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2013, Vol.14, No.2

  • 1.

    Is Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement Cheating?

    SangMok Lee | CHOI Sinu | 2013, 14(2) | pp.1~13 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    One of the arguments against cognitive enhancement is that cognitive enhancement is cheating. Cheating is primarily a matter of fairness. Therefore, the validity of ‘cheating argument’ depends on weather cognitive enhancement is fair or not. Wealthy and intellectual social class tends to access cognitive enhancement more easily, and this tendency can cause a cognitive gap in our society. The cognitive gap would trigger different academic abilities, and consequently, wide a gap between riches and poors. So Mehlmen suggests a rule allowing cognitive enhancers for everyone to reduce inequality. It seems to be fair if we benefit a same level from cognitive enhancement. However, if pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement have a same effect for everyone, a huge cognitive gap between lower cognitive group and higher cognitive group would still remain. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement which do not give lower cognitive members a highest benefit nor an equal opportunity does not seem to be fair. However, according to neuro­pyschopharmacological researches, cognitive enhancers have cognitive enhancing effects on a lower cognitive group, while not having the effects on higher cognitive group. This result means that cognitive enhancement reduce a cognitive gap among healthy people. Consequently, pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement gives the least advantaged members of cognition a best benefit and an equal opportunity to join a competition. Therefore, the rule allowing pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement is not unfair rule in accordance with Rawls’s principles of justice, and pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement could not be regarded as cheating.
  • 2.

    Bioethics and Philosophy : Philosophical Conflicts and Philosophy’s Tasks for a New Bioethics

    CHOI Kyungsuk | 2013, 14(2) | pp.15~28 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper points out the difficulties of the project which considered bioethics as an “applied ethics” as well as on the identity of bioethics as an interdisciplinary discipline rather than as a division of ethics. Further this paper emphasizes that bioethics should deal with fundamental questions about some basic concepts and orientations presupposed in a discipline relevant to bioethics, such as philosophy, medicine, biology and jurisprudence. For bioethics as an interdisciplinary discipline, it is an improper expectation that philosophy will provide the definite ethical answers to bioethical issues. Philosophy plays a role to provide various perspectives, ways of thinking, and arguments which should be considered and reviewed for a social consensus. The ways of discourse in which philosophers argue their argument for their own ethical opinions on particular bioethical issues should be changed because we need bioethics that may work in a pluralistic society where there is not the only right theory of normative ethics. Philosophy should deal with philosophical issues relevant to reaching a social consensus for a new bioethics working in a pluralistic society. Philosophy should inquiry criteria to discern reasonable disagreement from other disagreement, methodologies to make our group communication and discourse reach ethically true or justified beliefs, and philosophical status of such beliefs. In addition, philosophy has a task to study basic concepts such as human dignity, respect for human life, the value of life, the quality of life, human identity, etc., which are frequently used in bioethical discourses.
  • 3.

    Social Implications of Personalized Genomic Medicine

    Kim, Sang-Hyun | 2013, 14(2) | pp.29~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The ultimate goal of this paper is to draw the social implications of personalized genomic medicine, which have been received attention from society and academy since completion of human genome project in 2003. For this, it was intended to represent the social & theoretical backgrounds (biomedicalization), definition, and light and shadow of personalized genomic medicine. Based on the results of Koreans' perception on personalized genomic medicine, PGM 21 survey of 2012, six social issues and implications (trust of scientific technology; meaning in public health; protection of personal information as privacy; genetic discrimination as social stigma; commercialization of medicine and profits sharing; differences, disparities, and inequalities in gene, health, quality of life, and life itself by SES & nation) were drawn and discussed.
  • 4.

    An Integrative Review of Do-Not-Resuscitate Decisions : focused on Korean Data after 2010

    Lee Yoon-Jung | Hyeongsuk Lee | 2013, 14(2) | pp.41~52 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Purpose : This study aims to outline the research that has been conducted regarding DNR(Do-Not-Resuscitate) decisions in Korea and to describe the characteristics of DNR decision making in Korea. Method : An integrative review was performed to review the research. Two Korean biomedical databases were used to search the literature written in Korean and published in Korean journals from 2010 to 2013. Ten published articles written in Korea were retrieved. Result : Most of the research was designed to be descriptive studies using questionnaires. In terms of research population, most of the studies used a population of care givers. According to the retrieved articles, characteristics regarding DNR decision making in Korea are as follows. Family members were the significant decision makers, rather than the patients themselves. Major factors influencing DNR decisions in Korea are patients characteristics including severity of illness. There were differences in results of DNR decisions made and attitudes and experiences across the research population. Conclusion : 1) Health care providers should respect patients during the DNR decision-making process and this has raised awareness. 2) Various qualitative researches have been conducted regarding experiences of family members and health care providers. 3) Nurses are important as mediators that help communication among stakeholders and speak for them. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in this area. 4) Researchers should use various research methods, and expand the populations to find ways that release burdens of decisions and ethical issues of stakeholders.
  • 5.

    The Attitude and Perception on Withdrawal of Futile Life Sustaining Treatment and Patient Self Determination Right among Home Care Nurses

    Kwon, Ye-Ok | Sung-Hee Ahn | 2013, 14(2) | pp.53~66 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study was to investigate attitude and role perception on withdrawal of futile life sustaining treatment(WFLST) and patient self-determination Right(SDR) among home care nurses. A descriptive study design were utilized. Data were collected by questionnaires for measuring an attitude and a role perception on WFLST, and a perception on SDR from 136 home care nurses. Data were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The score of the attitude and role perception on WFLST were 3.28 and 4.38 out of maximum of 5, respectively. And the perception score on SDR was 4.12. The attitude on WFLST has a positive correlation with the perception on SDR, and also there was a positive correlation between the role perception on WFLST and the perception on SDR. Comparing to such, there is no significant correlations between The attitude on WFLST and the role perception on WFLST. Additionally, Home care nurses perceived that the patient's autonomy is important, and had contradictory attitudes on life sustaining treatment. From this results, it was shown that home care nurses in general had a positive attitude toward WFLST, also they did aware the necessity of having objective and ethical guidelines and the enactment of laws. Therefore, It is positively advisable to conduct study on the development and application of bioethics education curriculum related to WFLST and SDR for home care nurses.