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2012, Vol.13, No.1

  • 1.

    Death reviewed from the perspectives of the substance-metaphysics in modern Times and its critique

    In-Hoe Ku | 2012, 13(1) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 3
    In order to understand the metaphysical death, the question, how humans have determined the relationship between soul and body, is crucial. A newly enhanced dualism came out as the result of the development of late scholastic philosophy. It is revealed especially in Descartes thought. In addition, the thoughts of Spinoza, Kant and Fichte can not be forgotten. For Descartes, death is simply the end of machine, that we call the body. For Spinoza, death is ultimately nothing but a going up to the unique totality. An individual goes to ruin in death, but so long as he is a thinking human being, an idea of infinite thinking, a man shall survive. Kant showed in his Critique of Pure Reason the theory of soul and the immortality of the soul. According to Fichte the nature life is not the original and true life, but it is the life of just one simple idea. If we are obsessed with a fictional life, we die continuously, but in death we come into the real life.
  • 2.

    Broad Consent in Biobank Research

    SangMok Lee | 2012, 13(1) | pp.15~24 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    An important ethical issue regarding biological samples stored in biobanks is unforeseen future sample use, when no or limited subject consent is obtained. Biobanks of biological samples have significant future research potential, but may cause conflicts of interest regarding the consent obtained,Some peoples argue that broad consent is valid ethically and should be recommended for biobank research provided that: personal information related to research is handled safely; donors of biological samples are granted the right to withdraw consent; and new research studies or changes to the legal or ethical authority of a biobank are approves by an IRB. We criticize that they ignore a basic requirement for autonomy, understanding. Combined with an over sized eagerness to promote research and recruitment, this combination of risk and information ignorance can become dangerous.
  • 3.

    Challenges on Institutional Review System and Responses from Developed Countries

    Choi Eunkyung | 2012, 13(1) | pp.25~39 | number of Cited : 3
    Since emergence and expansion of large‐scale, multi‐site research, concerns raised that institutional review system can’t handle increased workload. Institutional review system has been criticized for limited expert resource, inadequate initial and continuous review, repetitive and meaningless work, conflict of interest, and limited activity for quality improvement. Further, in response to enlargement and standardization of medical research, expansion of ethics review system and standardization of review activity has been needed. Also, current review system is needed to effectively include non‐traditional research activity like human material research, genetic research. Each country has been made its own effort to introduce various systems and pursue reforms. In U.S and Canada, accreditation system and central IRB system were initiated, and regional review system is argued now. In UK, Europe and New Zealand where regional and multi‐site ethics review system has been settled, central research ethics authority is established to organize and coordinate ethics review activities. In general, these countries try to centralize a part of institutional or local boards’ work and restrict their autonomy and authority. This paper shows these developed countries’ efforts to reform current institutional review system. Centralization of institutional review system is welcomed for improved efficiency of ethics review activity, but it is also worried to make another bureaucracy, excess of central work. The outcome of centralization of ethics review system is not certain yet, but these efforts are still expected to solve the challenges on institutional review system.
  • 4.

    Arising Ethical and Legal Challenges of Human Stem Cells

    Sujin Baik | 2012, 13(1) | pp.41~49 | number of Cited : 5
    The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of ethical and legal arguments in using of Human Stem Cells. Stem cell research provides the charming promise for the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, and Parkinson's disease etc. Currently, they are no known effective treatment. Human embryonic stem cell research has raised strong debates about the moral status and destroying human embryos. However, there are important ethical issues related to stem cell research that are unrelated th embryo destruction. For example, the reprogramming of somatic cell to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical issues specific to embryonic stem cell research. However, there are difficult dilemmas including informed consent, timing of consent, protecting privacy and right of donors. Especially, Fist-in-human experiments with cell-based interventions also raise important ethical questions. These include obligations to have adequate preclinical evidence regarding the safety. These ethical and legal issues need to be discussed along with scientific development to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. It need to consider the ethical and legal issues that arise at different phase of stem cell research.
  • 5.

    A Study on Public Attitudes toward Xenotransplantation

    모효정 | 2012, 13(1) | pp.51~66 | number of Cited : 3
    Xenotransplantation may provide an alternative to the shortage of allograft for transplantation. It raises a number of social and ethical issues, such as a possible outbreak of zoonosis, violating an individual's privacy related to the life-long surveillance, the impossibility of withdrawing consent, the necessity of family consent and issues related to using the source animal. In each country there have been number of public participation attempts to gather a social consensus related to xenotransplantation. Since 2003 in Korea there has also been questionnaire surveys conducted on the general public, xenotransplantation researchers and type 1 diabetics. Results showed that, in general, over half of the public accepted the legitimacy of xenotransplantation, but they understood the requirement of the various regulations to protect public health. Most xenotransplantation researchers accepted xenotransplantation, however, they recognized that more study is needed before clinical application progresses. The type 1 diabetics, who may be the first subjects of xenotransplantation, generally did not accept xenotransplantation. They reacted negatively to the life-long surveillance, the body donation and the autopsy. In order to put in place the necessary regulatory systems and future policy initiatives, it is important to elicit; the opinion of the public who assess its influence in a neutral position, the advice of scientists who evaluate based on scientific expertise, and the view of patients who provide the opinion from the perspective of those who will be the ultimate recipients.