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pISSN : 1229-795X

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2021, Vol.22, No.5

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  • 1.

    Visual Changes in Translated Sound Effects outside Speech Balloons Based on English and French Translations of Graphic Novel “풀”

    Kim, Jagyeong | 2021, 22(5) | pp.9~35 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Borodo (2015) noted that the visual mode in translated comics can be altered and modified for a new target readership. This holds true for sound effects acting as visual and linguistic signs, especially when located outside speech balloons. However, visual changes in comics’ translated sound effects have rarely been addressed. Against this backdrop, this study examines visual changes in translated sound effects outside speech balloons based on the English and French translations of “풀”, a graphic novel authored by Keum Suk Gendry-Kim. The analysis shows that the English version had more frequent visual changes than the French version. English sound effects were frequently moved into a different location, while French counterparts remained almost in the same place, compared to the original. The size and thickness of the original were also more faithfully reflected in the French sound effects, although some were made larger and thicker to accentuate the intensity of the sound. The findings draw attention to translated sound effects as visual signs, indicating the need to further investigate the changes to the visual mode in the context of comic translation.
  • 2.

    Cross-Cultural Study on Literary Translators’ Perception from the Perspective of Sociology of Translator-Focusing on Korean/Anglophone Translator Interview Analysis

    SEUNG HYE MAH | KIM SOON YOUNG | 2021, 22(5) | pp.37~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translators, not just translation process or outcomes, deserve more scholarly attention. This study investigates literary translators’ perception from the perspective of sociology of translator. Specifically, literary translators’ perception on translator identity, errors in translation, economic status, relations with authors/publishers, and societal support needed for translator status enhancement is qualitatively investigated based on interviews of 28 Korean and Anglophone translators. This cross-cultural study reveals that both Korean and Anglophone translators share the same view that the economic reward for their work is not enough. However, their perception on and attitude toward errors in translation are quite different. Korean literary translators and the society as a whole are very sensitive to translation errors, whereas Anglophone literary translators and the society are relatively generous to errors, even accepting the errors as a part of translation literature. Anglophone translators maintain more close relations with authors and publishers, which lays the groundwork for the #NameTheTranslator campaign. Such a movement can spill over to other cultures and ultimately contribute to enhancing social and economic status of translators.
  • 3.

    Othering People with Disabilities in the Translation of the Texts for Film Posters and Synopses

    Shin, Naan | Jung,Byung-Eon | 2021, 22(5) | pp.69~97 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay explores the way in which posters and synopses of films about people with disabilities marginalize the subjects in their translations in order to maximize popularity. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse with the procedures of exclusion such as “prohibition,” “division and rejection,” and “the will to truth,” as well as framing theory, this essay analyzes the representation of people with disabilities in film posters and synopses. Original English posters, synopses, and the Korean-translated counterparts of 15 English-language films screened in Korea were selected for the observation in terms of variations of people with disabilities. The findings revealed that people with disabilities in translated texts were represented from an ableist point of view: where non-disabled people’s bodies were depicted as normal, disabled people’s bodies were shown to be abnormal. The Korean-translated posters negatively objectify people with disabilities and even delete elements of their conditions and the barriers they experience. Furthermore, people with disabilities are represented in the same manner as they have been stereotyped thus far. It is argued that their misrepresentation in Korean-translated film texts serves as part of a corporate marketing strategy for attracting audiences.
  • 4.

    Direct and Indirect Outbound Translation of Korean Children Literature The Hen Who Dreamed She Could Fly

    An, Su-Kyoung | 2021, 22(5) | pp.99~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate both direct and indirect outbound translation of Korean children literature, 『마당을 나온 암탉』 (The Hen Who Dreamed She Could Fly in English), written by Hwang, Sun-mi in 2000. Having critical acclaim in Korea, this work has since been translated into 27 languages and published in 36 countries as of 2020. When a Korean book is exported to many countries, indirect translation is inevitable and it involves a process of translating Korean to another peripheral language via a central one and the process frequently increases after the translation of central language has been made available. This paper tracks the outbound translation of the aforementioned work; ⅰ) to scrutinize the current practice of direct and indirect translation, ⅱ) to see when indirect translation was significantly expanded and its connection to the publication of English translation, and ⅲ) to examine characteristics of translators of each direct/indirect translation. The findings show that direct translation was conducted at the initial stage, and indirect translation was exploded right after the English translation was published. This paper calls for an extensive view on outbound translation of Korean literature and suggests the needs for discussion on both direct and indirect translations while most of previous research has treated them as a separate method.
  • 5.

