The Journal of Translation Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.37

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2018, Vol.19, No.3

  • 1.

    A Study on the Selective Appropriation in Educational Comics Translation: Focusing on Korean-Chinese Translation Cases of Educational Comics in Social Area

    Kang, KyoungYi | 2018, 19(3) | pp.7~41 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Educational comics is a genre of comics which has educational functions of conveying knowledge and information in interesting and effective ways. By adopting the perspective of critical discourse analysis (CDA), this study aims to develop types of selective appropriation as revealed in Chinese translation of educational comic books in Korean society, and to analyze its specific cases. Selective appropriation refers to a “phenomenon of transforming original or source texts (ST) by means of ommission, addition, or replacement to strengten, weaken, or beautify a particular part of narratives contained in the texts in the process of translation.” According to the results of analyzing Korean educational comic books translated into Chinese, strategies of selective appropriation were largely implemented with two purposes: 1) to maintain and succeed to collective memories of text recipient groups and 2) to provide alternative information that is more necessary from the viewpoint of text recipients. The first type of selective appropriation was materialized in a strategy of “making in-group positive and out-group negative,” while the second type included sub-strategies of “replacing source texts with medium in the in-group similar to ST contexts” and “revising them with Chinese-based data.”
  • 2.

    Research On Korean-Chinese Translation Methods for the Names of Korea Major Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Keum jia | 2018, 19(3) | pp.43~62 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The intangible cultural heritage, as opposed to the tangible cultural heritage, denies the way to be preserved in a static form. It is human civilization embodied in music, dancing, drama, craft, games, etc. According to the Cultural Heritage Protection Law, the intangible cultural heritage which is recognized by the National Cultural Heritage Committee as having extraordinary artistic, historic and academic value, shall be designated as major intangible cultural heritage. Nevertheless, the names of the cultural heritage in Korea, when introduced in treaties or websites in China, have been translated in diverse versions. In addition, the government has not confirmed a standard translation for the names of the cultural heritage in Korea. In my opinion, in order to present such heritage accurately to Chinese, and to facilitate their interest in and understanding of the korea cultural heritage, it is essential to give a unified Chinese translation of the names of the Korea cultural heritage. This paper examines the methods for the Korean-Chinese translation of the names of 130 pieces of major intangible cultural heritage in Korea. Chapter II reviews theories about the translation of culture elements that include cultural heritage. Chapter III presents and expounds the theory-guided translation methods for Korean-Chinese translation of the names of the cultural heritage with the support of pertinent cases which are divided into three types: Chinese phases, fixed wording, and the combinations of Chinese phase and fixed wording.
  • 3.

    Effective Korean-Chinese Sight-Translation Technique —Focusing on segmentation—

    KIM JINAH | 2018, 19(3) | pp.63~79 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study of effective Korean-Chinese Sight Translation. Sight Translation is a very important training process in consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The Korean and Chinese languages are quite different in terms of linguistic types. When interpreting, the Korean-Chinese interpreter may make mistakes if she cannot fully understand the text due to the time limit. There are many causes for language errors, but the difference in the linguistic types is one of the main ones. In order to overcome these linguistic differences and to achieve effective Sight Translation results, this study proposes the segmentation method. The segmentation method is dividing sentences into semantic units and translating the segmented units in order. However, the segmented semantic unit must be reconfigured to match the grammar structure of the target language. Three methods were proposed as effective training methods for Korean-Chinese Sight Translation. First, in Korean, there are many sentences where the subject does not appear. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement the subject or supplement the subject and object of the sentence when interpreting into the target Chinese language. Second, segmenting one long Korean sentence into multiple Chinese sentences. Third, fully understanding the conjunctive cohesion devices at the end of the Korean sentence and transferring it to the accurate cohesive device in Chinese. When the above three methods are utilized well, it is possible to eliminate obstacles to the speed, accuracy, logic and fluency of the interpreter and thus the interpretation can be effective.
  • 4.

