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2018, Vol.19, No.4

  • 1.

    A Study on the Current Status and Challenges in the Arabic Translation of Korean Literature and the Korean Translation of Arabic Literature

    Gwag, Soon-Lei | 2018, 19(4) | pp.7~43 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The statistics data from the Korean Publishers Association shows that among the 9,714 books translated and published into Korean in 2015, the number of Arabic literary works was less than four. The figure attests to the fact that the standing of Arabic literature in Korean translation is far lagging behind the standing of Arabic language and Arabic culture around the world. The Egyptian writer Naguib Mahfouz's winning of the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature prompted increased attention to Arabic literature from Korean readers and publishing houses, which lasted for a short period of time. Korean publishers, in general, add several Arabic novels in the collections of world literature, instead of printing individual Arabic books for Korean readers. Even if Korean-Arabic translators with a master’s degree in translation or those with a diploma in Arabic literature are interested in translating Arabic literary works, it is hard for them to find a publisher as Korean publishing houses prefer translators with a publication experience. Therefore, if graduate schools of translation could help Korean-Arabic translators publish their master’s theses or co-translated works, young Korean-Arabic translators might be able to start their literary career. In addition, their introducing various Arabic literary works would contribute to attracting more attention from Korean readers, thus creating a virtuous cycle for translation of Arabic literature. Meanwhile, the translation of Korean literary works has been limited to the works that receive support from the Literature Translation Institute of Korea. In addition to those works, several short stories have been introduced in the Arabic version of Koreana, the Korea Foundation’s quarterly. As a result, Korean literature has gained little attention in Arabic countries. However, Arabic readers are showing increasing interest in Korean novels thanks to the translation and publication into Arabic of Please Look After Mom and The Hen Who Dreamed She Could Fly in 2011 and 2014, respectively. This trend implies that more studies are needed on the strategies how to discover Korean literary works that would interest Arabic readers and cultivate Korean-Arabic literature translators, Koreans or Arabs, thereby expanding the horizons of Korean literature in the Arabic world.
  • 2.

    A Brief History of Shakespeare Translations in Korea

    Kweon Osook | 2018, 19(4) | pp.45~74 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Shakespeare’s name appeared for the first time in Korea through the translation of Self-Help written by Samuel Smiles in 1906. But Shakespeare’s works were not translated by 1919 when Ku Lee-byung translated The Tempest based on Lambs’ Tales from Shakespeare. It has passed 100 years since Shakespeare was introduced to Korean readers. During the time, a considerable translation works of Shakespeare plays has been published and now he is the most influential writer in Korea. This study is to survey the brief history of Shakespeare translations in Korea from 1919 to the present. This article contains brief comments on the characteristics of translations, change in translation attitude, and noticeable translation works in each period of time, The level of Shakespeare translation has significantly improved compared to that of the time that Shakespeare was first translated in Korea. The early translations of Shakespeare's works were refracted several times because they were not from Shakespeare’s works themselves but from Lambs’ Tales from Shakespeare and moreover they were translations of the Japanese translations. Recently very academic and accurate translations by Shakespeare scholars are being published. And scholars try to create a translation that can be used not only as a literary work but also as a performance script and that carries Shakespeare’s poetic features well and is readable at the same time.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Imbalance of Literary Exchange through Translation: Focusing on the case of Korea and Vietnam

    Kim Joo Young | 2018, 19(4) | pp.75~101 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the current situation and aspects of literary exchanges through translation between Korea and Vietnam and to promote the development of literary translation between the two countries in the future. Since 2006, literary exchanges through translation between Korea and Vietnam has started in earnest, and a quantitative imbalance has begun to occur since then. Before 2000, the literary translation between the two countries was influenced by the political and historical situation of both countries. On the other hand, since 2000, it is driven by various factors such as social atmosphere, national policy, and the situation of publishing market in each country. In order to develop a literary translation for both sides, it is necessary to have a deeper reflection on what and how to exchange based on each specific context.
  • 4.

    Looking for Translators’ Voices in the Translated texts and their Paratexts —the Case of the Translations of Free Indirect Discourse in L’Assommoir

    Sunheui Park | 2018, 19(4) | pp.103~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I have tried to find the translators’ voices which exist in the translated texts of free indirect discourse in L’Assommoir. Translating a text is a process of interpretation. Before translating an original text, the translator is, first of all, its reader and creates his translation from his interpretation. As a result, the translation includes the translator’s voice. Nevertheless, people often think that there is only one author in a translated text, the author of the original text. But, in fact, there is also the translator’s voice, which corresponds to the actual author of the translated text. I have therefore compared the original text of L’Assommoir, its translations and the paratexts of these translations in order to listen to the translator's voices on the free indirect discourse of this novel. First, to clearly listen to the voices of translators on the free indirect discourse in L’Assommoir, I consulted their ideas about free indirect discourse in the paratexts of translators, such as academic journals and translator's prefaces. Then, to perceive the latent voices of the translators in the translated texts, I compared the translated forms of free indirect discourse.
  • 5.

