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2009, Vol., No.20

  • 1.

    The Character as Popular Art of the ‘Commoners' Poetry’ in the Late Joseon Period

    Ho-Gyong Seong | 2009, (20) | pp.5~37 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    For the correct understanding of the so-called ‘commoners' poetry’ in the late Joseon period, this study considered the artistic character that saseolsijo and ‘commoners' gasa’ typically possess. The findings of the study are as follows. Many works of the ‘commoners' poetry’ deal with ‘man-woman relation -ship’ or ‘love and enjoyment of life’, or ‘lamentation of one's fortune’. ‘Criticism on reality’ is seldom noticed in these works. The poetic focus as a dominant element in the organization of these works is directed on the interesting expression of subject matters rather than on the embodiment of the theme. And it would be the main characteristic of the principle of composition to produce the comic effect through the interesting expressions of subject matters. Most of the works of the ‘commoners’ poetry’ were done by the middle class(jung-in) and had developed with a recreational character in pastime culture around Seoul and its vicinity since the 18th century. This ‘commoners' poetry’ has a character as popular art, with its aim on recreation and consolation. Its recreational aspect comes from the middle class(jung-in), who wanted to escape from weariness, tension, anxiety, and uneasiness of everyday life and tried to maintain and reinforce their vitality and energy. These works reflect the ideology of the middle class (jung-in), pursuing the satisfaction of the petit bourgeoisie. And their characteristic ways of expressions and experiences also show clearly the aspect and character of popular art. As seen so far, the ‘commoner's poetry’ in the late Joseon period developed with the character of popular art and thus many of the works have the character of recreational ‘light verse’ aiming for pastime.
  • 2.

    The Difference between the Pictorial Scenery and the Poetic Scenery, and Its Generated Foundation -With reference to the Contrast between "Kum Si Dang Pavilion twelve poems" and "Kum Si Dang Pavilion twelve pictures"-

    Choi,Kyung-Hwan | 2009, (20) | pp.39~72 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is intended to look at the difference between the scenery of the actual landscape painting and the poetic scenery, which is reproduced from the actual landscape painting by the poet, and its generated foundation. So, in this paper, "Kum Si Dang Pavilion twelve poems(今是堂十二景詩)", which were composed by Lee, Yong-gu after appreciating "Kum Si Dang Pavilion twelve pictures(今是堂十二景圖)", are contrasted with "Kum Si Dang Pavilion twelve pictures(今是堂十二景圖)". Thus, it is confirmed that the difference between the scenery of the actual landscape painting and the poetic scenery are caused by two kinds of factors: One is the difference of medium of painting and poetry. The other is the difference of viewpoint of painter and poet looking upon the title of the painting.
  • 3.

    The Characteristics of a Death in Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun(俠娼奇聞)

    조혜란 | 2009, (20) | pp.73~107 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyze the features of a death in Hyeop-Chang- Ki-Mun(俠娼奇聞) written by Lee-Ok(李鈺). Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun(俠娼奇聞) is the story of a famous gisaeng(妓生: Korean geisha)of the days in Seoul. She committed suicide with a customer of her 'kibang'(妓房 gisaeng's entertaining place) and it gave a great shock to her acquain -tances because he was a man who had fallen suddenly. He had became enmeshed in political matters in 1775(乙亥獄事), so degraded to a male servant at Je-Ju provincial government office. She had followed him to Je-Ju and committed a joint suicide. This story is worthy of notice because it describes a joint suicide, which was very unusual manner of death in the proses of the Joseon Dynasty period. Most of the novels of the days had been dealt with the death within the four corners of Confucian morality. Compared with them, Hyeop-Chang- Ki-Mun dealt with a hedonic and decadent death, in which lovers died from abandoning themselves to sex with hard liquor. It is interesting that the stories in Cheong-Seong-Jap-Ki(淸城雜記)and Yang-Eun-Cheon-Mi(楊隱闡微) are brothers to Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun's. This paper draws a comparison among these three stories in terms of the source of stories, guesses a real character and an actual event as a model of these stories and considers the features of Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun's narrative. The death in Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun is not the result by Confucian morality, and not the result of the thing they can't control. It is a kind of desire, which voluntarily chose a death for being no way out in their lives. Hyeop-Chang-Ki-Mun made a description of the pleasures of the moment, the decadent atmosphere, and the death as a voluntary choice. Lee-Ok regarded the gisaeng's choice as a kind of chivalry. But it is remarkable for her to commit suicide by a desire beyond Confucian morality.
  • 4.

