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2011, Vol., No.24

  • 1.

    The Human-Geographical Importance of Gwanseo․Gwanbuk Area and its Literature

    SIM KYUNG HO | 2011, (24) | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Each land has its own historical beauty as well as its natural beauty, as a stage of history which has continued on without ceasing until now. Writers of pre-modern period noticed the fact that the landscape of their country was built up and changed by activities of man, and they composed poems and proses praising its natural and historical beauty. Hamgyeong-do(province) and Pyeongan-do has been recognized as outlying districts in the history of Goryeo and Joseon. Yi Seonggye commanded to readjust the administrative district of Hamgyeong-do when he ordered Jeong Dojeon to investigate tombs there and it caused its development in earnist. Since then, Sejong dispatched Gim Jongseo to found 6 military camps, and established the border. Henceforth, Royal Court of Joseon readjusted the division of land as to be Pal-do(8 provinces)-Gyeonggi․Chungcheong․Jeonra․Gyeongsang․Gangwon․Hwanghae․Pyeongan․Hamgyeong, and this viewpoint of Pal-do became common sense of common people in Joseon. However, now it is impossible to come and go Hwanghae․Pyeongan․Hamgyeong and a part of Gangwon for political reasons. Lines and pharases concerning Pyeongan-do and Hamgyeong-do lead us to take time for reflection on national reconciliation. It is needed to restore the idea of Pal-do, if one wants to arouse national consciousness, and for that it will also be a way to understand the way Pal-do understood in the literature of pre-modern period and to meditate on the traditional idea on the territory.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Aspects of Enjoyment of Siga at Kwanseo and Kwanbuk Area in Chosun Dynasty

    Jae Nam Choi | 2011, (24) | pp.31~72 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this article is to summarize the aspects of enjoyment of poems and songs at Kwanseo(關西) and Kwanbuk(關北) area in Chosun Dynasty. We are able to set up three category in research for the Siga of Kwanseo and Kwanbuk, namely regional characteristics, class in charge, and the diachronic characteristics. In chapter Ⅱ, We are able to summarize Kwanbuk Siga, 1) being proud of birth place of King and <Frying dragon songs>, 2) refinement of soldiers and kisaeng, 3) spread of <Cheollyungga(鐵嶺歌)>, 4) itinerary of Kwan- buk, 5) lives of field, and 6) lived experience of exile. In chapter Ⅲ, We are able to summarize Kwanseo Siga, 1) enlightenment of people, 2) itinerary of Kwanseo, 3) itinerary of Beijing(北京) and refine- ment, 4) response to historical affairs, and 5) Seodojabga(西道雜歌). In chapter Ⅳ, We are able to classify the characteristics of writing class and enjoying class, 1) local resident and stranger, 2) main group and mediator of transmission, and 3) movement of class in charge in late Chosun Dynasty, especially soldier and kisaeng.
  • 3.

    The Current Status and Problems of Researh on the Northern region Literature.

    JANG, YOO SEUNG | 2011, (24) | pp.73~100 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The significance of research on Korean literature in classical chinese is not only that of research on regional literature. The northern region is the space that reveal the conflict between center and local, encounter between premodern and modern. The significance of research on the northern region literature is to expand the extansion of Korean literary history, and to explore the interrelationship with modern literature and the possibility of cultural exchange. But the interest of researchers stayed on the material aspect. Cultural map of the northern region remained uncharted territory as ever. The existence and identity of the northern literati has not been properly identified yet. Therefore it is necessary to review the precedent study by historian, and to cast light upon the literature text. Research on regional literature have a significance to reveal the real state of regional society and the distinct characteristics of the region.
  • 4.

