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pISSN : 1229-795X

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 1.51
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2020, Vol.21, No.5

  • 1.

    A Comparative Analysis of Thematic Structures in Korean Novels and Chinese Translation Novels

    Su Kong | 2020, 21(5) | pp.9~33 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of the paper is to investigate possible differences in thematic structure which includes thematic progression patterns and types between Korean novels and their Chinese translations which were published in China. To achieve this goal, the study adopts Kim(2007) and Fang’s(1989, 2019) Korean and Chinese thematic theory as a basis for analyzing texts’ theme and rheme. Also the study uses Danes(1974), Dubois(1987) and Zhu(1994)’s classification of thematic progression methods for analyzing thematic progression patterns. Data analysis reveal some disparities between the two corpora. The paper discusses these findings and analyses the reasons which will be useful for the study of novels’ translation phenomenon and also can be helpful for translators to choose translation strategies.
  • 2.

    Understanding Who and Why of Creating Interpretation and Translation Related Videos on YouTube

    Kwon Sang-mi | 2020, 21(5) | pp.35~62 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores who produces interpretation and translation related content on the video-sharing website YouTube(www.youtube.com) and why. Selenium, a Python library, was used to crawl a set of specific attributes such as title and description from 491 YouTube videos searched using the term “tongbeonyeok daehakwon” meaning “Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation” in Korean. Employing a combined quantitative and qualitative analysis, this study reveals that motives for creating interpretation and translation related videos on YouTube included “personal sharing”, “marketing/promotion”, “information provison“, “lecture sharing”, and “entertainment”. The study also once again affirmed the existence of social media micro-celebrities in the field of interpretation and translation, bringing into focus the need for advancing our understanding of these new agents and their implications.
  • 3.

    Differences of Pauses Between Professional and Student Translators:Focusing on Frequency and Duration

    Jagyeong Kim | 2020, 21(5) | pp.63~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Pauses, used widely to examine cognitive efforts and translation difficulties in process-oriented translation studies, have rarely been addressed in South Korean translation studies. Against this background, this study sets out to investigate differences in pauses between professionals and students, focusing on the frequency and duration of pauses above 5 seconds during the drafting phase. For this purpose, five professional translators and five students were asked to translate two texts from Korean to English, and their translation process was recorded with screen recording (Camtasia) and keystroke logging (Translog) programs. According to analysis results, students paused more frequently than professionals, irrespective of searching, even in sentences where professionals rarely paused. Particularly, two professionals showed a considerably small number of pauses, though such pattern was not observed in the student group. In terms of drafting and pausing time, students spent more time in drafting and pausing. The total pausing time with searching activities was unsurprisingly higher in the student group, but interestingly, two students were found with a larger amount of unfilled pauses in the first text. More than 80% of pauses were below 20 seconds for both professionals and students, but students had more pauses below 10 seconds. All in all, these findings revealed notable differences in pauses of students and professional translators, pointing to the need of further research into pauses as a behavioral reflection of cognitive efforts in translation process.
  • 4.

    Translation and Standardization of Western Music Terms During Korea’s Turbulent Times After Liberation: Focusing on Composer Geum Su-hyeon’s role as mediator and “Koreanization” of music terms as decolonizing translation strategy

    Park, Hyunju | 2020, 21(5) | pp.95~128 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores composer Geum Su-hyeon’s role in the translation, standardization and dissemination of Western music terms after Korea's liberation from Japan in 1945 through to its turbulent times in the early 1960s. First, his mediating role is examined in the context of those times to show close relationship between his activities and the nation’s efforts to re-establish its foundation after independence. Then, an analysis is conducted on his methods in translating the Western terms into Korean and their implications, focusing on his 1960 publication Pyojun Eumak Sajeon (lit. “Standardized Music Dictionary”), particularly the appended item “The list of obsolete Chinese character-based terms.” The composer is noted for his efforts to create purely Korean terms, while incorporating elements from traditional Korean music. His approach is reflected in the normative dictionary that has served as a model for today's music dictionaries written only in Korean. Apparently Geum's individual work, it was but also compiled in public interests: to disseminate the results of institutional efforts, such as the Koreanized music terms proclaimed “official” in 1947 by the Ministry of Culture and Education and used in school textbooks thereafter. For the composer and his contemporaries in the nation-building era, translating Western music terms into hangeul or Korean alphabet was tantamount to “decolonizing” the country by eliminating the colonial legacy.
  • 5.

