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pISSN : 1229-795X

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 1.51
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2020, Vol.21, No.1

  • 1.

    Application of Automatic Evaluation to Human Translation

    Hyeyeon Chung | Kim, Bo-young | Kim, Yeon-joo and 7other persons | 2020, 21(1) | pp.9~29 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with two questions. The first is whether BLEU and METEOR, which were developed to evaluate machine translation, can also be used for the evaluation of human translations. The second is, how can these systems be adapted to evaluate human translations in a more variable way? These questions can be subdivided into the following questions: (1) What is the more variable evaluation system, BLEU or METEOR? (2) Is the present precision-recall ratio appropriate? (3) Between the grades and ranks of automatic evaluation, which correlates better with human evaluation? Five translator trainees majored respectively in Arabic, German, English, Japanese, and Spanish (a total of 25 students), translated four texts into Korean (a total of 100 texts). The translations were evaluated by two professional translators in each language and their evaluation results were compared with the outcome of the automatic evaluation. The results showed that the METEOR, recall and ranks correlated with the human ratings better than the BLEU, precision and scores. This and other findings from this experiment suggest that with the minimum number of ca. 12 translations, METEOR can be used at least when determining the order of student performance.
  • 2.

    A Study on Differences of Professional and Student Translators in Metaphor Translation Process

    Jagyeong Kim | 2020, 21(1) | pp.31~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Kim, Ja-gyeong (Ewha Womans University) This study investigates differences in professional and student translators during metaphor translation process, with a particular focus on searching and revision activities. An experiment is conducted on five professionals and five students who are asked to translate a newspaper article from English to Korean. The translation process is recorded with keystroke logging and screen-recording software program. Analysis results show that students search a larger number of metaphorical expressions and rely more on searching to verify the adequacy of TT expressions as well as to find ST meaning. Students more often than not revise some metaphorical expressions more than twice, though professionals rarely do so. Interestingly, students are frequently involved in searching and revision activities during paraphrasing, suggesting that they may have relatively more difficulties in paraphrasing metaphors.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Aspects of English-Korean Translation of EBS-CSAT Books: Focused on the Separation of Sentences

    Kim Ji Young | 2020, 21(1) | pp.61~86 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Kim, Ji-young (Ewha Womans University) The translation aspects of EBS-CSAT books can be different from those of other translations, considering their educational purpose to help learners easily refer to Korean translations when reading English passages. This study aims to investigate the unique aspects of Korean-English translation of EBS-CSAT books, focusing on the separation of sentences, which is one of the features of Translation Universals, ‘simplification’. The study conducted a corpus-based analysis of sentence separation in one EBS book by comparing with the comparative corpus. It then analyzed and categorized the translation patterns of sentences including punctuation marks and relative clauses, which are the indicators of inter-linguistic differences between English and Korean. The results indicated that the EBS book’s translations showed less tendency to separate sentences. This implies that the EBS book’s translations take a source-text-oriented approach, reflecting their purpose and aspects of usage as foreign language study materials.
  • 4.

    Feminist Translation Practice of a play El Crítico on System Theory

    Park So Young | Seung Tae Im | 2020, 21(1) | pp.87~113 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Park, So-young·Im, Seung-tae (HUFS·K-ARTS) This paper examines the reception of the Spanish play El Crítico by Juan Mayorga in the Korean theatre. For the two-person play between a theatre critic and a playwright, the stage director Youngseok Lee originally cast male actors in 2017, then switched to female actors in 2018 and 2019.  In order to understand the linguistic, sociological, and cultural implications of the gender-free productions of the play, this study takes the perspective of cultural translation by applying system theory and feminist translation studies. The analysis, conducted on the performative and linguistic level, shows that the gender-free productions in 2018 and 2019 under the influence of the contemporary Me Too movement is related to Flotow’s highjacking, one of the strategies in feminist translation activism. From the perspective of system theory, not only the system’s internal experts like the translator, the stage director, the dramaturg, the actors, and critics but also the audience members participate in practicing the feminist translation, with the ideological and economic control of the patronage outside the system.
  • 5.

    Regarding Their Idiomaticity and Difficulty Hierarchy

    Ahn Mi-Young | 2020, 21(1) | pp.115~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ahn, Mi-young (Cheju Halla University) Based on a contrastive study regarding English and Korean, this paper examines the phrasal verb construction to find how their different levels of idiomaticity affect such constructions’ difficulty hierarchy, causing difficulty in translating these phrasal verbs into Korean. After collecting items from a list containing approximately 2,000 phrasal verbs, the study limited its analysis to a sample of these verbs that belongs to three different levels of difficulty hierarchies (Prator, 1967), depending on their idiomatic levels (Shin, 2008). First, some phrasal verbs that can be literally translated into Korean without transforming the SLT structure are grouped into the transfer stage of phrasal verbs. Second, other phrasal verbs whose idiomatic meanings must be reinterpreted into different meaning units to fit the Korean semantic structure are categorized as the reinterpretation stage. Third, the remaining phrasal verbs, whose highest level of idiomaticity requires the highest level of translators’ interventions because they need a transformation of their syntactic and semantic structure of SLT for use in Korean, are classified as the split stage. This study found that the more idiomatic the phrasal verbs become, the more polysemous they become, making it more difficult to translate them into Korean. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for translators to develop competences to literally translate the first group; to reinterprete the idiomatic expressions of the second group; and to split the polysemous meanings into the relevant Korean semantic structure for the third group.
  • 6.