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution and Curricular Reform: A Case of a Professional Graduate School of T&I

    Jong-Hwa Won | Jin Sil hee | 2021, 22(5) | pp.121~147 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research is a case study of a curricular reform implemented at a graduate school of T&I in Seoul. Based on an overarching goal to empower T&I professionals to pivot into various emerging realms of the local language services market, the graduate school implemented an overall curricular reform in the face of the 4th Industrial Revolution. The research gives a thick descriptive account of the overall context and details of the new curriculum, including the introduction of new courses, hiring of professionals in the emerging realms of language services and the construction of new infrastructures to support the new curriculum. Finally, the research reflects on the past 3 years of new curricular design and its implementation to draw implications for the next phase of curricular reform in preparation for the future changes in the T&I landscape.
  • 6.

    Translation of Culture-specific Items in English-dubbed Korean Films

    Miseon Yoon | 2021, 22(5) | pp.149~179 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Culture-specific items have been recognized as one of the most problematic issues in audiovisual translation. The aim of this article is to examine and describe the translation methods and strategies of culture-specific items adopted by film translators in their English dubbing of Korean films. Based on the theoretical framework suggested by Ranzato(2015), culture-specific items and their research methods implemented by translators in response to cultural constraints are mapped out. While micro-level translation methods refer to local solutions to individual problems related to culture-specific items, macro-level translation strategies deal with global strategies of domestication and foreignization. The result of the study indicates that the macro-level strategies of culture-specific items in English-dubbed Korean films are clearly target-oriented. Furthermore, elimination and substitution are the most frequently used translation methods of culture-specific items. Last but not least, the study highlights the translation method of creative addition and compensation, which require a certain amount of creative effort on the part of translators.
  • 7.

    Teaching Model for Korean-Arabic Medical Interpreting Using Virtual Reality

    Lee, Kye Youn | 2021, 22(5) | pp.181~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Virtual reality(VR) has become a serious alternative to traditional learning because the technology has advanced sufficiently and Covid 19 has interrupted overseas learning opportunities. This present study explores the application of VR using ”Google Expedition” in a university Korean-Arabic medical interpreting curriculum, specifically, researching the effects of situation-based learning environment on learning achievement and learning motivation. This study consists of a survey before the VR medical interpretation class, and a survey after it. Students had little experience using VR, but they responded positively to the effectiveness of using it to learn Arabic. In particular, while experiencing medical situations through VR, learners were able to interact with the learning materials for an immersive experience and it was possible to offer job experience and professional aptitude. This study makes the following proposals for a VR class. First, a detailed study on VR education in domestic and foreign educational institutions is needed. Second, interaction between instructors and learners should be part of the classes. Third, it is necessary to develop a VR education application for mobile and further content to facilitate languages and interpretation education.
  • 8.

    Analysis of Factors of disfluency in Japanese Simultaneous Interpretation: Focused on Pause and Filler

    Seonhwa LEE | 2021, 22(5) | pp.205~230 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines occurrences of disfluency in simultaneous interpretation between Korean and Japanese; in particular, pauses and hesitation causing fillers and sound lengthening. The subject group consists of four experienced professional interpreters holding a master’s degree in translation from Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. In order to identify and analyze pauses and hesitation, they were asked to simultaneously interpret the speakers’ talk at actual international web seminars. It was found that the frequency and length of pauses were both found more in B-A simultaneous interpretation(Japanese to Korean) than in A-B interpretation(Korean to Japanese), though the difference varies from person and person. As for their hesitation, interestingly enough, the analysis exhibits that fillers were found more in A-B translation, whereas lengthening was more manifested in B-A interpretation. It was also found that the speakers’ pauses did not directly affect the interpreters’ pauses: it may be assumed that the interpreters were making an effort to balance the overall length of the source text by intentionally including pauses. As for the common fillers due to the interpreters’ hesitations, ‘え’, ‘あ’, ‘この’, ‘その’ and ‘だから’ appeared in A-B simultaneous interpretation, and ‘어’, ‘아’, ‘이제’ and ‘이런’ appeared in B-A interpretation. The number and location of lengthening differed depending on the interpreter, but the occurrence and location of lengthening were almost the same in simultaneous interpretation A-B and B-A.
  • 9.

