The Journal of Translation Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.37

Korean | English

pISSN : 1229-795X
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2022, Vol.23, No.1

  • 1.

    NRICH Survey Project on Korean Collections at Museums Overseas: Subversive Translation at Museums as Contact Zones

    Park Hyunju | 2022, 23(1) | pp.9~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Drawing on Clifford’s concept of “museums as contact zones,” this paper examined a project by South Korea’s National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (NRICH). In the project that lasted for almost four decades through to the 2010s, the NRICH conducted surveys on Korean collections at museums overseas. From the contact perspective, this paper argues that the NRICH project used the Korean collections as a medium to raise the country’s voice to be heard at the Western museums. The project featured diverse forms of “contact work,” including on-site surveys at the museums (making corrections to the identities of some objects), support for conservation treatment, and negotiations for repatriation. As Korea led the collaborative initiative, the two cultures involved have been able to build reciprocity and address “asymmetrical power relationships” to a certain extent. The survey results were published in the form of bilingual catalogues, which in turn function as texts, or subversive translations, “in response to or in dialogue with” metropolitan representations. Also noteworthy is the fact that the content was not translated uniformly into the lingua franca of English but into those languages in use in the countries involved, facilitating future contact between the cultures.
  • 2.

    Netflix’s Multilingual Subtitling Through English Pivot Translation: Guidelines, Current Practices and Future Directions

    Sung, Seung-eun , 임현경 , 한유진 | 2022, 23(1) | pp.45~80 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    OTT (over-the-top) services have seen a significant increase in subscribers over the past few years. Their global expansion and an increasingly multilingual viewership fuel the need for translation into various languages. Netflix, for example, produces and offers subtitles in many different languages via pivot translation; the source text is first translated into an English template and then further produced into many languages. Although a widespread practice, there is scant research on pivot translation in translation studies. Yet, it deserves more attention given that it is likely to continue for the foreseeable future because of its many benefits such as streamlining processes and satisfying the increased need for multilingual translations. Against this background, this study explores Netflix’s subtitling guidelines to examine how Netflix sees pivot translation and to discuss how it may evolve in the future. First, Netflix’s subtitling guidelines for English pivot translation are compared to those of other individual languages for any differences. The guidelines are then applied to two programs—Terrace House and Kingdom. These two are chosen as representative cases where particularly speech levels of the former and cultural references of the latter can pose difficulties in translating when first going through the English meditating language. As a leader in OTT service, Netflix’s multilingual translation can have a significant impact on other streaming companies. This study could help to better understand the role of pivot translation and ways multilingual translation will unfold in the future.
  • 3.

    Significance of Recall in Automatic Metrics for HT Evaluation

    Hyeyeon Chung , CHOI JISOO , Heo TakSung and 1 other persons | 2022, 23(1) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the automatic evaluation of translations, precision and recall are two indices that show how precisely (precision) and how much (recall) the system is able to recognize the well-translated portion in a translation. It would be ideal if two indices could be equally weighted in the evaluation system, since both accuracy and completeness are important criteria in evaluation of human translations (HT). This is, however, not easy, as both indices are negatively correlated. Papineni et al. (2002), for example, opted for precision, while Lavie et al. (2005) used both indices, giving recall nine times more weight than precision. The aim of this work is to examine which of the two indices correlates better with evaluation of professional evaluators and how much weight should be given each to precision and to recall. For this purpose, 459 translated texts were rated with precision, recall, F1 (harmonic mean of precision and recall) and Fmean (nine times higher weight on recall) as well as by professional evaluators. The results show that recall correlates better with human evaluation than precision in almost all cases, but not Fmean than F1, which were equivalent in all but one case. They indicate that recall is indeed a more important metric, but the weight as high as nine on recall is not ideal for HT evaluation.
  • 4.

    A Case Study of the Verbal and Non-verbal Elements of ‘One Day More’ of Licensed Musical Les Misérables

    Lee, Jimin , 정지윤 | 2022, 23(1) | pp.101~133 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A musical is a comprehensive performing art consisting of not only verbal elements such as lyrics and lines but also non-verbal ones such as melody, acting, stage props, and dance. Therefore, when translating musicals, translators should consider non-verbal elements as well. This case study aims to explore differences and interactions between verbal and non-verbal elements of the original English version of ‘One Day More’ of Les Misérables (ST) and the Korean licensed version ‘내일로’ Naeillo (TT). A framing theory was employed for analysis. The study reveals that all three strategies-selective appropriation, labelling and repositioning of participants-were used in translating both verbal and non-verbal elements. Verbal elements were translated in a way of strengthening the characteristics of and the relationships between individual characters and compensating for the failure of the delivery of the messages from non-verbal elements due to cultural gaps. And the non-verbal elements sometimes supplemented or strengthened the messages of the lyrics. When the non-verbal elements failed to reflect the changes in the verbal elements, they served as a hindrance to the delivery of the message of the lyrics.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Phonetic Transcription and Translation Strategies of Proper Names in Korean-to-Russian Literature Translation

