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2008, Vol.0, No.17

  • 1.

    Park Ji-won's travel to China and change of his world view

    KIM YOUNG | 2008, 0(17) | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study is purposed to review Park Ji-won's changed world view after his travel to China by examining Yol-Ha Journal(열하일기), a travelogue on China. As it was extraordinarily rare, only a few people could afford to travel abroad at the Chosun dynasty. However, owing to the advent of Yeon-Hang-Sa(연행사), a diplomatic mission dispatched to China, an oversees traveling has been rising in its size and frequency at the late of Chosun dynasty, a transitional period from the Middle age to the Modern in Korea. It was Park Ji-won's idea that the Chosun society would be more retarded without a reformation of public consciousness of the people: Chosun should learn how to adapt herself to a new environment of the world change and import a new culture of the Ching dynasty, as it were, China under development and enlightenment. For this reason, he insisted on a new study of the Ching's advanced culture and science, what is called, "Studies on the North"(북학의). He argued that an immediate adaptation of the Ching's advanced culture would make Chosun enable to reform herself in every aspect. When he traveled to China in 1780, hence, he recorded every single aspect of his entire experience in China. His close attention on the advanced technology and culture of China were fully appertained to his Yol-Ha Journal. It was not only his experience and research on the advanced culture of China that we can find in his book. Along with his interest on material civilization of China, we can also find his concern on the condition of grass people and intellectuals of China. He tried to exchange more ideas with Chinese scholars and pay more attention to the grass people as much as possible. He also bought a lot of books during his voyage. His correspondences and exchanges of opinions with Chinese scholars contributed to his deep understanding on the outside and his realistic formation of the world view.
  • 2.

    The travel experience and exotic taste in yeonhang gasa in the 19th century : Focusing on <Seohaengrok> and <Yeonhaengga>

    유정선 | 2008, 0(17) | pp.31~60 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This research, which is about Yeonhaeng gasa named <Seohaengrok> and <Yeonhaengga> of 19th century, intended to examine the meanings of travel experience of Gasa in accordance with situation in the Yeonhaeng era of 19th century. <Seohaengrok> by Kin Jisoo and <Yeonhaengga> by Hong Soonhak were among the most popular works in this period, and through these works the research investigated the general travel consciousness in Yeonhaeng gasa of 19th century. An organizational characteristic of the two works is that the experience of Peking is being extended, lengthening the amount of works. They handled everyday experiences. In Travel-Gasa strangers with grotesque appearances as well as curious, exotic things represented the Peking. Korean literarti in general sticked to the Confucianism. They maintained the obstinate view that royal government solidly found upon Confucianism of Chu Hsi persuasion would ensure the prosperity of the nation.
  • 3.

    Haecheonchubeom and Hwangueumcho; the travelogues of the Korean Mission to the Russian Emperor's Coronation Ceremony in 1896

    홍학희 | 2008, 0(17) | pp.61~90 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Haecheonchubeom and Hwangueumcho; the travelogues of the Korean Mission to the Russian Emperor's Coronation Ceremony in 1896 Joseon dispatched a congratulatory delegation including Min Yeong-hwan, Yoon Chi-ho, and Kim Deuk-nyeon when the coronation ceremony for the new Russian emperor Nicolai Ⅱ was to take place in 1896. They traveled through 11 nations; China, Japan, Canada, the United States, Ireland, Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Mongolia, and Russia for seven months and wrote travelogues; Haecheonchubeom and Hwangueumcho. In the travelogues, they expressed their amazement and admiration for the prosperity of the western capitalistic cities, the development of science and technology, and that of modernistic systems including the educational and military systems. However, the Haecheonchubeom and the Hwangueumcho have the limits as they never mentioned any diplomatic issues that might arouse political frictions or any information or expression that might displease anyone. They just wrote good aspects of everything they observed and experienced. The reason may be because the government of Joseon had something they aspired of Russia like the five articles of the Secret Treaty, and because they couldn't but use diplomatic rhetoric when Joseon was placed in the turbulent state of affairs inside and outside of country as the world powers struggled for their interests on her territory.
  • 4.