    Investigating an audio-described version of Henri Henri

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2020, 21(1) | pp.139~158 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    According to audio description (AD) guidelines, characters’ emotions and thoughts should be described as objectively as possible by using visual aspects of the screen. However, questions have been raised about both the dichotomy of ‘objectivity vs subjectivity’ and the possibility of objective descriptions of characters’ mental states. Against this background, the present study aims to show how characters’ mental states are described objectively in an AD movie and what kinds of writing methods are used to describe the mental states. For this purpose, a Korean AD version of Henri Henri (written by an experienced describer) was transcribed and analysed according to an adapted model from Palmer and Salway (2015). A total of 167 phrases associated with characters’ mental states were categorised into the following codes: (1) description of simple actions that imply mental states, (2) description of facial expressions, (3) modification of the description of actions (e.g., ‘walks cautiously’, ‘smiling in relief’), (4) description ending with -deut, -cheok, or -ji (in English, ‘as if to ...’ and similar expressions), (5) ‘direct’ description of particular mental states (e.g., ‘He was disappointed’), and (6) description with more than one code (e.g., ‘He can’t hide his disappointment, smiling vacantly’). The analysis showed that subjective descriptions of characters’ mental states often appeared in the movie and that Codes (1) to (5) were distributed almost evenly. This article concludes with brief discussion about the implications of the findings for AD theory and practice.
  • 7.

    Research on Excel Form for Translation Courses

    Ju Ri Ae Lee | 2020, 21(1) | pp.159~188 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Lee, Ju-Ri-Ae (Ewha Womans University) The research seeks to develop a platform for translation courses that consists of importing translation assignments into Excel, implementing effective feedback functions for professors. Trial performance on the Excel platform was conducted on professors. The feedback category was modified and supplemented and its usefulness was tested through a second performance trial. The latest developed platform was used for a semester for providing assignments and corrections to students. The layout and feedback categories were modified through trial and error, reviewing assignments and corrected assignments weekly, and drawbacks were identified through survey. The study seeks to break from existing assignment hand-in methods and feedback methods by the creation of said Excel platform. It holds significance in that it sets out to offer a frame work for the development of future platforms for translation courses. Follow up research for a more effective assignment hand-in and quick feedback must be conducted through trial and error.
  • 8.

    Translation Analysis of Han Yongun’s Poems:Focusing on Cognitive Deixis

    Han Miae | Cho, Euiyon | 2020, 21(1) | pp.189~214 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Han, Miae · Cho, Euiyon (Dongguk University_Seoul) This paper explores how the feelings and implicated meanings of the translated poems are varied depending on how deictic expressions are translated. It will be based on the categories of cognitive deixis which are referred to as “deixis as adapted to the literary context” (Stockwell 2002). The study compares and analyzes the source texts, ‘님의 침묵 (Nim-ui chimmug)’ and ‘나룻배와 행인 (Nalusbaewa haengin)’, with the six types of the target texts in English. In the former poem, perceptual deixis related to the third-person ‘님’ is modified into the second-person pronoun ‘you’ instead of ‘my lover’ or ‘the beloved’. This translation may be problematic because the perspective of the poetic narrator on the beloved changes the indirect into the direct, which influences interpretation of ‘we’ and the relational deixis. In the latter poem, textual deixis related to poetic features affects poetic effects, and translators need to preserve the lines and stanzas, parallelism and repetition. Compositional deixis related to the poetic convention of lines affects the naturalness of translated poems, and needs to be adapted to the poetic convention of the target culture. Since meanings of deictic expressions depend on context, translating poems involves a process of context-creation in order to follow the center of all the deictic expressions. Cognitive deixis is a device that helps to interpret the feelings and perspectives of poems. Therefore, translators should pay attention to the effect of deictic expressions on their translated text.
  • 9.

    Musical Theatre Translation Research: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    Hong Jung Min | 2020, 21(1) | pp.215~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Hong, Jungmin (Dongguk University, Seoul) This study aims to examine the trend of research on musical theatre translation in South Korea and overseas, and to suggest the main focus of future research. This attempt will ultimately help the research on musical theatre translation build on the industrial and academic momentum and therefore position itself as an independent sub-discipline within Translation Studies. Literature review suggests that musical theatre translation has been under-researched in terms of quantity, but the topics, methods and theoretical backgrounds has laid the basic foundation for further research both at home and abroad. Limitations and suggestions in the previous studies show that future research should focus on the specificity of the musical theatre genre, the characteristics of each country or culture’s musical theatre industry and meta-research.