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2018, Vol.19, No.5

  • 1.

    Developing SFL-based Language Awareness on Differences between English and Korean Writing Styles and Its Implications for Literary Translation

    SEUNG HYE MAH | 2018, 19(5) | pp.7~40 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Literary translation in Korea is gaining much attention after the Korean novel The Vegetarian won the Man Booker International Prize in 2016, and students in translation courses also express keen interests in literary translation. One of the problems that Korean students show, however, is that they cling too much to source text structures while translating. At the beginning of this research, students were vaguely aware of the differences in writing styles between English and Korean, but they did not clearly recognize how the two languages are different and how they reflect the differences in their translation. Therefore, this article investigated the differences between English and Korean writing styles and sorted them out according to the three meaning levels in SFL; experiential, interpersonal, and textual levels. Based on the systematically categorized differences between the two languages, students learned and practiced how to reflect the differences in their translation with texts excerpted from The Vegetarian. After their learning, their awareness on the differences had been greatly enhanced, and they started making attempts not to adhere closely to the source text structures, ultimately taking their first step into a more natural and readable target text.
  • 2.

    Post-editing Guidelines for English-Korean Language Pairs: Guidelines and Examples for future Post-editors

    Yoon, Miseon | Kim Taek-min | Lim, Jinju and 1other persons | 2018, 19(5) | pp.43~76 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Machine translation is gaining ground in the translation industry worldwide and English-to-Korean translators have begun paying attention to post-editing. Nonetheless, Non language-specific post-editing guidelines for a general purpose are available; few guidelines provide novice post-editors with a practical guide on language-specific problems. The aim of this study is to suggest a English-to-Korean post-editing guidelines with pragmatic examples. First, various guidelines are analyzed and put into a table through literature review. Based on this analysis and initial piloting among researchers, a English-to-Korean post-editing guidelines is formed and applied to a postgraduate translation practicum class. Students refer to the suggested guidelines when carrying out post-editing assignments. Post-editing commentaries composed by students and retrospective interviews are adopted to see whether the guidelines is applicable for a wide range of users. The implication of this study is to put forward a first English-to-Korean post-editing guidelines based on an empirical method.
  • 3.

    A Paradigm Shift in the Discourse on Translation Ethics

    YUN Seong Woo | LEE Hyang | 2018, 19(5) | pp.77~95 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Translation is a medium through which different languages meet. The question of how one language should treat the language of the Other—a question of ethics—is crucial for this medium. As this is an apt topic for interdisciplinary research between philosophy and Translation Studies, this paper explores how the two disciplines have influenced each other’s discourse on translation ethics. We first examine the manner in which philosophers have approached the ethics of translation. We study the metaphysical reflections on translation ethics by Walter Benjamin, Paul Ricoeur, and Emmanuel Levinas. We then turn to how translation scholars view translation ethics, focusing on the “cultural approach” proposed by Antoine Berman and Lawrence Venuti, whose works were directly and indirectly influenced by the aforementioned philosophers. Finally, we analyze both approaches and identify recent changes in Translation Studies, primarily concerning the shift in emphasis from translation to the translator.
  • 4.

    From the Cyclical Values to the Linear Values in Shin Kyung Sook’s Translated Book Please Look After Mom

    Lee, Kang Sun | 2018, 19(5) | pp.97~119 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the values of source text and those of target text in an effort to find the possible reason for the unexpected and surprisingly high acceptance of Please Look After Mom among American readers. PLAM is a story of a typical Korean mother who is lost in a big city. Searching their mother with dementia, the grown-up children and the father recall her life of dedication and sacrifice for them and feel guilty about their selfishness. The story touched a lot of target readers and became a bestseller. As an ordinary person, the protagonist practices the multi-layered traditional values of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and the local folk belief unconsciously in daily life. These values are so deeply related together like a circle. But for the target readers, the straight values of reasoning and logic are important to understand the world. Therefore on the assumption that the TT readers have difficulties to understand the Koreaness in ST, the translator changes the expressions based on the complex values to the terms of simple and straight values of Westerners through the strategy of domestication. As a result, the TT readers read PLAM as if it was written in English without any ideological barrier to get the impression of the intimate spare in it.
  • 5.