    Thoughts on modern Korean literature in translation: Investigating three translations and one translation revision of Sŏul, 1964 nyŏn kyŏul (Seoul, 1964 Winter)

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2018, 19(4) | pp.121~147 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, four English translations of Kim Sŭng-ok’s Sŏul, 1964 nyŏn kyŏul (one of which is an American translator’s revision of his own translation) are compared with each other, using perspectives on three metafunctions in Halliday’s functional grammar. In the area of experiential metafunction, culture-specific references (e.g. soju, paksa keim) are examined to show how they construe the world. In the area of interpersonal metafunction, the relationship between two main characters is analysed in detail, with an emphasis on a form of address (hyŏng) and the “I”-protagonist’s innermost feelings about his interlocutor (‘An’). Finally, in textual metafunction, the four translations are examined in terms of syntactic structures and cohesive relations. Drawing on these analyses, this study discusses how to enrich and promote translations of Korean literature. It is then argued that de-familiarising and delicate characterising are among the most important considerations in translating Korean literature.
  • 6.

    A Comparative Study of Reader Response to Han Kang’s The Vegetarian and Deborah Smith’s English Translation: Based on Questionnaire Surveys on Characterization

    Lee, Jimin | 2018, 19(4) | pp.149~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Deborah Smith’s English translation of Han Kang’s The Vegetarian has been criticized for free translation and being rife with errors. However, very little study has been done on how her free translations are received by English readers. This paper examines how English readers respond to her translation in comparison with how Korean readers respond to the original Korean novel. A survey was conducted on 37 English readers and 35 Korean readers, and the findings are as follows: First, English readers indeed perceive Young-hye, her mother, and the relationship between Yeong-hye’s mother and husband differently from the way the Korean readers do. Second, English readers infer the emotions of the characters by considering the ways in which the characters act and talk and the situation they are in even if some direct descriptions of emotions are deleted in the TT. And, third, literal translation without taking into account cultural differences gives the reader a different understanding of the dynamics among the characters and symbols.
  • 7.

    English Translation of Korean Literature: Translating its Arguments and Controversy

    LEE Hyung-jin | 2018, 19(4) | pp.185~206 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study intends to explore and analyze contexts of arguments and controversy around English translations of contemporary Korean literature, especially in terms of intentional selection of particular translations for mistranslation criticism by Korean scholars and media. Two most popular and acclaimed English translations of Korean literature so far, Shin Kyung-sook’s Please Look After Mom and Han Kang’s The Vegetarian have been subject to heavy criticism of mistranslation in the name of the translator’s lack of understanding of Korean language, culture and context or of the translator’s choice of domestication strategy, while other substantial English translations of contemporary Korean novels by the same translators, Chi-young Kim and Deborah Smith, have been completely out of public and academic interest, and not a single scholarly article has been written on these translations. These two English translations have been quite successful in international book markets, and highly acclaimed in literary prizes while its source texts were less influential in Korean literary world when they came out. However, the fact that only these successfully received translations with higher visibility and influence abroad despite its smaller visibility and status in the system of Korean literature, have been selected for heavy mistranslation criticism, implies that mistranslation criticism and controversy in the form of scholarly articles and newspaper columns, appear to intentionally target these popular translations with the implicit purpose of blocking or minimizing the potential influence of these translations in the system of the canonized tradition and hierarchy of Korean literature. In this sense, Even-Zohar’s ‘polysystem’ could provide insight into the mechanism of the intended selection of these translations for mistranslation criticism as these translations, while gaining higher status and more visibility to be known as the most representative Korean literary works abroad, become subject to tighter checks and scrutiny in the system of Korean literature, making an issue of the translator’s lack of understanding of Korean language, culture and context, as well as the translator’s qualification. It becomes an interesting counterevidence showing how the success of the English translation of Korean literature abroad could influence and become subversive to the existing canonized hierarchy of Korean literature.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Theory of Chinese Literature Translation Criticism