    Educational Suggestions Based on the Current Situations of Remote Interpreting and Demands for Interpreters

    Sang Woo Yon | 2020, 21(5) | pp.129~159 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine the current situations of the rapidly expanding remote interpreting market and seek measures for effective educational actions to such situations. The study performed a comparative analysis between the remote interpreting guidelines announced by the Korean Association of Translators & Interpreters (KATI) and the Japan Association of Conference Interpreters (JACI) and conducted a survey for interpreters to present an accurate picture of the current market and future prospect. Based on the experience of Korean-Japanese interpreters who have been active in providing remote interpreting services since the outbreak of COVID-19, the study identified difficulties in remote interpreting environment and collected their opinions on educational needs to enhance the quality of remote interpreting services. The study also found educational demands in both hardware and software aspects. Educational demand in hardware aspect includes training on different types and effective use of remote interpreting platforms and technical information on remote interpreting infrastructure. Educational demand in software perspective is mainly centered on overall remote interpreting guidelines, problem-solving skills, and case studies. The study suggests that measures be sought for educational responses to such demands at the level of graduate schools of translation and interpretation. It also proposes that remote interpreting education for both graduate students and graduates be reviewed in a comprehensive manner.
  • 6.

    Naming Strategies Centered on Places for the Localization of Starbucks Menu

    Shin, Naan | 2020, 21(5) | pp.161~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the ways in which Starbucks food and beverage menus are translated and created for their localization by focusing on the place-centered naming strategy. Generally, when the menus are translated into Korean, they are appropriated covertly by marketers. Therefore, this study compares the names of the menu items on the Starbucks’ U.S. website with those on the Korean website in order to analyze their translational variations. Mostly, names of food items from the U.S. English menu only include the ingredients and processing methods; those names are literally translated on the basis of their phonetical sounds in the Korean menu. However, the names of food items on menus only available in Starbucks Korea are variously coined factually or metaphorically, by adding place-related words in them. This kind of menu naming in Korea functions as a strategy for localizing the Starbucks menu as follows. First, it aims at instilling into Korean consumers certain tastes acquired in the social and cultural context in Korea. Second, by adding “we” as a collective and abstract space to the menu names, marketers induce their consumers to identify themselves with “we.” Third, Korean local places in the menu names provide consumers with an illusive sense of place for rest, wellness and beautiful nature. Thus, naming menus in Korea serves as a marketing strategy for enticing consumers by providing them imaginary or factual sense of places.
  • 7.

    A Study on Translation Considering the Connotation and Aesthetic Effect —Focused on Deborah Smith’s Human Acts

    ShinSangBum | 2020, 21(5) | pp.185~206 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine how a translator figures out and contains the meaning of the connotation within literary texts in considering the discourse situation and aesthetic effects while not damaging the intention of the original texts. To attain this end, this study has the theoretical backgrounds of the connotation and the literary, aesthetic translation. This paper also compared Deborah Smith’s Human Acts with Han Kang’s The Boy is Coming to analyze the translation of connotation. The results of the analysis are classified into four categories: words, sentence, italic style, and added information. To creatively translate the meaning of the connotation within literary texts considering the discourse situation and the aesthetic effect, translators ought to possess fluent language skills for both target and source languages. Besides, translators ought to have the capability to express the discourse situation and literary, aesthetic effects, as well as accurate understanding and critical thinking.
  • 8.

    Thoughts on How to Translate Korean Literature: Lessons from Marshall R. Pihl’s Translation Self-revisions

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2020, 21(5) | pp.207~235 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study shows how Marshall R. Pihl, one of the most respected translators in the field of Korean literature, revised his own translations. His revisions analyzed in this article are from “Seoul: 1964, Winter” (김승옥의 <서울, 1964년 겨울>), “On Growing Old” (이양하의 <늙어가는 데 관하여>), “A Stray Bullet” (이범선의 <오발탄>), “Nami and the Taffyman” (오영수의 <남이와 엿장수>), “Kapitan Ri” (전광용의 <꺼삐딴 리>), “The Girl from an Island” (오영수의 <섬에서 온 식모>), “The Post Horse Curse” (김동리의 <역마>), and “Winter Outing” (박완서의 <겨울 나들이>). Excerpts from these revisions are analyzed in detail according to Brian Mossop’s revision parameters, including “accuracy,” “completeness,” “idiom,” “smoothness,” and “mechanics.” Findings show that Pihl meticulously revised his own translations at various levels of language, such as word, idiom, punctuation, thematic structure, and paragraph. This article concludes with brief discussion of why the translator’s self-revision is important and how to enrich Korean literature in translation.
  • 9.

    The Use of Self-Repairs by Interpreters in Investigative Interviews: A Case Study of an Untrained Korean-Russian Interpreter