    A Study on 「Buksaerok(北塞錄)」written by YI Ahn-nul

    JooYeon Bae | 2011, (24) | pp.101~145 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the history of Chinese poems in the mid of Yi Dynasty, YI Ahn-nul (1571-1637) and Guen pil were one of the most famous poets in that era and among them YI Ahn-nul’s poem was affected by Seongdangpung(盛唐風). Among YI Ahn-nul’s Dongakjib(東岳集), this paper studies Buksaerok(北塞錄) article no. 1 which wrote about experiences of Guanbuk(關北). Before studying the Buksaerok(北塞錄) his career at Buksaerok government is reviewed, and then outlines of poems in Buksaerok(北塞錄) and concept of the exiting Beonsae(邊塞) atmosphere at that time is summarized. This paper studies the characteristics of the poems in two parts, one group is characterized by “willingness to overcome”, another by “disappoint- ment to the reality”. The former group is categorized with two types by their subjects, and the latter with “direct exposure of his distress” and “tempered expression of his sadness”. Through these categorizations, this paper analyzes characteristics of his poems and their meanings. His poems characterized by “willingness to overcome” were expressed through the customary phrases a little remote from the reality, such like those using the exaggerated, rhetorical and strong contrast expressions. His poems characterized by “disappointment to the reality” were written through the direct expression of his experiences that described the reality. Those expression, sometimes, were written directly and, sometimes, with the tempered. In the last place, this paper examined characteristics and implications of his poems in the aspect of the acceptance and modification of the tradition at that time. First, his poets accepted the China’s Seongdangpung(盛唐風) traditions, and developed and modified that tradition for that of Yi Dynasty’s. Second, his poets were written with the various emotional expressions. But those expressions were defined only for individual perspectives not for those of society. Third, in aspect of describing the image his poets have the characteristics to express his real experience of war through the narrator of the poets.
  • 5.

    Figuration of Northwestern-Northeastern Region and Its Implication in the Ancient Korean Novels

    Tak wonjong | 2011, (24) | pp.147~190 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to probe into the aspects of Northwestern and Northeastern region embodied in the ancient Korean novels, and to subsequently reveal its characteristics and underlying implications. The region which frequently appears in many ancient Korean novels is concentrated in the Northwestern region, particularly, Pyeongyang. Cultural figuration is largely detected centrally in Pyeongyang district, one of the most representative cultural cities, which used to have various banquets and events held by or for the State governor of Pyeongando province; many traditional local artisans named Pyeongyang Gisaeng; and beautiful landscapes and scenic spots. Political figuration is also formed in this region, while faithfully reflecting the features of Northern frontier area. Lastly, historical configuration is made through the method of describing historical features, personal impressions, and introspective feelings all at once. The figuration of Northwestern-Northeastern region in the ancient Korean novels bears a diversity of characteristics, including but not limited to figuration faithful to geographical facts, Pyeongyang as the metonymic area of Zheijiang region, epic corporeality and the locality called 'unusualness'.
  • 6.

    The Painter's Poems about his own Pictures and the Direction of Reproducing the Poetic Image from the Pictorial Image(2) -With reference to "Chil Tan Pavilion sixteen Poems"-

    Choi,Kyung-Hwan | 2011, (24) | pp.191~226 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is intended to look at why the poet reproduced the poetic images by complementing the pictorial images and replacing the pictorial images with poetic images, when he sang his own pictures in poems. So, in this paper, the nine poems among Kang, Se-hwang(姜世晃)'s "Chil Tan Pavilion sixteen poems(七灘亭十六景詩)", which have not been analyzed in the previous papers, are studied. And it is confirmed that Kang, Se-hwang, who was a painter and poet, would expressed entirely what have not been yet expressed in the picture for the property of painting with taking advantage of the property of poetry.
  • 7.

    Research on the aspect of companionship between Park Sedang and the Nam Kuman through the letter

    Yun Jeong Choi | 2011, (24) | pp.227~258 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This research tries to highlight the aspect of companionship between Seogye, Park Sedang, and Yarkchun, Nam Kuman, through the study of the letters between two persons. Park Sedang and the Nam Kuman are regarded as the representative persons out of the group of Soron's scholars in the latter of Chosun dynasty. The letter has the different value from the normal literature genre since the sender thinks the receiver when he writes the letter. The aspect of the companionship through the letters between Seogye and Yarkchun delicately shows their agony, conflict, opinions on the current events and study, and the humane affection which we can hardly find out in other genres. The detailed characteristics are as below. At first, they discussed on each other's position many times in the middle of troubled times. Secondly, they coordinated their different opinions through the exchange of letters whenever there were the differences on politics and studies. Thirdly, they truly worried about and consoled each others even though they were far away and exiled due to political controversy. The letters between two persons would give them the power to sustain in a string of political controversies. This sort of communication method will have the similar meaningness at presence.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Status of Exile Literature in Jeju during Joseon Dynasty