    Pre-editing Rules to Enhance Output Quality of Machine Translation: English-Korean and Korean-English

    Lee, Sunghwa | Kim, Sehyoun | 2018, 19(5) | pp.121~154 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies pre-editing rules for English-Korean and Korean-English language sets when using machine translation. A total of 2,650 words and 1,253 words of English and Korean texts published in newspapers and a magazine were examined by entering them into Google Translate and Naver Papago. Four rules to perform efficient and consistent pre-editing for English-Korean text are proposed as follows: (1) Move a subordinate clause to the beginning of the sentence when a main clause is followed by the subordinate clause. (2) Retrieve the omitted expressions from the original English text. (3) Make two sentences out of a sentence that contains a dash (—). (4) Place a subject + verb after a direct speech. Also, three pre-editing rules are suggested for Korean-English: (1) Retrieve omitted subjects. (2) Clarify the meaning of compound nouns. (3) Simplify the sentence structure. This study also compares Google Translate and Naver Papago. Results show that as for the English-Korean language set, Papago requires less pre-editing compared to Google Translate. In the case of Korean-English, on the one hand, Naver Papago seems to be more appropriate for persuasive texts that use plain vocabulary but show complicated structures. On the other hand, Google Translate seems to be proper for news of social context where the vocabulary selection is formal and professional.
  • 6.

    Grice’s Maxims of Conversation and their Usefulness in Translation Studies

    Cho, Euiyon | Sookhee Cho | 2018, 19(5) | pp.155~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to show that Grice’s(1975) maxims of conversation are useful in explaining translational phenomena. The previous studies in this area have argued that Grice’s maxims of conversation are not universal and therefore they could not be applied to translation studeis when the translation deals with two different discourse structures between ST and TT. Baker(1992) extensively deals with those cases to which Grice’s maxims are not easy to apply. She is very much concerned with the cases of addition and omission in translation rewriting. We have tried to show that those cases could be explained in terms of maxim of relation and maxim of quantity. If the translator finds that it is necessary to raise the interest of the readers then he or she could add the information as is required to meet the level of the reader’s interests. For those translation problems in which there exist cross cultural differences in interpreting ‘how much is required to be informative as is required,’ assuming that there exists a parametric difference between cultures in interpreting it, we have argued that the translator should be pragmatically competent enough to know whether how much is required to be informative as is required differs from ST culture to TT culture. We have used Keenan(1976) famous Malagasy example for this purpose.
  • 7.

    An Expert-Novice Comparison of (Dis)fluency in Simultaneous Interpretation from English to Korean

    Moon Sun Choi | 2018, 19(5) | pp.173~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine expertise in interpreting from the perspective of fluency/disfluency of interpreting renditions. The assumption that renditions by expert interpreters with professional experience are more likely to be fluent was put to test by comparing English to Korean simultaneous interpretation by experts and novices. Fluency was measured with a set of variables which represent the speed and smoothness of interpreting renditions. On average, the speech rate of the expert group was 310spm, which was close to the typical rate of Korean speech delivered by TV news personnel, while the novice group fell far behind with an average rate of 241spm. The number of unfilled pauses of 1.0 second or longer were found twice as much in the novice group, indicating the expert group was successful in keeping the speech running smoothly with a lower number of breaks. This naturally led to higher phonation/time ratio for the expert group, which was likely to be associated with greater completeness of their renditions. Also, disfluencies including filled pauses, repairs, repeats and reversal of typical sentence orders were more frequent in the novice group. However, both groups demonstrated similarities in the length of unfilled pauses, distribution of non-syntactic pauses and repair sequences. These similarities suggest the inherent difficulties of cognitive processing involved in simultaneous interpretation.
  • 8.

    A Survey into Job Characteristics and Perceptions of Personnel in Charge of Interpretation and Translation in Foreign Embassies in Korea

    Hong, Sul young | Cheol Ja Jeong | 2018, 19(5) | pp.205~240 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the current study is to identify the job characteristics, employment status and perceptions of personnel in charge of interpretation and translation at foreign embassies in South Korea. Although some amount of research has been undertaken to investigate the employment characteristics and occupational status of in-house interpreters and translators in South Korea’s public and private sectors, little attempt has been made to conduct a job/perception analysis of those working in foreign embassies in Seoul. Investigating foreign embassies are of significance in that embassies are not only major and long-standing employers of interpreters and translators but also represent an important and specialized sector of interpreting and translation in South Korea. To this end, 30 respondents of 7 language pairs working in 17 embassies answered a structured questionnaire. Questions include 1) basic information on respondents’ job profile, 2) employment procedure & job analysis, 3) work environment & perceptions. Data analysis using both quantitative and qualitative methods is carried out in 2 phases. First, results of data analysis and interpretation is presented according to 2 groups: those working under the job title of interpreter/translator and those who hold different job titles.Second, the data of both groups are combined and a comparative analysis and data interpretation is presented.
  • 9.