    Antoine Berman and the Birth of the Translation Studies Field in France: Socio-translatological Analysis

    YI, Yeong-Houn | 2021, 22(5) | pp.231~269 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In commemoration of 30th year since the death of Antoine Berman, a French translator and translation scholar, this research analyzed his social identity and the roles that he played in forming translation studies as a field in France. To this end, the framework of reflexive sociology, proposed by a French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, was employed to explain how the field of translation studies operates and its agents interact within the field. Taking a French writer and translator, Philippe Jaccottet, as his role model, Berman began his career as a literary translator to participate in the movement during the 1960s in Paris, which attempted to transform literature with translation. His translation of Augusto Roa Bastos’s Yo el Supremo into French enabled him to reflect on translation theories, which explained “embracing foreignness as it is” and “enriching the mother tongue through translation” and turned him into a renowned translation scholar. He remained at the periphery of the French translation studies field in the 1980s whether it be either the social or the academic system. However, he always took the center of academic discussions, as he had conflicts with mainstream translation scholars and educational institutions, such as Jean-René Ladmiral, Henri Meschonnic and ESIT School, over what status the translation studies occupied in the academic institutions and what purpose translation should pursue. With his works on translation and lectures, he condemned the deformation tendencies observed in all types of literary translation. His poignant criticism against the French translating tradition of extreme domestication ushered in the ethical turn in translation studies. Berman was able to contribute to the birth and development of the translation studies field in France thanks to his habitus as a literary innovator developed with his experience as a literary translator, as well as the symbolic capital of ethicality accumulated with his continuous criticism against the ethnocentric translation tradition in France. His peripheral position within the French field of translation studies also allowed him to stand against mainstream translation scholars. We, the author of the paper, also analyzed the social identity of ourselves to enhance reflective objectivity of this study.
  • 10.

    A Pilot Investigation into Korean to English Post-editing Efforts

    Lee, Jun-ho | 2021, 22(5) | pp.271~298 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Machine translation post-editing(MTPE) service is already available in the Korean market. However, it is still challenging to have access to reliable Korean to English MTPE productivity and quality data. Therefore, it is premature to assume that Korean to English MTPE service will be more productive and of similar quality to human translation. To make matters worse, the lack of understanding about MTPE can misguide the market and future translation training. To that end, this research tries to shed light on crucial efforts required for MTPE: temporal, technical, and cognitive. First, the temporal data and expert quality assessment will provide basic insight about productivity between human translation and MTPE. Second, the keystroke data will show the difference in keystrokes between the two translation modes, if there are any. Third, the pause data will tell us if participants made different levels or patterns of cognitive efforts. Finally, based on these data sets, this research will suggest what can be a reasonable way to understand Korean to English MTPE.
  • 11.

    A Study on a Case of Anti-Feminism in Neural Machine Translation and its implications for Web as Corpus

    Jee, Yoon-Ju | 2021, 22(5) | pp.299~326 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to show how neural machine translation (NMT) translates online newspapers about the anti-feminism phenomenon in South Korea and (2) to examine the co-occurrence of the results by using Web as Corpus, Sketch Engine. This study aims to examine the anti-feminism phenomenon in three commercial neural machine translations (Google Translate, Naver Papago, and Kakao I-NMT). Findings show that three neural machine translation engines are generally prone to anti-feminism translation. For example, they translate ‘여성 우월주의 (female supremacy)’ into ‘feminism’. And then, in Web Corpus using Sketch Engine tools, the co-occurrence around ST keyword ‘여성 우월주의’ at the negative label can be observed in the lexical distributions of ‘feminism’. As a result, this anti-feminism in neural machine translation is considered to reflect negativity toward feminism in online anti-feminist communities. This paper concludes with a brief discussion of ethical questions related to both machine translation and technology in translation studies.