    Dispositif of culture by Exoticism in the Enlightenment Era of Korea- on the Case of Choi, Chan-Sik's fictions

    KWAGSEUNGMI | 2008, 0(17) | pp.91~120 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study has aimed at examining closely the cultural identity of people who lived in the modern period of enlightenment, on the case of the New Novel by Choi, Chan-Sik. The moving abroad and foreign taste which be applied repeatedly in his novel is the representation to show civilization and enlightenment visibly to readers who didn't know it, through imagination. Therefore, This get to be the motive that the outside of Chosun is the center and inside is the others on the contrary. The confusion of identity to be inevitably resulted from regarding a inside as a outside is represented as a mad girl student who is a outsider and a victim on his novel. The tragedy which makes top-down exoticism by grading the world for standard of civilization and rationalizes the polygamy(two-wives) by recalling the traditional morals, sew up the spilt of identity of Chosun peoples in that period.
  • 5.

    Study on the Topic of going abroad appeared in the literature in late Chosun Dynasty

    Jongkun Kim | 2008, 0(17) | pp.121~150 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to study the pattern of going abroad as a new topic appeared in the literature in late Chosun Dinasty. One pattern is that bachelors who prepared to be a civil servant become the leader of thieves and show off their resourcefulness. The other one is that bachelors who have difficulties in being successful in the society go to an island abroad and build an ideal world. It must be presumable that those two patterns were revealed in the lifestyles of bachelors who were not accepted to the main society. These kinds of topics are set up in a various way to associate one another in an unofficial historical story and old novel late 18th century. Especially for topic of going abroad, there can't be seen in the previous story, and it's necessary to pay attention on this phenomenon this topic is closely inserted to couple of stories. This topic going abroad is concretely found in <Haejungseosaeng(해중서생)> in 『Haedongijeok Bo(해동이적 보)』and old novel <HusaengJeon(허생전)>, <HonggildongJeon(홍길동전)>. Two old novels conclude the meaning of pioneer abroad. These two topics are cited selectively in the same story structure, and they are combined and inserted into the story. So the variation pattern and author's mind are read in this era. It's possible to presume when the unofficial history was created, and existed <HonggildongJeon(홍길동전)> was formed after 19th century. Furthermore <HonggildongJeon(홍길동전)> was affected by <HusaengJeon(허생전)> in aspect of founding Yooldo Gook(율도국). Finally, topic of going abroad is originated from the criticism of policy picking up the civil servants. Passive and Hidden bachelors who complained the social system overcome the unreality and changed into active and optimistic. Therefore going abroad topic is the shape of surfacing the criticism and the spirit of leaving is the first step of modern consciousness.
  • 6.

    China, a Foreign Country Described in <Oksugi>

    탁원정 | 2008, 0(17) | pp.151~188 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The current study aimed to examine the historical meaning of China's image described in <Oksugi> written in the 19th century. Tendencies and culture of the Han race representing the Ming Dynasty and the Ho race representing north barbarians are focused in <Oksugi>. Meantime, although a biased viewpoint ignoring the Ho race was presented, the viewpoint was transformed into a flexible one from a scene in which an empress admired two princesses of the Ho dynasty during a court joint wedding ceremony. In <Oksugi>, reality was granted for geographical setting while historical and customary factors were weakened and real places like Beijing and Yodong were located. Jinhoe in <Oksugi> was expressed as a space for entertainment and merrymaking based on realistic characteristics of Jinhoe during the Ming Dynasty. In addition, manners and customs described in <Oksugi> reproduced merrymaking daily life of the Sa race men realistically. The flexible view on the Ho race, reinforcement of contemporary real spaces or Nokaengmu or Hwaso are closely related with the conditions of the 18th and 19th centuries in which banquets were prevailing. The fact that Jinhoe of Geumreung region was selected as space for merrymaking entertainment was reflection of the writer's personal interest. In conclusion, characteristics of exotic taste expressed in the Chinese background of <Oksugi> was longing and taste of realistic connection related from historical trends in the 18th and 19th centuries. Also interests derived from the writer's personal experience and recognition were reflected first, which means personalization of exotic tastes. It is possible to say that this is an aspect of modern transitional Chinese background.
  • 7.