    Realities and hope of kisaengs in the early 20th century -The using with the concept of cognitive linguistic metaphor-

    강소영 | 2009, (20) | pp.109~139 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study is to find metaphorical expressions related to kisaengs in Janghan and, based on them, to examine how kisaengs were perceived in those days. As a result of change in the kisaeng system, kisaengs in the early 20th century were different from those in the previous ages. With the emergence of the concept of material ownership under capitalism, kisaengs began to regard their entertainment service as a job and to defend their labor activities actively against people’s contempt and branding them as immoral. This is evidenced clearly by kisaengs’ writings published in Magazine Janghan, which represented their own voices, rather than by the images of kisaengs represented by others’ voice as in individuals’ collections or literary works. In this study, we classified metaphorical expressions on kisaengs in the magazine, and compared them with metaphorical expressions describing kisaengs in other magazines and newspapers in those days. According to the results of this study, kisaengs were expressed as flowers, toys, lowly people or animals in both groups, and these perceptions were a natural consequence of the history of kisaengs, who were no more than a sport and slave to literati. In the language used in daily life, however, kisaengs raised their own voice, asserting that those who called kisaengs devils were actually the devils and grieving that they were dragged like livestock by those who criticized kisaengs as noxious insects. In addition, through the metaphor [A kisaeng is an incomplete human], they clarified directly that what kisaengs desired earnestly was being recognized as a human equal to others, and maintained through the metaphor [Kisaengs’ life is a war] that they would fight for winning it. To know is one thing and to show that the knowledge has been settled in our language as a customary metaphor is another. When we analyze how kisaengs are described in customary metaphors, in particular, predicates, we can see that their voices hidden under locutionary meanings are leaking unceasingly between the lines. This may be what kisaengs wanted to say to people through Janghan and, accordingly, this is the meaning of analyzing texts with the concept of cognitive linguistic metaphor.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Images in Oryunhaengsildo(五倫行實圖)

    Cho, Hyun Woo | 2009, (20) | pp.141~168 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, I focussed on the transition and its meaning of the images in Oryunhaengsildo(五倫行實圖) which was the last one of many books for the enlightenment in Chosun Dynasty. The most remarkable transition of the images in Oryunhaengsildo was the reduction of scnens those were represented the story of 'Samgang'(三綱; the loyalty, filial piety and chastity). According to the reduction of scenes the images in Oryunhaengsildo had been turned into illustrations by which the narrative and images were associated with each other immediately. But this transition of images also had brought about the inclination that the images had been subordinated to the narratives. The most interesting thing, I think, of these serial changes was that the relative relationships were repeated in two different levels, between the narratives and the images in Oryunhaengsildo and between Oryunhaengsildo itself and Sohak(小學) as the relationship of root and branch(本末). As the appearance of Sohak, this Book promptly had took the place of the main book for the enlightenment, Oryunhaengsildo had been downgraded as the sub-text. Consequently the transition of the images in Oryunhaeng -sildo had been a barometer that showed the changes of philosophical thoughts and cultural trend in late Chosun Dynasty.
  • 6.

    A Study on Kimbujajeon written by Lee Gyusang

    Seo, Shinhye | 2009, (20) | pp.169~195 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    We seldom find a affirmative rich person at the story of acquisition of wealth in Joseon. Kimbuja is the man. So this biography about Kimbuja is so important. Lee Gyusang wrote same phrase beginning and end. At the beginnig, he said that a rich person usually received a grudge by many people, but Kimbuja didn't. At the end, he expressed same that. So all reader read this biography pocus on this point. Kimbuja's method of acquisition of wealth was summarized ‘like a clumsy means but substantial’. He didn't follow the trend, he only did intrinsic works, and he did the works people didn't like do in person. Lee Gyusang had present that because of this method people didn't a prudge about Kimbuja.
  • 7.

