessive emphasis on performability, the play may be translated deviating from the intention of the original author according to time, place, age, social status, and sex of the translator. Therefore, It is necessary to distinguish between the faithful translation from its play script. The former reflects its playwright's original intention as faithfully as possible while the latter is produced for performance only. What translators should focus on is the translation of drama which is the basis for play scripts, rather than the adaptation made by the director in accordance with the background of performance and the purpose of play. This paper examined whether each translation faithfully carried the characteristics of the original drama and functioned as the appropriate drama text that could be a source of the adaptation, or whether it revealed the ambiguity beyond the boundary of drama translation and adaptation. Considering the drama should be translated in consideration of performability, it is necessary to properly grasp the boundary of faithfulness and performability. Also, it seems appropriate to leave the area directly related to stage performance to a director and deal with it at an adaptation stage so that dramas can be performed with various interpretations.
  • 5.

    Expanding the Scope of Machine Translation-Machine Translation Post Editing Strategies for Specific Metaphors in Newspapers

    SEUNG HYE MAH | 2018, 19(2) | pp.117~145 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The literature on machine translation post-editing has mostly been concentrated on editing machine translations of technical texts such as user manuals or technical specifications. Texts that are rich with metaphorical expressions have been regarded as not suitable for machine translation post-editing. However, the improvements of machine translation and the growth of the post-editing market have gradually been expanding the machine translation applicable text scope from technical texts to newspapers although newspaper texts are characterized by a relatively high percentage(approximately 15%) of metaphors. A previous research suggests that post editing machine translation of newspaper texts requires less cognitive efforts than translating from scratch; therefore, machine translation post-editing of newspaper texts is efficient and worth carrying out. For systematic research about metaphors, Newmark(1988) distinguished six types of metaphors: dead, cliché, stock, adapted, recent and original. Metaphors frequently observed in newspapers are dead, cliché, and stock metaphors. For these metaphors, seven strategies of translating metaphorical expressions have been suggested(Newmark 1981): reproducing, replacing, simile, simile+sense, converting to sense, deleting, and combing the same metaphor with the sense. Among these strategies, reproducing strategy is quite acceptable for dead and cliché metaphors, which can be quickly processed by machine. For stock metaphors, faithful reproduction of the relatively new concept of the metaphor is too foreign for target readers to accept without any resistance. In this case, the most applicable strategy for machine translation post-editing turns out to be ‘combing the same metaphor with the sense’. It is substantiated by survey results and actually translated metaphor in local newspapers.
  • 6.

    Analysis of Korean Translation Agencies’ Revision Practices: On Revision Parameters and Procedures

    Park Ji Young | 2018, 19(2) | pp.147~173 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Revision is one of the most important translation procedures, as it determines the final quality of a translation. However, research on revision, especially those exploring the actual revision practices, is limited. This study analyzes Korean translation agencies’ revision practices by looking into the information on revision in their tender offers for a translation project. The research questions are as follow: At Korean translation agencies, who revises translations?; In what procedures revision is implemented?; What are revision parameters? The results show that Korean translation agencies implement multi-phase revision processes, during which bilingual Koreans and native speakers of target languages collaborate. Bilingual revision precedes monolingual revision, and both processes are implemented twice respectively. By comparing source and target texts, Korean bilingual revisers check parameters, such as accuracy, equivalence with source texts, use of terminologies, punctuation and document formats, of which errors could be determined objectively. Monolingual reviewers focus on formality, naturalness, grammar and readability, using their insights as native speakers. Unlike the parameters for bilingual revision, monolingual revision parameters might be corrected subjectively, hence revision results could differ depending on revisers’ experiences and capabilities.
  • 7.

    Movie Poster Translation for the Immersion of Audiences through the Control of Informational Entropy

    Shin, Naan | 2018, 19(2) | pp.175~202 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores how the movie poster translation functions as a marketing performance for making audiences immersed by controlling information quantity. As a marketing tool, the movie poster aims at encouraging audiences to see the movie by capturing their attention at a glance. Therefore, making audiences become interested and enticing them to become immersed in the movie poster should be considered for their translation. This study analyzes changes of text–image relations in movie posters with the concepts of entropy and redundancy in the information theory of Shannon and Weaver. Forty American movie posters and their Korean-translated counterparts were selected for observing aspects of the variation of text–image relations through the control of entropy and redundancy. The American posters of high entropy generate redundancy by providing audiences with as much freedom of interpretation as possible. On the other hand, the Korean-translated posters re-establish the text–image relations in such a way that the redundancy is high and the entropy is low, thereby inducing the audience to passively receive large amounts of information. Because movie posters originally designed with a strong marketing purpose entice audiences to become immersed, movie poster translation should be considered as recreating a performance of marketing function.
  • 8.

