Since the first case of coronavirus reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has been spread worldwide. As COVID-19 became the global pandemic, the demand of development of effective therapeutics and vaccines that can end this pandemic is increasing. Human challenge study, which test vaccine efficacy against diseases by deliberately exposing the volunteer to pathogens, have begun to attract attention as a tool to combat COVID-19. Social support has been formed with the expectation that this study will significantly shorten the period of vaccine development. However, research methods that deliberately expose people to lethal pathogens lead to ethical controversy. Analyzed as the historical cases of human challenge research such as dengue fever, cholera, zika virus. It should have sufficient social value as an ethical basis for conducting COVID19 human challenge research. If it is not clear whether the COVID-19 human challenge study could make a significant contribution to the shortening of the vaccine development period, the judgment on how much risk can be tolerated for social value should also be withheld. In order to justify risk management, the securing of therapeutic agents, production and application of attenuated strains, or safety measures against pathogens equivalent thereto should be the minimum ethical standards for securing subject safety. The ethical considerations of COVID-19 human challenge research need to be discussed as part of a long term pandemic response capability rather than the uncertain social value that current vaccine development shortening can bring. The worldwide epidemic caused by new infectious diseases is predicted to be repeated continuously, not just for COVID-19, and it is necessary to consider what will be a rapid scientific and ethical response to this.