    Jieun Lee | Hong, SeoYoen | 2020, 21(5) | pp.237~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines an interpreter’s use of self-repairs as a coping strategy to address his lack of Russian proficiency. A discourse analysis was undertaken of a video recording (157-minutes in length) of a prosecutor’s interview of a suspect from a Russian-speaking background. Self-repairs, which refer to a speaker correcting their own utterances without external stimuli, occur when a speaker detects discrepancies with the communicative intention or a failure to meet the criteria of production (Schelgoff et al. 1977; Magnifico & Defrancq 2019). Adapting the self-repair categorizations proposed by Postma and Kolk (1993), LaSalle and Conture (1995) and Lee (2009), this study analyzed the interpreter’s self-repair attempts in interpreting and tallied the frequencies of different types of self-repair. The results showed that the untrained interpreter’s self-repairs were essential to the interpreter-mediated communication, particularly because of his limited interpreting competence. His self-repair attempts, which were numerous and frequent, do not reflect those displayed by professional interpreters’ and indeed are closer to those displayed by language learners. The analysis further revealed that the interpreter’s self-repairs differed depending on the directionality of his interpreting in terms of frequency and purposes. The findings also showed that despite numerous self-repairs, the communication problems that arose in the interview were not successfully resolved due to the interpreter’s lack of interpreting skills, including his low-level language proficiency. The findings emphasize the importance of engaging competent interpreters when interviewing suspects from non-Korean speaking backgrounds.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Establishment of Corpus-Based terminology list for the Preparation of Specialized Interpretations: Focused on Economic and Financial domains in the Speech

    Lee, Ji-hye | Lee,Yong-hun | 2020, 21(5) | pp.269~297 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For interpretation in the economic and financial domains, this study attempts to extract single nouns and compound nouns based on the study corpus was created with transcripts of the economic and financial conference. This paper attempts to examine the patterns of terminology over the seven years and select basic technical words according to the frequency and the annual usage patterns. The results show that the single noun and the compound nouns are very diverse every year. The words that appear every year are grouped into essential vocabulary that must be studied. Even if it doesn't appear every year, the words that appear at high frequencies are defined as ‘essential vocabulary’. In addition, the terminology contains not only technical words, but also many common economic and financial words. The result of confirming the terminology hit rate for a given year based on the construction of the terminology list shows that the hit rate for a single noun is 65%, compared to 11% for a compound noun. However, considering that compound nouns account for a very high proportion of the entire text, compound nouns are also a factor that must be included in terminology preparation. I hope the limitations of this study will be further supplemented so that we can build and utilize a corpus-based terminology for interpreters’ preparation in the economic and financial domains.
  • 11.

    A Proposal for the Reform of Korean Films’ Translation System

    Choi, Suyeon | Hye-Rim Kim | 2020, 21(5) | pp.299~349 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to find the problems of the translation market and the translation system of the Korean film industry and to suggest ways for improving the system. To this end, I conducted interviews with translators who translate Korean films into foreign languages, the production company of Korean movies, the distributor that exports Korean films, and the official from overseas distribution team of investment company. As a result of the interview, I found problems that the translation quality has gone down due to the lack of audiovisual translation education, the lack of a connection system between translators and clients, and a poor translation environment. In particular, all translators and industry officials agreed with the poor translation environment, such as the absence of a standard translation contract, low translation rates, and a short timeframe for translating. Based on the interviews, this study proposes improving the system and education for reforming the translation system of Korean films as follows: First, audiovisual translation education should be provided by the system continuously; Second, a translator-client connection system should be provided by the system; Third, the convention of writing standard translation contracts should be supported by the system; Fourth, translation fund for independent films should be supported by the system.
  • 12.

    A Study on English-to-Korean Test Suites for NMT Automatic Evaluation by Linguistic Assessment Items

    Sung-Kwon Choi | Ji-Eun Han | Gyu-Hyeun Choi and 1other persons | 2020, 21(5) | pp.351~371 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper describes an approach to automatically evaluate Neural Machine Translation(NMT) systems by linguistic assessment items. While the previous automatic evaluation approaches cannot identify the strengths and weaknesses of NMT systems for each linguistic assessment item, our automatic evaluation approach can intuitively determine both strengths and weaknesses of each linguistic assessment item. The automatic evaluation by linguistic assessment items of NMT systems is evaluated based on whether the answer of translation exists in the machine translation results, after building the test suites of the source text, the expressions in the source text, and the translated word. As applying the automatic evaluation approach by linguistic assessment items to NMT systems of Papago by Naver and Google Translate by Google, we figured out the strengths and weaknesses of each system. The biggest weakness of Papago English-to-Korean machine translation system is Cohesion(40.00%). The most serious weak points of Google English-to-Korean translation system are the translation of Relative pronoun(35.00%), Spoken expression(40.00%), Structural Ambiguity (40.00%), and Cohesion(40.00%). The main purpose of automatic evaluation by the linguistic assessment items is to find various weaknesses of the machine translation systems, semi-automatically collect and build a targeted corpus based on the weaknesses, and improve the performance of the machine translation systems incrementally by retraining. Although this paper has the advantage of automatically recognizing the strengths and weaknesses by linguistic assessment items, the simplified automatic evaluation approach, a measurement based on the matching of translated word and machine translation, that this paper suggests should be improved. In this respect, the improvement directions of this paper in the future are 1) enlarging the linguistic assessment items to other language pairs other than English-to-Korean, 2) semi-automatically collecting the source text which is targeted for evaluation, 3) extending the research to machine interpreting with speech data, 4) including the assessment items that human translator considers.