    Suggestions for Expanding the Use of the Case Study Method in the Field of Interpreting Studies in Korea

    Jong-Hwa Won | 2018, 19(2) | pp.203~232 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    A case study refers to a research method which involves detailed, in-depth investigation of a specific situation or personal experience. What matters most in a case study is that the case should be understood and analyzed in the context in which it exists. The case study can be a suitable research method for delving into various subjects related to interpreting. This is because interpreting is a lingual performance that takes place under specific contextual conditions, and is affected by cultural, social, and psychological factors. Unlike experiments which emphasize control of many variables, a case study allows holistic analysis of all the factors involved in the case. This paper aims to investigate how researchers in Korea have approached subjects related to interpreting using the case study method, and to suggest ways to expand the utilization of case studies in this field. To this end, this author has collected all the case studies dealing with interpreting from Korea's major T&I academic journals published from 1997 to 2017, and analyzed 19 collected papers against such criteria as the research questions, types of case study and the strategies the authors employed in order to ensure academic rigor of the paper. After that, the author makes suggestions about how the case study method might be put to wider and better use in the study of interpreting.
  • 9.

    Past and Present of Korean Translation Research: A Text Mining-based Analysis —A Case Study of ‘Journal of Translation Studies’

    Chang-Soo Lee | 2018, 19(2) | pp.234~252 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The paper is aimed at shedding light on major changes in the trends of translation research in Korea between the early 2000s and the present. The period of the early 2000s represents the burgeoning of serious academic inquiry into translation issues in Korea, marked by the launch of three major academic journals. The present study employs a text mining approach to tracking down major changes in research trends between the two periods rather than relying on meticulous manual classification according to a pre-defined set of categories as has been attempted by a few earlier studies. The data analyzed in the paper is made of English abstracts compiled from a single journal, ‘the Journal of Translation Studies’ published by the Korean Association of Translation Studies. The data was subjected to word cloud and co-occurrence network analysis. The results show important shifts in research content. They are summarized as (1) from focus on linguistic structure to concern with discourse and text (2) from equivalence-oriented to function-oriented (3) from example/episode-based to corpus-based and empirical, driven by a broad adoption of corpus methodology (4) from theoretical to applied research with a remarkable expansion of training and education and (5) from general to literary and professional translation.
  • 10.

    A Study on Translation of Newspaper Comic Strips from English into Korean: Focused on Humor Translation

    Lee, Hyun-kyung | 2018, 19(2) | pp.253~276 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Comic strips have been enjoyed almost for a century by people all over the world. One of the main causes of its popularity is the 'fun' people get when they read comic strips. Two main constituents of fun in the comic strips are ‘satire’ and ‘humor’, produced in harmony with iconic images and written expressions. Among the comic strips, this study analyzes 4-panel strips which are usually seen on newspapers and mostly deal with current issues in a rather sarcastic way. And humor is mostly expressed in the punch-lines usually applied in the last panel. What makes 4-cut newspaper comic strips different from other forms of comics is that they contain enormous amount of information on the social, political and cultural content of source text culture, which makes translators feel insurmountable the translation of 4-panel comic strips into target languages. Translation of social, political and cultural items has been known to be difficult to do, but in case of 4-panel comic strips it is all the more difficult with their limited spaces given on each panel and speech ballon, while conveying the same effect of humor and sarcasm at the same time. This study identifies types of humor translation of 4-panel comic strips of English into Korean on the translation of two groups of students; undergraduate students taking Translation Theories and Practice and graduate students at a Interpretation and Translation Graduate School. Based on the results of the data, strategies of humor translation are sought to better reach the skopos of humor. The results will provide future guidelines in teaching students on how to translate humor in comic strips.