    Metatranslative Signs of Dumas and Hamong: Names as Texts and Metaphors Therein

    Dhonghui Lim | 2018, 19(5) | pp.241~280 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As a transdisciplinary study to test the validity and practicality of Peirce's/ Petrilli's paradigm of translation (Peirce 1933, Petrilli 2003) in dealing with the problematics of “adaptation”, this research seeks to implement a metasemiotic and metatranslative analysis of an "adaptation" (cf. beon-an) (飜案) novel that is often viewed as a byproduct of pseudo- or non-translation. Taking Sanghyup Lee's Haewangseong as an important example, it makes a translativity-centered and translatoriality-sensitive approach to the translative-process-specific (meta-/ inter-/ intra-) semiotic cues/ clues in the related TTs in order to discuss the questions on (i) the applicability of the Peircean/ Petrillian notion of translation and (ii) the inclusion/ exclusion of "adaptation" as part of translation as such. Knowing that the Peircean/ Petrillian paradigm of translation is a general metaepistemology with few concrete language- and culture-specific instructions, this research proposes to implement a collaboration with a transdisciplinarily significant notion of 'metaphor' (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). When metaphor (cf. primary metaphor) is considered as a main methodological device that functions on the basis of cognition-induced partial similarity between some source domain and target domain, each translator-specific/ agent-specific sign example can be further analyzed (that is, re-translated) in metatranslative/ metasemiotic ways by having it interpreted as a unique TT (cf. representamen) that must have resulted from the pertinent sign user's partial-iconicity-based construction of a triadic sign relation (cf. strategization via skopos-sensitive selective manipulation). Upon a (meta-/ inter-/ intra-) semiotic and translative analysis of major signs as translation units/ factors/ results via metaphors, it becomes clear that even seemingly irrelevant titles, names, props, and contexts inside and outside of the indexicality-specific textual/ semiosic umwelt(s) can be (re-/ meta-) translated as a set of translator-specific and skopos-relevant TTs (as crucial representamens), which are often realized by means of the unconsciously and/ or purposefully manipulative selection of certain specific signs for them to stand for something else with certain particular interpretants (that is, a set of metatranslative sign processes) (cf. Lim, D. 2015). In particular, concentrating on the critical and effective utilization of metaphors (cf. image schemas) observed in the transactions and transmutations (Jakobson 1959) of Hamong's and other translators' specific signs as transeme-sensitive TTs, the so-called "adaptation" turns out to be an oversimplified and overgeneralized notion/ term, which should be re-examined in such a way that indexicality-sensitive (thus, skopos-sensitive, TC-sensitive, and TRs-centered) strategization gets introduced into the Petrillian meta theory of translation (cf. Reiss 1997, Nord 1997). In paying due attention to Peirce's triadic model of the sign, Petrilli's (extended) paradigm of translation is found to be able to describe and explain the (inter-/ intra-/ meta-) textual transmutations in adequate and systematic manners, especially, in terms of the cognitive ST(s)-based comprehension/ production phases that Hamong (and other translators) must have undertaken. Speaking of metaphor as a methodological device, too, the translating agent's ST-conscious and TC-sensitive metasemiotic/ metatranslative utilization of (partial) iconicity can be the main reason for such metaphor-rich transmutations (cf. Jakobson 1959, Petrilli 2003). Also, considering the semiotic-/ textual- production-centered meta-translative strategization by which basic metaphorical structures (e.g., 'Good is Up/ Big/ Abundant', 'Bad is Low/ Small/ Remote', 'Challenge is Being Distant/ Isolated', 'Freedom is Moving', 'To Win a Challenge is To Endure and Break/ Cross an Obstacle', 'Virtue is (For-) Giving', 'Self is Center', etc.) seem to have been devised or (re-) adopted, there appear to be theoretical ramifications: (i) the purposefully fractional utilization of iconicity/ icons can be implemented in non-definitively flexible ways across languages, cultures, epochs, and spaces to evoke certain meanings/ effects among the TR(s) in the TC(s) (e.g., via names, titles, directions, and/or culture- specific archetypes); (ii) the linguistic/ lexical equivalence is a relative variable (that each translator can manipulate or even disregard) rather than the ultimate requirement; (iii) semioethics is a new keyword to consider (Petrilli 2014). From the ‘meta’ analysis of Hamong's Haewangseong, it is argued that Hamong (as well as Dumas) should be considered as a unique translator whose metatranslative strategization is highly optimized in his own indexicality- sensitive umwelt(s). And, for a fuller (meta-) translation/ interpretation of Hamong's Haewangseong, it becomes evident that the Peircean/ Petrillian view of translation and translator can help shed light on the aspects and mechanisms of cognitively based translatoriality including the TC-sensitive translatorial transparency and manipulatability. To be precise, (in-) visible and/ or (in-) active translators' interventions are found to be implicitly embedded within titles, names, plots, and texts. And, translatorial competence is transsemotically realized in diversely transmuted forms of signs, particularly, as representamens purposefully selected via (primary) metaphors and/ or image schemas. Taking everything into account, this research concludes that, even if ethics-related questions remain (Petrilli 2014), it is theoretically important and meaningful to view Hamong's Haewangseong (as well as Dumas' Le Comte de Monte Cristo) as his unique example of translation—with names as key TTs—not only for translation studies but also in sign sciences as transhumanities.