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2008, Vol.9, No.2

  • 1.

    Perception and practice of research ethics among Korean stem cell investigators

    Eun Kyung Choi | 김수연 | Kim, Ock Joo | 2008, 9(2) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    We conducted a survey among Korean stem cell investigators on the perception and practice of research ethics in 2008. The survey results show that Korean stem cell researchers support higher interaction and integration of science and ethics and recognize research ethics guidelines more than average scientists. About 75.7 percent of the respondents wish to research ethics education in the future, while 38.8 percent of them have taken research ethics education. More than eighty percent of the respondents replied that they check the informed consent form of donated human tissue for research and conduct genetic research only within the purview of the informed consent attached to the sample. The percentage of having research ethics education and knowing research ethics guidelines differs among the various positions of a research team: the higher position in the research team the respondent is, the more she or he has research ethics education and know guidelines.
  • 2.

    A Questionnaire Study on Conflict between Healthcare Professionals for Teaching Students in Seoul National University College of Medicine

    CHOI KYUJIN | Eun Kyung Choi | 홍정화 and 4other persons | 2008, 9(2) | pp.17~34 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Background and objective As a multidisciplinary team approach to provide better healthcare, cooperative relationship and conflict management are important among various health professionals in a hospital. We aimed to investigate the conflicts and its managements among doctors, nurses, and other health professionals in a hospital. Subject and method This study was conducted as a part of educational resource development of ethics for medical students. Survey questions were developed and health professionals in a tertiary referral hospital received a self-report questionnaire about current status and solutions of their conflict management and perceived relationship between occupations. 353 responses were included finally for analysis. Result Of 353 subjects, 54.1% had less than 5 years of work experience, and 86.1 % (n=304) were resident doctors (n=95, 26.9%), nurse (n=124, 35.1%), or other health professionals (n=85, 24.1%). Contact frequency was asked and residents answered in the order of nurses then other health professionals, nurses answered residents then other nurses, other health professionals answered nurses then residents to be contacted more frequently. The occupation that was most difficult to establish a cooperative relationship was asked and residents and nurses answered each other while other health professionals answered residents. The occupation that caused conflict most frequently was also asked and residents and nurses answered each other but other health professionals pointed out nurses. The reason of conflict was asked by a multiple choice question and inhospitable attitude (n=166), allotment of activities (n=141), emergency situations (n=57), improper titles (n=19) were replied. Residents suggested solutions of these conflicts as interdisciplinary communication programs, education of other occupations activities, clear job distribution. The solutions by nurses and other health professionals were respecting each other, avoiding authoritarianism and increasing personnel. Conclusion Respecting other occupations as well as enhancing work process is important in conflict management and educational programs are needed.
  • 3.

    Research Ethics in Japan: Institutions' responses to cases of noncompliance with research ethics guidelines

    미야가와 타쿠야 | Kim, Ock Joo | 2008, 9(2) | pp.35~47 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper deals with research ethics in Japan with special reference to institutions' responses to cases of non-compliance with research ethics guidelines. Facing advent of new biotechnology like genetics engineering and artificial reproduction in 1980s, Japanese society chose to handle ethical, legal and social challenges brought by these new biotechnology with implementing ethics guidelines rather than with enactment of laws. Since 2000, several scandals related to research misconducts or noncompliance with research ethics guidelines have occurred in such eminent Japanese research institutes as the Institute of Medical Sciences Tokyo University, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and College of Medicine Tokyo University. After a series of investigation by internal and external committees, these institutes rebuilt a research ethics system. This includes new review system, a new policy to mandate research ethics education and a routine auditing system to ensure research ethics. Taking lessons from the scandals, Japanese institutions have been promoting research ethics not to repeat their past.
  • 4.

    Recruting members of IRBs on embryo research in Korea

    Bang-Ook Jun | Manjae Kim | 2008, 9(2) | pp.49~55 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act requires embryo research institutions to set up their own institutional review board (IRBs), consisting of more than or equal to 5 persons. The Act also asks for including at least two mandatory members, one who is not engaged in the fields of life science or medical science and the other who does not belong to the institution. Since the IRBs were established in 2005, they did not receive general attention until Hwang's stem cell research became internationally scandalized. While arguing Hwang's research misconduct, it was also revealed that the IRBs that reviewed his research did not follow any legal procedure. Although Hwang's scandal provided an opportunity to improve the IRB operation in Korea, it is not clear whether the IRB fully represents its original raison d'etre or not. Therefore, this study aims to analyze current conditions and tries to find out some plausible problems of the IRB, largely focusing on recruiting members. Some data provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare show that the IRB members are 6.24 persons on average, and embryo producing medical institutions occupy 70.1 percent in total, whereas embryo research institutions and somatic cell embryo clones research institutions represent 27.0 percent and 2.9 percent respectively. Preliminary results reveal that, among 209 persons recruited from outside, 55.5 percent of them (116 persons) are from medical practitionersand life scientists. Considering academic environment in Korea, it is very likely that these members are selected from peer groups in favor of reviewed research. The analysis also indicates that 71.6 percent of nonprofessional members are employees of the institution, which makes it hard to expect them to review a research proposal without any conflict of interest. In conclusion, although most institutions seem to follow the law at first glance, current conditions of the IRBs in Korea are still far from what the law originally intended to pursue.
  • 5.

    The gradual development of moral judgment in medical students with defining issues test(DIT) : in Inje medical students

    권혜미 | 김병진 | 김성록 and 4other persons | 2008, 9(2) | pp.57~77 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objective This study is about the moral judgment in medical students. And the purpose of this study is laying the foundation for developing it. Methods In this cross-sectional research, we measured moral judgment of students in Inje college of medicine by using complete type of DIT. We compared P(%) score of medical students with that of standard population, and studied the gradual moral judgment with its tendency and relation with variables(age, sex, religion, number of siblings, birth sequence, provincial origin). Results P(%) scores of 1st and 2nd grade medical students was higher than that of standard group.(p<.05) P(%) scores of 4th grade medical students was lower than that of standard group.(p<.05) The 5A score of 2nd grade medical students(17.03) was higher than that of 4th grade medical students(13.65, p=.023), P(%) and N2 score of female(45.57, 43.73) were higher than that of male(42.44 p=.040, 40.67 p=.034). 4th stage got the highest score in total gradual average. Conclusion There is no significant change of the moral judgment during the period of medical education. Therefore, it is required to prepare an educational opportunity improving moral judgment of students by teaching medical ethics in early stage of medical education.