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2020, Vol.21, No.2

  • 1.

    English-Korean Translation Methods of Film Titles Influenced by National Film Policies and Language Policies

    Yu-jin Kwon | 2020, 21(2) | pp.9~42 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate to what extent translation methods are influenced by national film policies and language policies with particular influence on American film titles during the specific period from 1962 until 2019. To do this, the author divides the period into three phases based on when specific policies are enforced or enacted according to the Korean government’s new policy trends. The dataset is collected from each of the phases. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the data includes four translation methods, which are transliteration, literal translation, free translation, and mixed translation. The findings showed that the national film policies and language policies significantly influence how American film titles are translated into Korean. This study may provide insights that can extend the scope of translation study of film titles from just text analysis to the relationship between translation and society.
  • 2.

    The Effects of Lexical Diversity and Lexical Sophistication of English on Korean-English Translation

    Kim, Hoonmil | 2020, 21(2) | pp.43~65 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates ways to improve the validity of automatic translation assessment tools. Comparison of assessment criteria used by human raters against those employed by automatic assessment tools show that automatic assesment tools are geared towards evaluating ‘meaning’ and not so much towards ‘expression’. Lexical diversity, as measured by type-token ratio, and lexical sophistication, as measured by lexical frequency, are identified as potential criteria that can improve validity of automatic translation assessment when added to automatic assessment tools. To empirically test the effects of lexical diversity and sophistication on translation scores, Korean-English translation of 18 applicants for an interpreting and translation graduate school in Korea were collected and analyzed using an online lexical profiling tool followed by multiple regression analyses designed to validate their significance. Analyses show that lexical diversity has statistically significant correlation with translation scores, explaining 25% of variance in translation scores. On the other hand, lexical sophistication showed no statistically significant correlation with translation scores. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
  • 3.

    Metafunctions of Visual Images in <The Little Drummer Girl>

    Park, Kunyoung | 2020, 21(2) | pp.67~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study defines adaptation of the TV drama The Little Drummer Girl from John le Carré’s novel The Little Drummer Girl as an example of intersemiotic translation. To analyze the visual images that stand out among different multimodal elements in the drama, Kress and van Leeuwen’s concept of visual grammar was used. The analysis shows that the visual images serve three metafunctions to the viewers. First, the outfits and possessions of the characters serve the ideational metafunction that presents the characters’ identities and roles to the viewers. Second, TT shows the change of the characters’ gaze and spatial division using the camera, which serves the interpersonal metafunction as it represents the change of relationships among characters and also changes the relationship of the characters and the viewers. Third, the visual images are related to one another and repeated throughout the drama, serving the textual metafunction as they allude to the incidents in the plot and form the connections in the overall contents. This article has implications as a case study that analyzes the intersemiotic translation of linguistic signs to visual signs and shows the universality of visual images in that Park Chan-wook, a Korean director, adapted an English novel for an English television.
  • 4.

    A study on the 1960s North Korean translation of Boule de Suif

    Sunheui Park | 2020, 21(2) | pp.95~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the historical, political and literary features of the 1965 North Korean translation of Boule de Suif. This 19th century French short story, written by Guy de Maupassant, relates the experience of a group of French people who are traveling during the period of the Franco-Prussian War. The travelers represent various social classes in French society at that time. Therefore, from the point of view of the North Korean translation, some of the characters symbolize the bourgeoisie and the religious factions prevalent in capitalist countries. As the first step in studying this North Korean translation of the story, I have examined its circumstances of production, including its historical and social reception and the background of the translator, and have drawn out the linguistic and translational features of the 1965 text. As the second step, I have investigated the faithfulness to the original of the translation in order to examine if it has functioned in the North Korean context as a literary work that originated in an older era and in a foreign and western country. As the next step, I have considered the readability of the translation in order to examine whether North Korean readers have understood what the author wanted to convey, through the prism of the Korean language. As the last step, I have analyzed the political dimensions of the translation, in light of the original text being set against a background of war and of the translated text being produced in a socialist state.
  • 5.