    Kang Donghee | 2022, 23(1) | pp.135~167 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze the translation types of proper nouns that appear in the Russian translation of Korean literature and present an appropriate strategy in translating Korean proper nouns into Russian language. For this study, the paper selected seven Korean literary works translated into Russian, which includes Cat School: Started Prophecy by Kim Jin-kyung, My Brilliant Life by Kim Ae-ran, Peace Under Heaven by Chae Man-sik, Our Happy Time by Gong Ji-young, Familiar Things by Hwang Sok-yong, You Don’t Know by Jung Ihyun, and Human Acts by Han Kang. These works were either co-translated by native Korean and Russian speakers, or by two native Russian speakers, or by a single native Russian speaker, or a single native Korean speaker. By selecting translated works published with a different makeup of translators, this study reviewed and observed which Korean-to-Russian notational systems were used - Holodovich system or Kontsevich system - in translating proper nouns depending on the translators of different native language. The study also categorized different types of translations into entire transliteration, transliteration of proper nouns only, a combination of transliteration and translator’s notes, meaning-based translation, notation in English, and variation to identify the translation strategy of proper nouns into Russian. A review of the Russian translation of Korean proper nouns showed that all seven works applied different notation and translation strategies. Sometimes, proper nouns were notated and translated into different versions even within the same literary work. This study aims to suggest a translation strategy that will remove confusion caused by disparate translations of proper nouns for Russian readers of translated Korean literature and to deliver the unique characteristics and properties of Korean proper nouns in a precise and consistent manner.
  • 6.

    A Narrative Analysis of Dialogue in the Korean Translation of 许三观卖血记 (“Chronicle of a Blood Merchant”)

    LEE HYUNJOO | 2022, 23(1) | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The dialogues of characters in a literary text are believed to be a crucial device through which the author may immerse themselves in the story and empathize with their characters. In particular, the flow of the narrative, which is interposed between direct speech in dialogues, has informative functions that allow readers to fully comprehend the scene. Translators need to fully comprehend dialogue intention to maintain the effect. Distinctions exist between the author’s narratives in relation to dialogues in a Korean translation and a Chinese original text. Writing conventions in the two languages for an author’s narrative differ, so direct speech and position of narratives in Chinese are modified in accordance with Korean language norms. To investigate narrative dialogue translation approaches, this study analyzed the Chinese novel 许三观卖血记, published in English as Chronicle of a Blood Merchant, by Yu Hua (余华) and the novel’s Korean translation. Analysis found four distinct translation approaches. First, direct speech was eliminated when the subject of speech in the scene was straightforward. Second, indirect speech using verbs such as ‘say (说)’ and ‘ask (问)’ was changed into direct speech. Third, additional adverbs and adverbial clauses not present in the original text were added to the translated text to indicate a character’s gesture or emotion. Last, the position of the dialogue narratives was changed.
  • 7.

    A Study of the Influence of Communication Style on Subtitling Strategies: Comparison between Japanese and English Subtitles of Parasite

    Junhee Yoo | 2022, 23(1) | pp.193~223 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine translation strategies used in Japanese and English subtitles of the Korean film Parasite. Japanese and English each has its own linguistic structures. In Japanese, the dependence on contextual cues is relatively high while in English, the main channel of information transfer is the language itself. Therefore, Japanese culture and English-speaking culture use different strategies based on their communication styles. As a framework of macroscope analysis, this study adopted Ino and Kawahara’s (2010) news subtitle strategy classification reviewing the result of analysis by using the concept of high-context and low-context communication of Hall (1976), Scollon and Scollon (1995), and Hayashi (2014). The results of the study indicate that three major differences can be seen in Japanese and English subtitles of Parasite. Japanese is topic-prominent, incomplete utterance, and backchannel utterance language. On the other hand, English is a subject-prominent, complete utterance, and substantial utterance language. In addition, the Japanese subtitles tend to omit words that audiences can assume through the screen, while English subtitles tend to verbalize words spoken in the film.
  • 8.

    Educational Application of Metaverse: A Study of Group Interpreting Practice Sessions

    Jiun Huh | 2022, 23(1) | pp.225~257 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the educational application of Metaverse platforms in interpreter training, focusing on group interpreting practice sessions. The study aims to understand their potential in the interpreter training field. To this end, the study conducted group interpreting practice sessions on Gather Town and Virbela with students of a Masters program in interpreting in South Korea, and administered a questionnaire based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. The questionnaire was designed to understand participants’ perceptions on the Metaverse platforms in group interpreting practice sessions and compare them with their perceptions on Zoom, an online conferencing platform used widely for classes and group interpreting practice sessions. The results showed a wide gap between the two platforms in cognitive presence, with Gather Town receiving positive reviews on many items. Most of the negative reviews on Virbela stemmed from technology issues. Zoom received the most positive review. Both Metaverse platforms received positive reviews on social presence, indicating a huge potential for Metaverse platforms in boosting affective capabilities in online learning, a blind spot in current online and remote platforms.