    The Interaction of pleasure and moral in Chondamhaey[村談解頤]

    Ryu Jeong Wol | 2009, (20) | pp.197~223 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    As a collection of funny stories, Chondamhaey[村談解頤] incorporates moral and philosophical evaluations of events or characters in those stories. Do the stories represent only pleasure whereas the evaluations and a introduction only morals? This paper studies how the text combines 'pleasure' and 'moral' in the text. This is important because the text was read by yangban[兩班] who intended to moral subject but included a lot of obscene stories. The events of the stories in Chondamhaey[村談解頤] have something in common, the sexual relationship and the use of trick. This paper considers the codes of interpretation at the two events. The sexual relationship is represented by an iconic code which needs to decode. And the identity and intention which is hidden by tricksters need to reveal. The process of decoding and revealment operates the intellectual play. The obscene stories can function as a social warning. The evaluations in Chondamhaey[村談解頤] focus on the immoral aspect of tricksters and the duty of dupes as yangban. Though the evaluations, the yangban reestablishes the dignity which is lost at the level of stories. The introduction says that all events have the principle and the truth and finding them depends on the ability of readers. This thought makes way to escape the blame that undesirable events and characters are figured in the text. Moreover the free of figure makes room for entertainments. We can the process that the moral produces the pleasure and the pleasure produces the moral in Chondamhaey[村談解頤]. Hjelmslev called this kind of relation ‘interdependance’. I mean by this term that the pleasure and the moral coexist in the text and one is a precondition of the other.
  • 8.

    Consciousness Revealed in Regional Traditional Men's and Women's Work Songs and Differences between Them -Based on experimental discussions about men's and women's consciousness focusing on traditional folk work songs for weeding rice paddy and spinning hemp in Gyeongbuk provincial area-

    Jungar Lee | 2009, (20) | pp.225~248 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to compare consciousness revealed in regional traditional men's work songs with women's ones, so that it could examine into men's consciousness untargeted by prior studies and demonstrate differences in consciousness between men and women as revealed between their regional traditional folk work songs. To meet the goal, the discussions of this study were limited to traditional folk work songs for weeding rice paddy and spinning hemp, which are contained in a CD volume titled Gyeongbuk province in ‘the Encyclopedia of Korean Traditional Folk Songs (1991~1996).’ And this study sought to outline major considerations of narration contained in these work songs. As a result, it was found that the said folk work songs for weeding rice paddy were mainly to reflect pains of hard labor on the field and workers' weary sentiment and express their realistic wishes, whereas the said folk work songs for spinning hemp were mainly to rhyme fictitious contexts without regard to reality of hard labor, revealing unrealistic aspects. But both the former and latter songs share a common point in a sense that they are all based on unambiguous knowledge about objective contexts of poor farm workers on the field. Particularly, it is found that certain differences in consciousness between men's and women's work songs are closely associated with their respective social environments. That is, men's work songs tend to comply with hegemony ideology and conceal or disguise any resistance or conflict that they could otherwise intend to reveal through songs. On the other hand, women's work songs tend to employ fictitious imagination far from realistic benefit or ideology and intend to reproduce their dream world in the rhyme of song.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Meaning Changes of Chunhyang's Resistance in ‘sipjangga’

    Seo, Youseok | 2009, (20) | pp.249~282 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This article focuses on ‘sipjangga’ which is considered the highlight of ChunHyangjeon and examines the aspect of existence by version and attempts to examine the aspect of changes in the meaning of ChunHyang’s resistance embodied in the ‘sipjangga.’ The ‘sipjangga’ in the category of ‘namwongosa’ sometimes showed the aspect of being contracted or deleted for commercial purposes and, at the sametime, of being expanded for the purpose of standardization of the literary work. This is also due to commercial purposes contained in sechekbon and bangakbon. The ‘sipjangga’ appeared in wanpan versions show the meaning of the resistance being expended from personal aspect to social aspect. So it can be said that the version in which Chunhyang’s resistance is best represented through the ‘sipjangga’ is wanpan 84jang version. Okjunghwa type versions shows a new aspect of trying to secure the rights of the individual in the public framework of law through describing the appeal hearing and trial procedures in the daejeontong -pyeon The meaning of Chunhyang’s resistance represented in the ‘sipjangga’ begins with hopless love between gisaeng ChunHyang and yangban young bachelor and the woman’s struggle to attain the love and the resultant issue of chastity. However, Chunhyang’s status as gisaeng acted as an important issue that' separated the pair of lovers and, under these circumstances, ChunHyang’s resistance appears to obtain the new social meaning to denounce the contradiction of the social status. Such aspects are represented in changes in wanpan version in detail in that the wanpan version raises the status of ChunHyang, thereby showing that ChunHyang’s resistance is not a personal issue of gisaeng ChunHyang but can be an issue of a commoner ChunHyang i.e. of all the general public’s issue. And such changes obtain civilrights consciousness and the new meaning of resistance to have the rights of the individual protected legally, but such new consciousness of the rights of the individual weakens the social meaning of the love of the two lovers and their suffering of their struggle to attain their love, resulting in returning again to the issue of personal love between ChunHyang and Idoryeong. And it goes without saying that the ‘sipjangga’ lies in the center of changes in the meaning of ChunHyang’s such resistance.
  • 10.