    Radical Imagination of Gender in Chosun Dynasty in Banghannimjeon

    Kyungmi Kim | 2008, 0(17) | pp.189~216 | number of Cited : 35
    Abstract PDF
    Banghannimjeon is notable in the sense that it implicates radical imagination of gender. In this work which is supposed to be written in the late 19th century, a character with new gender identity which shows the subversion of the existing gender system, and a character who denies the patriarchal marriage because of the critical sense of the established marriage are found. Moreover, this work goes so far as to show the marriage between the same sex. Of course, this work tries to emphasize these two characters have known each other for a long time. Nevertheless, it is no doubt that under this suggestion the aspect of homosexuality is hided. Because of this new tendency of Banghannimjeon which reflects new consciousness of women and sexuality in the late Chosun dynasty, this work is distinguished from other novels of heroines. This study focuses on this aspect of gender identity and analyses the homosexual implication of the marriage between Bangkwanju and Younghyebing. With the consideration of the general thought on homosexuality and other cultural aspects in the late Chosun dynasty, this study could see that the radical imagination of gender in Banghannimjeon is a kind of fictionalizing of homosexuality which had been hided in that society. Although this work could not clearly provide new language of homosexuality, the radical thought of sexuality which is implicated in this work is very remarkable.
  • 8.

    The Effect of Showing Methodology in Sohyunseonglok

    Hae Ran Cho | 2008, 0(17) | pp.217~264 | number of Cited : 23
    Abstract PDF
    This paper tries to examine the value and the tendency of three-generation stories of the Chosun Dynasty based on theory of narration. As a first step, I chose Sohyunseonglok and attempted to analyse its showing methodology such as description, conversation, and the insertion of letters or public statements which are called Phoumun(表文). Showing methodology is used to vivify and specify scenes of this work and leads readers to participate in experiencing and judging the story. In this sense, narrative that is written in showing methodology induces more active reading process from readers than narrative that is written in the writer’s unilateral perspective does. Another notable thing of showing methodology in Sohyunseonglok is that lots of knowledge about Confucian scripture and Chinese history are found. This indicates the fact that the writer assumed readers to have a similar intellectual background with him who can fully understand and enjoy that kind of knowledge. Moreover, the narrator is found to never fully describe the scene if it is considered as shallow or uneducated. The way ugly women are described or the way of developing the story tells this tendency. Conclusively, I can find that the story of this work does not merely admire Confucian principles, but is based on the narrator’s intention to form the decent culture of the upper class. From the choice of vocabularies to the intention of the narrator, Sohyunseonglok pursues Confucian decency.
  • 9.

    Woman, Womanliness showed in Modern Magazine <Sinnyeosoeng>

    kang soyoung | 2008, 0(17) | pp.265~292 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present study was conducted for testing the hypothesis that magazine <Sinnyeoseong> could not play its role of awakening women in those days to their right identity. For this, we reviewed the line of male intellects that continued from <Sonyeon> to <Cheongchun> and <Gaebyeok>, and discussed that <Sinnyeoseong> treated women not as ‘persons (future leaders)’ but only as ‘women.’ In addition, from terms related to women, we extracted words describing the ideal image of women in those days, which were ‘mild,’ ‘nice,’ and ‘clean.’ These words were contrastive to masculine adjectives such as ‘powerful’ and ‘strong,’ and along with ‘waste’ and ‘vanity’ mentioned as women’s problems, these words prove that women were not regarded as workers responsible for the future of Korea. Lastly, we extracted metaphorical expressions of women and processed them statistically. According to the results, women were objects to be purchased and sold, and it was quite contrastive to editorials emphasizing women’s equality and freedom. This supports the hypothesis that women in modern discourses on women were images of women abstracted by male intellects and therefore they would show the difference between reality and ideal.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Fantasy in the Historical Others