    Analyzing Translation Strategies of Swear words used in Subtitle Translation: focusing on The Wolf of Wall Street

    Park Myongsu | 2018, 19(3) | pp.81~112 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aimed at 1) analyzing the frequency and usage of swear words used in the movie of The Wolf of Wall Street which once set a new Guinness World Records for most swearing in one film and 2) investigating the translation strategies used in subtitling swear words in L2 of Korean based on the Pederson’s seven strategies. The movie was found to have used 50 different kinds of swearwords among which fucking topped the list with the frequency of 354, followed by fuck, shit(s), Jesus, motherfucker(s), fucked, ass, dick, bitch, jerk, and bullshit. Analyzing a total of 798 sentences of the movie, the researcher analyzed the translation strategies by the seven strategies: retention, specification, direct translation, generalization, substitution, omission, and official equivalent. The four strategies—retention, specification, and official equivalent—were never used in translation while the three strategies of substitution, omission, and direct translation were used in translating the target swearwords. It was found that the direct translation strategy was least used compared with the omission and substitution, which can be explained as the direct translation often relies on a simple rendering of source language pronunciation into the target language and the strategy appears inappropriate for languages with totally different alphabets including English and Korean. Both substitution and omission strategies accounted for around 97% of all the translation strategies. The researcher suggested what would be necessary for more authentic and natural subtitles of swearwords from English into Korean such as a need to set up more realistic and authentic rules and regulations on a permissible range of swear words in subtitles.
  • 5.

    A Study on Third Person Pronoun ‘kunye’ in Korean-to-English Novel Translation: A Case Study of the Novel The Vegetarian

    Park, Mi-Jung | 2018, 19(3) | pp.113~133 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The third person pronoun ‘그녀’ (‘kunye’) performs a narrative function in Korean novels for a female character. When it is exclusively used for one central figure, the expression causes readers to recognize the figure as the main character of the novel. This focalization is maximized by inner monologues of the narrator. “Flaming Trees” of The Vegetarian, a Korean fiction by Kang Han, follows this mechanism in terms of the usage of ‘kunye’. The English translation, however, cannot mirror the function because the corresponding pronoun, ‘she’ (or ‘her’) does not have the same implication in English text. Thus, the translator frequently had no choice but to change the pronoun into explicit expressions such as the character’s name rather than using the corresponding word, ‘she’ (or ‘her’). This paper analyzes how ‘kunye’ was translated and interprets the outcomes based on the manner of understanding English text from its readers’ viewpoint. This study also considers the expression choices of translation through interviews with the translator, Deborah Smith. When ‘kunye’ was translated into the main character’s name, the focalizing function was usually dismissed. Yet, focalization was compensated for via an inner monologue expression which also has a focalizing function. The inner monologue expression was realized as per the translator's discretion.
  • 6.

    The Use of Term-creation Principles as a Translation Strategy for Newly Introduced Concepts: With special reference to the World Heritage term “serial properties”

    Park Hyunju | 2018, 19(3) | pp.135~162 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper seeks to explore the applicability of term-creation principles to the translation of new foreign concepts, particularly in the field of World Heritage (WH). Few studies have been published on the topic at least from the perspectives of Translation Studies in Korea. First, an examination is conducted on major principles for term creation—ISO’s term formation principles, Infoterm’s term requirements, and Canadian Translation Bureau's factors for the acceptance of neologism—in order to present an integrated set of principles that are applicable to translating newly introduced terms. Then, the revised principles are used to determine a more adequate Korean designation for the imported WH concept “serial properties,” as the current TL term yeonsok yusan (lit. continuous property/heritage) is neither “transparent” nor “appropriate” according to ISO 704. A deep understanding of the concept is a prerequisite to choosing the best from among TL term candidates. Hence UNESCO documents are examined to understand the development of the concept and identify its essential (“delimiting” in particular) characteristics before evaluating the term candidates according to the proposed principles. To sum up, the paper suggests that a terminological approach can provide an effective solution to translating new concepts.
  • 7.

    Teaching machine translation in master's degree translation courses: A case study of post-editing activity in the Korean-Japanese language pair

    Hae Kyung Park | 2018, 19(3) | pp.163~193 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    Amid increasing demand for machine translation, the present study investigated the need for the introduction of post-editing courses as part of the master’s degree program in translation. Ten translation trainees participated in the study. The result indicated that machine translation was useful for simple tasks such as translating short sentences, enumeration of nouns, and changing numbers and proper nouns into Chinese characters. A number of errors were found, however, such as misinterpretation of context and failure to join sentences properly, which were hard to tackle in the post-editing stage. Above all, participants experienced confusion as to the scope of post-editing, that is, how far they should go in altering the product of machine translation. One positive observation was that machine translation could evolve as a useful tool for translators if punctuation marks are better recognized and larger databases are built. Continued research would help guide the introduction of machine translation in postgraduate translation curriculum and explore teaching methodologies that respond to the major market trend of machine translation.
  • 8.