    ZHANG RUI | 2018, 19(4) | pp.207~233 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese traditional literary translation has a long history, but it still can not form a theoretical system. At present, China is calling for a thorough study of the theory of literary translation criticism. While improving the quality of literary translation, the voice of pointing out the direction for literary translation is becoming louder and louder. This study made a detailed analysis of the current research on the theory of literary translation criticism in China, and summarized the achievements and existing problems. This study found that the study of literary translation criticism in China can not get rid of the shackles of traditional translation thoughts and can not establish a new critical theory, which is the biggest problem facing the current study of literary translation criticism in China. However, most of the research stays in the discussion and evaluation of Western theories, and the introduction and evaluation of relevant academic books in China. Although the study of literary translation criticism theory is not rare, it still fails to achieve a breakthrough. On this basis, the author summarized the criticism objects of Chinese literary translation criticism and put forward the criteria and grading criteria of literary translation criticism suitable for the current research situation in China.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Literary Translation in the Age of Electronic Media

    Jung Hiyeon | 2018, 19(4) | pp.235~276 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Since literary criticism has been discussed with a focus on the intention of the writer and the internal meaning of the text until the middle of the 20th century, literary translation methods and criticism have also been studied intensively in the intention, meaning, and style of the original text. However, as the Internet develops and the change in the field of literature has turned to online, the style of literature has changed significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to change literary translation method and translation criticism in the age of the electronic media. In this regard, this study investigates the length of sentences preferred by readers in the electronic media era and suggests a method of literary translation that is highly readable. As a method, we conducted an experimental study on the preferences of three translations of different lengths of sentences in 70 Korean adults from twenties to forties. As a result, most of the readers preferred an average length of 11 words. Especially the readers who were exposed to electronic media a lot preferred an average of 11 words, but there was no correlation between length and preference of the readers who were not used a lot. Therefore, to attract current or future readers who are exposed to electronic media into novels(whether paper books or electronic books), it is about time to give positive consideration to the readability factor in the existing literature translation methods which requires faithfulness of the original text. In other words, we need to find ways to help readers to read more foreign literary works by translating them into highly readable sentence lengths.
  • 10.

    Study on Retranslation of Korean literary texts into French

    Mikyung Choi | 2018, 19(4) | pp.277~320 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the French retranslation of Korean literary works when they have gone through a new translation. Our corpus consists of 20 fiction and short story samples selected among the 522 works published in France from 1892 (when Printemps perfumé, the first Korean book translated into French was published) to the present days. Our aim is to explore the theory of retranslation (Pym, Berman, Monti, etc.) and review different retranslation phenomenona. We try in particular to check whether those retranslations contribute to deepen the understanding of the original text and foster a more accurate reception of the work. Our analysis shows that only one novel, Printemps perfumé, offers matter to a diachronic study. The retranslation of the Chunhyang story under the title Le Chant de la fidèle Chunhyang published in 1999 waves off the heavy load of exoticism added to the former translation and re-establish the original text in its original features. The other 19 texts retranslated recently are sometimes successful in increasing readability and deepening the understanding of the texts. On the other hand, some retranslations alters the original text, especially one, Les Piquets de ma mère, although it amply duplicates the first translation. Our study shows that retranslation does not always implies an improvement : retranslation is subject to the effect of the ideology, methodology, competence and experience of the translator. Retranslation often provides a text much different from the first translation with no predictable sort of development or evolution. Indeed, it makes more sense to talk of new translations than of retranslations.
  • 11.

    The present status and problems of translation and publication Korean literature in Russia since the 2000s

    Han Hyun Hee | 2018, 19(4) | pp.321~360 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates and analyzes the current status, trends and characteristics of Korean literature translated into Russian since the 2000s. The goal of this research is to understand the problems of translation of Korean literature and to find implications for the dissemination of Korean literature in Russia. As a result of analysis, since the 2000s 121 Russian translations of Korean literature have been published. 1) By genre it followed by novels, poetry, others, essays, journals, drama. However, in the past, ‘classical others’ occupied the largest part, but ‘modern novels’ occupied a large portion after the 2000s. 2) By writer, it turns out that the translation of a new author’s work is not done in ‘classic novel’. In the ‘modern poetry’ and ‘modern novel’, the works of Korean writers, not North Korean writers, are being published. The introduction of female writers and award-winning works are actively translated and published. The translation genre of Korean literature expanded to essays, plays, and children’s literature. 3) By composition of the translator, 103 translators are counted. Among them, the percentage of Russians is still large, but it is confirmed that the activities of koreans and russian Koreans are increasing. However, the number of translators who received professional translation training was small. Participation of Korean translators in classical literature translation was poor. 4) By publisher, a specific publisher was responsible for 30% of Korean literary translations. Most of the rest of the publishers only published one or two works. However, each publisher confirmed that there is a particular age - genre specialization or preference.