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2017, Vol.18, No.2

  • 1.

    An Ethical Response Model for Genome Editing Technology : Focusing on Dynamic and Plural Risk Model

    Kwangsu Mok | 2017, 18(2) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a model for responding to ethical issues of genome editing technology. I argue three things. First, I argue that genome editing technology should be differently understood in two senses, its narrow sense and wide sense. The former is a technical sense but the latter is a clinical sense. Through this distinction, we should understand that current researches of genome editing technology are not related to a clinical but only a technical advance. Second, I argue that preclinical researches including animal experimentation should be sufficiently performed and, then, clinical trials about human embryo or human to develop a new treatment can do. Through this claim, we should remember that current requests of clinical trial with human embryo are too hasty and impatient. Third, I argue that dynamic and plural risk model can effectively respond to ethical issues or risks of genome editing technology. This is because this model can dynamically respond to risks according to the advance of knowledge concerning genome editing technology.
  • 2.

    Human Embryonic Gene Therapy: Why Now

    Cho, Eun Hee | 2017, 18(2) | pp.21~37 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Recently, several research teams have conducted research on human embryonic genome editing therapy. This has facilitated deliberation on the ethical, legal and social implications of human embryonic gene therapy. This article reviews the work of researchers in this field to summarize how the genome editing technology is different from the pre-existing gene therapy, and figure out whether such changes mitigate previous concerns that prohibit the practice of gene therapy on the embryo. Off-target effects, mosaicism, and mutations induced by the double-stranded DNA breakage are mentioned as major obstacles that impede the human embryonic genome editing therapy. Researchers tend to focus primarily on how to solve such issues in a technical perspective, without sufficiently considering the potential consequences that could arise when this technology was applied to human embryonic gene therapy. For the sake of the general public and for the advancement of research, we need more comprehensive research in this field and subsequent productive discussions on embryonic gene therapy.
  • 3.

    A study on reform of domestic law related to human embryo genome editing - Focusing on the contents of the related foreign regulation -

    Ryoo, Hwa-shin | Lee, Min-kyu | 2017, 18(2) | pp.39~56 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Genome editing (also called gene editing) is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organism's DNA. These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome. Several approaches to genome editing have been developed. A recent one is known as CRISPR-Cas9, which is short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has generated a lot of excitement in the scientific community because it is faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more efficient than other existing genome editing methods. Genome editing is of great interest in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Currently, most research on genome editing is done to understand diseases using cells and animal models. Scientists are still working to determine whether this approach is safe and effective for use in people. It is being explored in research on a wide variety of diseases, including single-gene disorders such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, and sickle cell disease. It also holds promise for the treatment and prevention of more complex diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ethical concerns arise when genome editing, using technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, is used to alter human genomes. Changes made in the genes of an embryo could be passed to future generations. Embryo genome editing bring up a number of ethical challenges, including whether it would be permissible to use this technology to enhance normal human traits. This study examines the ethical and social issues related to human embryo genome editing, the contents of the related foreign legislations, and the reform of domestic law.
  • 4.

    The necessity and the improvement method of the restoration of the subjectivity of women viewed as abortion controversy

    Moon Hannah | 2017, 18(2) | pp.57~76 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The debate about abortion is expressed by the conflict between two ideals: the right to life of a fetus and the right to self-determination of a woman. However, recent controversy on abortion in Korean society suggests that women should be free from pregnancy and childbirth by seeking alternatives to the alienation phenomenon. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to secure the subjectivity of women and build a social infrastructure in the area of pregnancy and childbirth. Liberalization of abortion without ensuring the subjectivity of women can lead to repression of women. To solve this problem, listening to a woman's voice should be preceded. In addition, Pro-life and Pro-Choice should listen to each other's wishes to protect the fetus and women and make efforts to reduce abortion. The urgent improvement plan is to increase life - centered contraceptive education, establish a crisis pregnancy counseling center, to restrict the punishment of the criminal law to women only and to amend the consent of the spouse and related procedural provisions in the Maternal and Child Health Law. Through this, I hope that the abortion discourse in Korea will expand the mutual understanding of both sides and strengthen the efforts to create a women - centered policy.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of International Norm and Legal Systems for Genomic Research and Precision Medicine outside Korea and their Implications for the Korean Legal System

    LEE, Seo-hyung | 2017, 18(2) | pp.77~93 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    A recent paradigm shift, triggered and facilitated by the convergence of information and enhanced network connectivity, is effecting changes in medical trends. Precision medicine is one such trend that commands ever-increasing attention. This concept goes beyond the analysis of genomic information through the human genome project—it aims to provide medical care tailored to individual clients by bringing genomic information together with information on their health and everyday life. However, the emergence of genomic research and precision medicine poses various ethical, legal, and social problems. Privacy and secret protection, information security, and the exercise of the right to self-determination are some of the most notable issues arising from the collection of wide-ranging personal information, such as genomic information, from a number of unspecified individuals for the purpose of precision medical services. It has also been pointed out that the advance consent model has a limited effect within the context of precision medicine given its immanent characteristics, and some of the issues that have gained less attention so far, including the sharing of commercial profits, call for further consideration. Major countries outside Korea have engaged in social discussions over an extensive period of time with the aim of establishing legal systems that seek to promote genomic research and precision medicine while ensuring an appropriate level of protection for personal information. This leads to an increasing demand in Korea to follow suit and design a legal system that can provide society with an adequate capacity for addressing the changing trends in genomic research and precision medicine. In light of these considerations, this study presents the legal trends in major non-Korean jurisdictions with the aim of facilitating a social agreement within Korea on the trajectory of development in genomic research and precision medicine as well as on the establishment of a necessary legal system. Indeed, the adequate understanding and consideration of other countries’ legal trends contributes to the continued discussion of which legal system is suitable to Korea. Specifically, this study discusses the Taipei Declaration of the World Medical Association and examines the legal systems on precision medicine and the protection of personal information in such major countries and regional blocs as the U.S., the European Union(EU), and Japan. It is to be noted that the paradigm shift has been continuing over a long period of time: from the first to the third industrial revolutions. Korea is thus not in any particular hurry; what truly matters for Korea will be taking its time and engaging in adequate, long-term social discussions in order to facilitate its efforts to establish a legal system that can promote the development of genomic research and precision medicine.
  • 6.

    The Difference of the Death Perception, Death Attitude and the Awareness of Biomedical Ethics of Nursing Students according to the completion of Bioethics Education

    Lee, Yun Jung | Kim Yunsoo | 2017, 18(2) | pp.95~109 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bioethics education on death perception and attitude and the awareness of biomedical ethics of nursing students. Methods: A total of 253 nursing students participated in the study. Research tools measuring perception of death, attitude to death, awarness of biomedical ethics were used. Data was analyzed utilizing the t-test, ANOVA and descriptive statistics. Results: In the perception of death, the students who received education on bioethics were more positive about death (p=.014). In the attitude towards death, the non - bioethics education group had a higher neutral acceptance for death (p=.022). In the right to life of fetus (p=.040), artificial arbortion (p<.001), right to life of newborn (p=.021), organ transplantation (p=.049), the bioethics education group had the higher awareness of the biomedical ethics. There was a significant difference in biomedical ethics perception depending on grade, religion, DNR education, death experience, whether DNR will be administered to the family, and will DNR would be administered to them. Conclusion: Study results indicated the need to take bioethics education to form positive attitude and attitude toward death and improve the biomedical ethics consciousness. Suggest that the bioehtics education program needs to include religion, attitude toward death, and opinion about DNR on terminal patients.