    English-Korean Translation of Literary Multilingualism: Focus on French expressions in Jane Eyre

    Won Eun-ha | Silo Chin | 2020, 21(2) | pp.117~141 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with literary multilingualism, focusing on foreign words in literary works and discussing how those foreign words should be translated. The effects of literary multilingualism are largely divided into realistic effects, evocative effects, and narrative effects. The French used in Jane Eyre realistically depicts the upper-class society of the time, confronting the British values of moderation and conformity with the French values of intemperance and indulgence. These effects contribute to the plot development of Jane growing up as an independent, self-reliant woman. Five Korean translations of the novel show various strategies, and those strategies can be narrowed down to three types: first, leaving foreign words as is in the target texts; second, adding an explanation or translation of the foreign words somewhere in the target texts; and third, translating foreign words into the target language. Most of the five target texts have actively added notes or glosses, considering the literary effects of the French words. In some translations, however, the French words were eliminated, and thus the rhetoric effects from the foreign words have been weakened. It can be concluded that most translators were aware of the importance that the foreign words be recognized. It is expected that translators be increasingly willing to reflect the literary effects of foreign words onto a target text, along with theoretical development in favor of a translator's intervention for maintaining the original effects and target readers' openness to the multicultural environment due to globalization.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Genealogy of Unpublished Short-Story Translation, A Happy Condemned Criminal by Hong, Nan-Pa

    YOUN KYUNGAE | 2020, 21(2) | pp.143~164 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is a bibliography study on Hong Nan-pa’s unpublished anthology of short story translation, A Happy Condemned Criminal and aims to reveal the genealogy of translation from Japanese translation to Korean translation and its original script and the significance of the translation within the history of translation of the short novel anthology. Hong Nan-pa, a pioneer of Western music in modern Korea, is famous as a violinist and musician who made numerous masterpieces, but he is also a translator who translated many of the world’s greatest novels. His work, A Happy Condemned Criminal. was scheduled to be published in book form in the early 1920s and was even censored by Japan, but was not published for unknown reasons. Hong Nan-pa’s A Happy Condemned Criminal contains 11 short stories such as four short stories from Russia, including Tolstoy, Chekhov, Turgenev and Garshin, three short stories from France, including Maupassant, Zola and Merimee, as well as short stories from Wedekind, Schnitzler, Strindberg, and Oscar Wilde. These short stories were selected and translated from the four short stories anthology that Kitagawa Sozan, Kikuchi Masayasu, Hirano Imao, Gusuyama Masao, and Yamamoto Yūzō have translated. They were all original but second-hand translation with Japanese original scripts not English translations. However, it is a collection of translations of representative works by the most diverse authors in the translation history of the short stories collection published only five books throughout the Japanese occupation. In comparison of Hong Nan-pa’s translation and Japanese translation, it was confirmed that Hong Nan-pa’s translation was very faithful to the original script as showing the skill of a verbal translation, which does not differ much in the sentences and paragraphs, and delivery and expression of contents. Hong Nan-pa’s book of short stories, A Happy Condemned Criminal was supposed to be published at a time when translation literature was exploding as a purpose to expand the base of Korean literature and introduce world literature by presenting a prototype to Korean short stories in the early 1920s, and it is an important data which can estimate the level and content of the translation at that time.
  • 7.

    The Paratexts of Audiovisual Translation: Investigating the Translation of Opening Credits in the Korean Cinema

    Yoon, Miseon | 2020, 21(2) | pp.165~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Research on paratextuality in translation studies has been prolific in the past few decades, which has helped to expand our understanding of the process and context in translation, and thus few would dispute the significance of Genette’s concept of paratext for translation studies. Yet there is still much more to be done in terms of research scope. The majority of the paratextual research in translation studies has been into literary translation, and there is only a dearth of research in audiovisual translation. The present study aims to show why function-base criterion is needed in paratextual studies in audiovisual translation research. Based on the function-based criterion suggested and adapted by Rockenberger(2015) and Batchelor(2018) respectively, the study investigates the translation of opening credits in Korean films that were released in North America in a DVD format with both English closed captions and dubbed soundtracks. The study observes which functions are distinct in the opening credits of translated Korean films; what distinctive functions translated Korean films have in the opening credits that set them apart from films produced in other countries; and the difference, if any, that might exist in subtitle and dubbing mode of opening credits in translated Korean films. The analysis shows that translated opening credits in general can have a self-referential and generic function, which opening credits in non-translated films typically do not perform. Furthermore, translated Korean films are discovered to have distinguishable functions. Paratextual studies in audiovisual translation can raise the awareness of what translation process entails and how they are intrinsic to the work of film-making and distribution to foreign countries.
  • 8.