    The Study on the Performance of the oral-narrative of the faithful son transformed into tiger(‘효자호랑이’) Producing the Gendered Subject

    YOUNGHEE KIM | 2009, (20) | pp.283~334 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The oral-narrative of the faithful son transformed into tiger(‘효자호랑이’) is the story about a man that failed to transform into tiger because his wife had burnt the book to make the transformation possible. Tragic plot of the story includes a narrative kernel that the sacred ‘male’ runs into pathos because of hamartia(tragic flaw) representing female’s faults depending on tragic logical necessity. The hierarchical-contrastive structure of the sacred and the profane is exhibited in components of the narrative. It's important to note that the image of ‘male’ represents the sacred and the image of ‘female’ the profane, through which the categories of the gender as ‘male’ and ‘female’ are naturalized and distinguished. This strategy has made us to regard the primordial nature of the sacred ‘male’ as superior to the profane ‘female’, to justify and inscribe it in his and her identity unconsciously as well. The performance of oral-narratives such as the faithful son transformed into tiger(‘효자호랑이’) is the processes of enacting the gender-identity of male or female and the performative mechanism is the matrix which produces the gendered subject. Furthermore, when the performance of the story presents the structure having an effect of initiation into a society, it works on individual performers as a normalization system based on the criterion and standard of social homogenization. But the symptoms of cleavage and escape are revealed as logical defects which necessarily exist in the project of the gendered. The gender-border of the male which is made by objectifying the female exclusively, depends on the gender-border of the female logically, since its category cannot be constructed without establishing the boundary of ‘female’. And the male-subject who is an unstable being cannot but call for the female-images to make an alibi to deny melancholy and psychic lack. So the analysis of narrative and performance of the oral-narrative, "the faithful son transformed into tiger", makes it possible to discover that the gendered project connotes a contradiction and cracking in itself.
  • 11.

    A study on the Diaspora and Identity in Kim Taek-Young's literature

    곽미선 | 2009, (20) | pp.335~367 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Chang-Gang Kim, Taek-Young(1850~1927), who was a representative writer in latter era of the Chosun Dynasty, is now observed as an important person in the study of modern ideology in Korea. This thesis was planned to consider the diaspora and identity which has been revealed in his literature. To focus on his consciousness of diaspora, this thesis separately focused on the expression of displaced sentiment, the substance of anguish, the conquest of the national loss, the countermove to reality as an exile, and the search of cultural identity. Chang-Gang felt the loneliness as an exile in Nam-Tong, but continuously tried to carry a strong emphasis on the history and culture of his mother country. To overcome the circumstances, he inspired the will of returning to homeland, but felt the pain and the loss because of realistic restriction. He apllied for a naturalization to escape from the feeling of the national loss, but it was not for his own comfort. He recognized China and Chosun as the same descendants of Gi-Ja, so he choose this way to find the new way-out. He focused on efforts to compile historical books and collections of works of Chosun, to ensure the cultural identity while living as an exile. He could publish books extensively by the help of chinese intellectuals, and this accomplishment became a very important key to inform the culture of Chosun Dynasty in China. The experienc of diaspora has brought a great deal of pain and loss to Chang-Gang. But he could establish his identity as an intellectual in the latter era of the Chosun Dynasty by that experience, and also could do profitable works for his mother country by focusing on tasks to do as an exile.