Recently in the fields of science and technology policy studies and innovation studies, the concept of “responsible research and innovation (RRI)” gained its visibility. Being mainly discussed in European Union and in the United States, responsible research and innovation (RRI) is researched academically and also being practiced in policy-making processes. In this paper, I show that the concept of responsible research and innovation (RRI) may have its origins in the field of bioethics. Since later decades of the last century, there were many discussions about how science and technology research should be conducted ethically while being socially-aware. Here I analyze three foreign case studies to bolster this argument. First case study: Nuffield Council on Bioethics in the U.K. periodically publishes reports on bioethics. Some of the reports explicitly deal with the concept of RRI. Second case study: U.K. Medical Research Council (MRC) published Good Research Practice (GRP). I show that the concept of GRP is connected with the concept of RRI. Third case study: United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) published a code of conduct called Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). By showing that RCR also explicitly requires RRI-related responsibilities from its NSF awardees, I show that these three bioethical origins are interconnected and intertwined with the concept of RRI.
This article aims at inquiring ethical issues required for reviewing Social Behavioral Research(SBR) to establish stably Institutional Review Boards(IRB) instituted within universities based on the entirely revised Bioethics and Safety Act.
Unlike the existing review criteria of IRB focusing invasive researches, SBR necessitates more careful approach in three aspects: ‘interests of participants’, ‘interpersonal relationships between researcher and participants’, and ‘social values of SBR’. In addition, ‘privacy and confidentiality’ and ‘informed consent and deception’ can be critically considered for assessing risk and benefit analysis on SBR.
Accordingly, this article seeks reviewing such characteristics of SBR and ethical issues within important components required for conducting a research. In particular, the article addresses ethical issues including ‘public exposure of participant’, ‘reduced control over self-presentation of participant’, and ‘reduction of participant’s private space’ with regard to task to ensure ‘privacy and confidentiality’ and examines those of ‘impaired capacity for decision-making’, ‘deprivation of respect’, and ‘erosion of trust’.
Besides, the article examines how these ethical issues have revealed through the case of Laud Humphreys’ Study, a typical example of SBR, and makes suggestions for alternatives to those issues.
The age of gene therapy is down the pike with the arrival of CRISPR-Cas9 enzyme scissors. Gene therapy on embryos can cause positive socio-economical impact in that it can break the cycle of genetic disorder. But there are various social and ethical issues, including using embryo for experiment, technological limitation, limit of knowledge about the function of genes, absent of consent by descendants, and using for genetic enhancement. For this reason, the reproductive use of edited embryos is prohibited in many countries. But scientific research are generally permitted considering the potential effectiveness. A regulatory framework for the age of gene therapy is also being discussed. But Korean law is ambiguous about whether scientific research for gene therapy on human embryo is permitted and there is no regulation for human embryos gene alteration. So scientific research for gene therapy on human embryo need to be permitted within reasonable limits, and human embryos gene alteration for reproductive purposes should be prohibited. And in human embryo gene therapy era, new regulations are necessary including technical and ethical limitation on therapy, multi generational follow-up for safety, access to therapy regardless of their economic power, and the prohibition of compulsory gene therapy.
Recently, a considerable number of the adolescent is having sexual relation than in the past. Also, the rate of the adolescent experienced the sexual relation is increasing and the age of the adolescent when they experienced the sexual relation for the first time is dropping. Therefore, it is very important to do sex education for the adolescent to make them get the knowledge and information about the sex including the contraception and live their healthy life during the adolescent period. Especially, the sex education is necessary for the female adolescent because they can have an unwanted pregnancy in their body unlike the male adolescent. So, to educate the female adolescent more efficiently, it must take precedence to confirm and comprehend their situation and experience as well as to give attention to their thought and opinion about the contraception including the use of the contraceptive measure. To investigate their own voice about these aspects, we interviewed 20 female adolescents who have taken the contraceptive pill. As a result, we could know that they are feeling that the sex education is very necessary for them but the sex education that they experienced was not enough to them because of the poor and unsubstantial contents and the uninteresting method. And we also could know that many of them have the incorrect perception about the contraception including the contraceptive pill because of getting the knowledge and information from the inaccurate source not from the sex education. The sex education for the adolescent will have to be improved considering the actual condition and real requirements of the adolescent, in particular female adolescent.
This is a descriptive research to understand the relation between nurses' moral sensitivity and elderly nursing practice, targeting 186 nurses working for hospitals in G metropolitan city. In the results of this study, nurses' moral sensitivity was higher than the medium level while their elderly nursing practice was in the high level, which was lower than other preceding researches. In each sub-area of moral sensitivity, the moral sensitivity in professional responsibility and patient-centered areas was higher than other areas while the moral sensitivity in the general characteristics showed significant differences in accordance with age, academic background, religion, and position. Their moral sensitivity and elderly nursing practice showed positive correlations. It means that elderly nursing practice is high when moral sensitivity is high, so that elderly nursing practice can be improved by enhancing moral sensitivity. Thus, it would be necessary to develop educational programs that can enhance every aspect of moral sensitivity by improving the lowest moral meaning among sub-areas of moral sensitivity. As the nursing care service is scheduled to be extended to the entire hospital from 2018, it would be necessary to develop educational programs that can improve multi-dimensional moral sensitivity including cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects regarding the careful and mutually-open decision-making process about dignified human being to practice more qualitative elderly nursing.
When biobanks receive human materials donation, the biobanks do not have specific information of future studies that will use the donated materials. Therefore, until now, biobanks have received broad consent from the donors of human materials. Recently, the development of information and communications technology makes it possible that the biobanks recontact with the donors and receive reconsent from them. With such change, the supporters of dynamic consent have appeared. Therefore, in this paper, I have examined which type of consent may preserve the autonomy of doners well. The dynamic consent can be divided into 'the dynamic consent in the large sense' and 'the dynamic consent in the narrow sense'. I have concluded that the dynamic consent in the large sense can preserve donors' autonomy better than the dynamic consent in the narrow sense and the broad consent.