    Issues of Translating Time Expressions in Free Trade Agreements: Focusing on Before and After

    Yoo, Jeong Ju | 2018, 19(3) | pp.195~225 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the Korean translations of time expressions using ‘before’ and ‘after’ in Korea-US FTA and Korea-EU FTA. ‘Before’ and ‘after’ phrases are commonly used when drafting international law provisions about time which represents a period of time of which the beginning or the end, or the both, are certain. However, these words often cause ambiguity in construing the inclusion of the specified date when translated into Korean. Under Anglo-American legal systems, ‘before’ and ‘after’ are construed so as to exclude the specified date, so their translations should also ensure such construction to achieve the same legal effect as the English FTAs. The Korean translations of these ‘before’ and ‘after’ phrases often use ‘~이전’, ‘~이후’, ‘~부터’, which are construed to include the date specified under Korean law. The Korean versions of these FTAs are authoritative translations with the same legal validity as the original English versions; which must achieve “harmonization” to ensure internal consistency of terminology and expressions within a given text, as well as “concordance” to ensure consistency between the authentic versions. The findings of this study show that the Korean translations of ‘before’ and ‘after’ phrases in Korea-US FTA and Korea-EU FTA neither achieve consistency within the Korean versions, nor consistency with the English versions, thus failing to achieve the harmonization and concordance required for the authentic translation.
  • 9.

    A Study on Court Interpreters under the Japanese Imperial Colonization

    Yu Jung Hwa | 2018, 19(3) | pp.227~258 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to review the emerging background of the court interpreters under Japanese Imperial colonial rule, the curriculum and the activities in the actual court, and to reconsider the meaning and role of court interpreters. The powerful means of Japanese Imperial colonial rule were the colonial law and language control. Although the Japanese Imperial expressed the rule of law and actively used the modern judicial system, judge, prosecutor, lawyer except the defendant was usually Japanese, and all proceedings in the trial were conducted in Japanese. The twentieth century was a chaotic situation that followed the rapid modernization of the judicial system in the late Joseon Dynasty and then the colonial rule of Imperial Japan. Under such unfamiliar laws and language constraints, court interpreters were the only ones able to represent the statements and positions of the colonel defendants, and court interpreters were an indispensable member of the Joseon court under the Japanese Imperial colonization. Court interpreters of Colonial Joseon were not temporary members with excellent language skills, but professional experts who learned modern legal knowledge in professional law schools. Unlike today’s court interpreters, who are forced to play a thorough moral official, they were more active “visible” beings, such as describing difficult modern legal terms and appropriately reconstructing judge questions and defendant answers.
  • 10.

    Process research into post-editing: How do undergraduate students post-edit the output of Google Translate?

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2018, 19(3) | pp.259~286 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract PDF
    In his research on machine translation post-editing (Lee 2017; Lee 2018), the author revealed two important factors: (1) types of post-editing errors made by five undergraduate students majoring in English-Korean translation and (2) the students’ perceptions of post-editing of free online machine translation (FOMT). As a follow-up study to Lee (2017, 2018), this paper aims to show how undergraduate students post-edit the output of Google Translate and to discuss implications of findings for post-editor training. For this purpose, the author conducted a small-scale experiment, in which the five students post-edited medical texts with Google Translate, while verbalising their thoughts at the same time. Data were collected by recording the students’ think-alouds and computer screen activities. Analysis shows that the students inefficiently performed post-editing by using dictionaries too frequently and spending too much time on non-technical words. In addition, some students pre-edited the source text in a questionable way and translated the source text from scratch for unjustifiable reasons. Based on these results, the study discusses four issues that should be addressed to improve post-editor training. First, the top priority should be given to improving students’ basic translation competence rather than skills specific to post-editing. Second, instrumental subcompetence is still of critical importance to developing students’ post-editing competence. Third, revision should be adopted as a main component of translator/post-editor training. Fourth, research on language-specific pre-editing should be conducted before integrating pre-editing into post-editor training programmes.
  • 11.