    The Translator’s Visibility in Bandi’s The Accusation

    Lee, Dong-hae | Sung, Seung-eun | 2020, 21(2) | pp.193~224 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the translator’s visibility in The Accusation, the translation of a work by a writer with the pseudonym of Bandi, who currently lives in North Korea. Consisting of seven short stories of ordinary North Koreans, the source text has received keen interest around the world as only the manuscript was smuggled out to the world. The translator of this novel, Deborah Smith, is generally known for her focus on readability and effect on the readers vis-a-vis faithfulness to the source text. This implies a certain level of translation shifts can be found in the translation as revealed in previous studies. Moreover, since so little is known about North Korea, some kind of translator intervention is deemed inevitable. These render the text a good example to track down the translator’s visibility. The translator’s visibility is defined in this study as the translator intervention in content as a result of repeated patterns of translation shifts. The translator’s visibility is explored by comparing the source and target texts to observe repeated translation shifts, which are labelled translator intervention. The text analysis is then cross-checked with the translator’s paratexts—interviews and other written contributions. The results revealed the translator’s visibility on three points: emphasizing poverty in North Korea, explicating character images, and generalizing cultural references. This study also suggests a simple classification framework to identify translation shifts in target texts, which can be used for wider purposes such as observing translation strategies or translator style.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Reframing of Female Figures through Political Discourse in North Korea

    LEE,EUNJUNG | 2020, 21(2) | pp.225~249 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to explore gender reframing through political discourses in literary translation, focusing on the translation of Gone With the Wind in North Korea. Gender roles in North Korea have been established based on its governing discourses of Communism. Regarded as revolutionary comrades, North Korean women have the same social status as men in this socialist country, while they are forced to assume traditional women’s roles defined by confucianism in domestic boundaries. This ideological gender frame is clearly shown in the paratexts and the translation of the novel: the protagonist of the novel, Scarlett, was praised as a revolutionary character who resisted the deep-rooted feudalism in the South, while a supporting character Melanie was criticised as a passive and submissive white woman. However, the two figures were at the same time viewed through a maternal perspective as the North Korean authorities have pursued the Ideas of Great Family to control their social system. Two South Korean translations of Gone with the Wind are used in the analysis to investigate how differences and similarities of sociocultural backgrounds of these two countries are reflected in each translation. Reframing in literary translation can be viewed as a determiner of sociocultural context changes since a literary system is interconnected with other social systems.
  • 10.

    Corpus-based Research on the Linguistic Aspects of Translated Legal Texts: With a Focus on the Passive Voice in Legal Translation

    Jieun Lee | Choi, Hyo-eun | 2020, 21(2) | pp.251~284 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper seeks to throw some light on the linguistic aspects of legal translation with a focus on the frequent use of the passive voice in Korean-English legal translation. Legal translation is a domain of specialized translation, which requires an understanding of the relevant laws and legal language, in addition to translation competence. In each jurisdiction, law has its own languages and every legal system is embedded in a specific culture and language. The passive voice is considered as one of the main features of legal language in general although it is not as common as the active voice. The passive voice may be employed in Korean to English legal translation to preserve the source language style or conform to the characteristics of legal English. Furthermore, the characteristics of Korean legal language can also affect the use of the passive voice in the translated statutes. In order to examine the use of the passive voice in translated statutes, we built corpora of Korean statutes, their English translations, and the United States Code. The three-set corpora consisted of Korean Criminal Act, Criminal Procedure Act, Civil Act, and Civil Procedure Act, the official English translations provided by the Korean Law Translation Center of Korea Legislation Research Institute, and the non-translated U.S. Code which served as a comparable corpus. The corpus analysis revealed that the frequency of the passive voice in the translations far surpassed those of the source texts, namely the Korean statutes and the U.S. federal law. The high frequency shown in the translated statutes is mostly due to the linguistic features of Korean legal language: Inexplicit subjects due to subject ellipses in Korean statutes contributed to passive voice constructions in the translated texts. Further research is needed to investigate if such over-use of the passive voice is acceptable from the perspective of target language recipients and verify the regularities of translated statutes drawing on a larger scale corpus.
  • 11.

    A study on the introduction of National Professional Qualification System for legal interpreting and translation

    Cheol Ja Jeong | Han-Nae YU | 2020, 21(2) | pp.285~309 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Although the importance of and needs for quality legal interpreting and translation are growing, the quality of legal interpreting and translation is not guaranteed in Korea. One of the most representative reason for this is lack of qualification system. This study examines the current qualifications related to interpreting and translation in Korea, and reviews how overseas countries are operating qualification systems for legal interpreting and translation. Based on these, the study examines the suitability of national qualification system for legal interpreting and translation and suggests introducing National Professional Qualification System for legal interpreting and translation. The overview of the overall national qualification system and detailed suggestions for legal interpreting and translation qualification system in this study are expected to provide practical implications for introducing national qualification system for legal interpreting and translation in Korea, thereby contributing to enhancing the quality of legal interpreting and translation.