    Ryu Jeong Wol | 2008, 0(17) | pp.293~318 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies the fantastic features in the historical others. The term, 'the historical others' means a people who conspired against the king really or branded as a traitor. The historical others are studied an emphasis on 'real / false' or 'positive / negative'. It is very important the relation of the two terms, because the relation reveals the frame of the interpretation which the people produce and consume about the stories. This thesis considers the fantasy in the historical others by stages from a configuration to role in narratives. The characters are configured by animal nature. They are figured as a strange man who had scales, wings, or spirit of an animal like snake. The signs are so ambiguous that the consumers can read them negatively and positively. In addition that, the historical others play a role of hero and antihero in the same semiosphere. It is important the consumers have to integrate the negative and the positive value. The integration is not intervened in the process of story interpretation especially on 'the subject', like Lee, Hangbok(李恒福, 1556~1618), Shin, Sukju(申叔舟, 1417~1475). The reader or audience of the stories can judge of values, but the judgement can shift from negative to positive one or from positive to negative one very easily. Although a reader estimates the value of a character's act negatively, he can change his judgement in the next time according to the context. Because of the fact, the readers' identity can change very easily, too. Similarly, the identity of the group who enjoy the stories on historical others, can be changed by the response. The fantastic features which the historical others have can amplify the changeability of readers' identity.
  • 11.

    The Accepting Aspects of the <Sohyeonseongrok> Series and The Narrative Perspective in The Series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi>

    허순우 | 2008, 0(17) | pp.319~354 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    They who study the Korean full-length novels recognize some of the novels are connected each others but the exact informations in terms of both which ones are influenced others and how the past-readers felt after reading the Korean full-length novels at that time are very restricted. And therefore it's a very meaningful study that compiling and studying the exact informations through the related novels. The series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> show how the series are accepting and changing the characters, backgrounds, events of the <Sohyeonseongrok> series. But in the series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi>, but we can't find the direct mentions about <Sohyeonseongrok>. These ways of creation maybe reminded the past-readers of the former stories that they had read and helped them to compare through the related novels. So finally we can say that these ways of creation are a part of the novel critics, because the writers of these kind novels tried to show their feeling about the novels they had read. The writer of the series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> seems to try to expand the narration of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> series with the character of So-empress taken from the series of <Sohyeonseongrok>. And The writer of the series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> seems to take over the meaning of the place Jaun-mountain(紫雲山), which represents the So family, and try to overcome that the So family's exclusion of the other family. The accepting and changing portions are representing the narrative perspective of the series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi>. At first, the writer of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> series is trying to accept some contents in the series of <Sohyeonseongrok>, and then, trying to improve some range of probability in the series of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> In other words, the writer of <Hyeonmongssangryonggi> series seems to consider both aspects, some lessons and some amusing entertainments.
  • 12.

    The crack in the space of Suk-Su-Nyeom and Hong, Gil-Ju's idea

    Ha Ji Young | 2008, 0(17) | pp.355~382 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The crack in the space of Suk-Su-Nyeom and Hong, Gil-Ju's idea The space of Suk-Su-Nyeom, which is designed by Hong, Gil-Ju, is not arranged systemically. Basically, adhesion to the reality is very fluid according to the individual space. The concepts, so called "crack", "space", "shadow", which separate heterogeneous space are frequently appeared in Hong’s thinking. These concepts, which are originally worked out by Hong, play an important role as the operating principle of the whole space of Suk-Su-Nyeom. While our daily life space is reflecting a fool’s desire, in a fantasy, a norm is totally dismantled. In addition, Hong’s thinking is figured as symbolic figures, and extended within that fantastic space. The most important factor that speculates the characteristic of Suk-Su-Nyeom is coexistence of disparate spaces such as between daily life and the counterpart concept, unusual life or between reality and fantasy. These totally different spaces not only exist together within one world called Suk-Su-Nyeom, but also respectively have its own borderline called crack. Even though Hong did not clearly stated, "crack" existed, crossing the space of Suk-Su-Nyeom, and being constantly reproduced itself. Hong’s idea revealed through this concept that "crack" is closely related to the characteristic of ideas in the world of Suk-Su-Nyeom. Hong, who has recognized the concept of "crack", which has never been discovered by other ordinary people, does not try to draw a borderline between the reality and the fiction clearly. In addition, he suggests there’s a possibility that a fiction could become a reality. Hong’s new concept, "crack" and his emphasis on reality and fiction cracks the ideology solidified during the 19th century. Moreover, this kind of thought proceeds toward the new outlook on the world.