    Strategies for Translating TV Nature Documentary for Dubbing —In the Perspective of Chesterman’s Norm Theory

    Jo, Yunsil | 2018, 19(3) | pp.287~314 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at describing characteristics of translated TV nature documentaries for dubbing in the perspective of Chesterman’s norm theory. This study analyzes four episodes of TV nature documentaries which were aired on the Korean public broadcasting station on Sunday evening 8pm. With Chesterman’s Norm theory(2000) that proposes norms on the translation process and the products, this study accounts for viewers’ expectation on dubbed TV nature documentaries and adopts it to translation strategies. The strategies suggested in this study are presented below. First, as for dubbing, in addition to lip synchronization which is an essential part of the translation work, narrator’s voice features affect the contents of translation. For example, if the narrator is a slow male speaker and has a very low tone of voice, the selection of words and the amount of text should be different from those of a fast and high-tone speaker. Second, documentaries assume an educational role, so the translator needs to provide clear descriptions on new or unfamiliar information in the program, which should be presented as subtitles on the left bottom of the TV screen. Also, for educational purpose it is suggested to use nouns rather than pronouns so that viewers are repeatedly exposed to the names of animals, plants and places. Third, TV viewers are usually inattentive compared to movie watchers, doing chores or having dinners while watching TV. So to call distracted viewers back to the screen, the translator applies strategies to attract viewers’ participation by switching sentence patterns from declaratives to interrogatives to draw their active reactions. In addition, the translator tends to rewrite documentary narration by adding subjective adjectives to help viewers easily understand the messages of the program even when they are not actually watching but just listening to it.
  • 12.

    A Study on meaning of French past tense, passé composé, by using a translation corpus

    Cho Joon-Hyung | 2018, 19(3) | pp.315~339 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The meaning of a grammatical element is decided in a concrete context. As a past tense in French, the Passé Composé (in English, Perfect Past) takes two grammatical and practical semantics because of its syntactical structure “present of the auxiliary (French verb avoir and être) + past participle of the verb”. One is the past action and the other is the present result. By the way, The French use two different past tenses (Passé Composé and Imparfait) that work together in the normal situation. The Imparfait (in English, Imperfect Past) expresses the imperfect situation in the past in the theoretical frame. So this is an area of difficulty for French students. In this perspective, it would be useful to offer to students the texts containing various practical examples, especially translational texts. The translation is the result of contextual explorations by translator. Therefore, we can figure out the grammatical and practical significations of the Passé Composé by inductively examining the translation texts. And, by comparing the texts in French with the texts in Korean, which put in a translation relation, the students is able to know in a practical way its meaning.
  • 13.

    Translating case marker ‘eui’ in English-Korean general language translation classroom: focusing on news texts

    Gyung Hee Choi , Park, Kyoung-hee | 2018, 19(3) | pp.341~364 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translating general language texts into one’s mother tongue seems to be perceived by many as one of the easiest modes of translation in a translation and interpreting curriculum. Although there is some truth in the perception, however, attaining excellence in the mode is not without difficulty. In translation from English to Korean, one of the sources of such difficulty is the case marker ‘eui’. Positioned between A and B in a nominal group (A eui B), the case marker is often misused and/or abused by beginning students, generating unnatural translations. This paper attempts to help the students have a better understanding of the case marker and reduce wrong use of the marker in translation, particularly in news story texts. The theoretical framework used in this paper is Systemic Functional Linguistics, and the main data include seven news texts and their translations by seven graduate students. The outcome of the paper is a detailed categorization of A eui B relation types (target text perspective) and a means to lessen misuse/abuse of the case marker in the target language by utilizing the concept of grammatical metaphor for the purpose of acquiring correct understanding of the source text (source text perspective).
  • 14.

    Literary Translation Criticism and Cognitive Poetic Models

    Han Miae | 2018, 19(3) | pp.365~391 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the models of cognitive poetics for literary translation criticism—foregrounding, mental spaces, and perspective of cognitive grammar—and tries criticizing the English translations of two poems by Yi Sang on the basis of these models. Foregrounding and mental spaces are based on interpreting and evaluating ‘Flowering Tree’ and ‘A Flower-Tree’; all the three models on criticizing two versions of ‘Mirror’. These criticisms show that foregrounding is a useful framework for highlighting the form of poem translation, mental spaces for making its contents or meanings more visible and perspective for making its viewpoint and order of presentation more prominent. Therefore, three frameworks are demonstrated to be valuable for more logical objective of literary translation criticism, since they provide critics with insight and frameworks which help them to interpret and evaluate the differences between the texts