    Jeong Si-Youl | 2011, (24) | pp.259~291 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine the status of Jeju exile literature in Chinese literature during Joseon Dynasty. And it is unquestionable that one of the keywords in Chinese literature during Joseon period is the spirit of Seonbi. If so, to approach to the exiles’ poetic literature through Saseo(四書), the basic scriptures of Confucianism and what integrates the ideas of Mencius is to examine the status of Jeju exile literature in Chinese literature during Joseon period and also explore the effects of Jeju exile literature on Chinese literature in Joseon indirectly. This article selected as its subject text the exile poems of Chungam Kim Jeong, Donggye JeongOn, and Bukheon Kim Chun Taek among up to 200 or so exiles considering their reputation and recognition in Jeju and the characteristics and artistry of poetic literature, etc. It could be coincidental but those whose exile period was in the 16th, 17th, and the 18th century were chosen evenly. Chapter 2 discusses this attitude of ‘Gunjagogung (君子固窮)’ with the Jeju exile Chinese poems of Chungam Km Jeong who has been revered as one of the Gimyomyeonghyeon (己卯名賢). Chungam is the figure who was put to death at the age of 36 spending mentally daunted and anxious days for severe hardships during his exile period in Jeju for one year and two months but still maintaining the attitude of ‘gogung (固窮)’ firmly. Chapter 3 discusses the Jeju exile Chinese poems of Donggye based on his spirit of ‘Sasaengchwiui (舍生取義)’. Donggye is the figure that confronted Daebuk School including his mentor Jeong In Hong leading the political situation then. He asked to execute Jeong Hang, the Ganghwa Busa, who killed Yeongchang Daegun by beheading and was imprisoned in a thorn fence in Jeju by Gwanghaegun in 1624 when he was 46 years old. After spending nine years of poverty and hardships, he was released from his exile for Injobanjeong in 1623 when he was at the age of 55. Chapter 4 examines the Jeju exile Chinese poems of Bukheon Kim Chun Taek based on his spirit of ‘Hwaibudong (和而不同)’. To Bukheon, Jeju was the place of love and hatred because he and his father went there for exile, that is, two generations in a row. That is why his poems written in his exile period show dual views to Jeju. Although the three had the common experience of exile in Jeju, their personal situations and positions affected their poems differently, which is the point this article focuses on. And based on the result of considering how the aspects of realizing Yugajigyo (儒家之敎) differ in figuring out the differences of their poetic characteristics, this study could extract from the three figures ‘Gunjagogung’, ‘Sasaengchwiui’, and ‘Hwaibudong’ each. Through that, this paper affirmed the status of Jeju exile literature in Joseon is Yugajigyo realized in the far distance of Goripmuwon (孤立無援).
  • 9.

    Women's lives of Sung Haeeung's family in 18th~19th Century

    홍학희 | 2011, (24) | pp.293~324 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is one of the tries to reconstruct women's daily lives in Chosun dynasty. In this paper, Sung Haeeung's view of womanhood and women's lives of his family are described in three items of education, marriage and death. He said that women should ordinarily read the Confucian classics and history. Women of the family were educated like the sons of the family. The average age of the women's marriage was around 20 and it seems that they didn't get married early. The men of his family lived in their in-law's home or they were economically helped from their in-law's home. So they were economically and emotionally intimate with their in-laws or relatives. The women remained faithful to her husband when he died but didn't follow him to the grave.
  • 10.

    The Publishing Status and the Process of Alteration of ‘Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese’ according to the Publications from 1900s to 1950s

    Hong Insook | 2011, (24) | pp.325~358 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis has examined modern ‘Study materials for writing letters in Chinese’, constantly issued from 1900s to 1950s. The publications had particular publishing status by the period and the process of alteration. It was required to organize the information of the authors and the features of the system during the period, and to observe the process of alteration of the publications. The publications of ‘Study materials for writing letters in Chinese’ from 1900 to 1910 are the professional textbooks for practicing to write letters in Chinese. It suggests the original criteria of writing letters in Chinese. The ones published from 1920 to 1930 are more of guidebooks for writing letters, filled with example sentences of mixed Korean-Chinese characters arranged in Korean style. Last 10 years of modern times (1940 to 1950) is the period of decline of the publications that the roles and the functions of Korean grammar had tightened up. The process of alteration on the publications shows the changes of recommended styles for writing letters in Chinese. It gradually avoids the original Chinese writing styles and widely used Korean language to help readers understand Chinese writing styles. In addition, the alteration reflects ‘modern popularization of traditional knowledge’ in the period. The appendix of the publications proves the phenomenon. This part of the publications plays a role of showing the fragmentation of traditional knowledge and practicality of modern knowledge. In future, it is critical to study to explain the desire of the public which had showed an enthusiastic response to the study materials for writing letters in Chinese in modern times.
  • 11.

    A Study on the meaning structure and aesthetic consciousness in 'Saseoulsijo(사설시조)' with illusion-motif

    조성진 | 2011, (24) | pp.359~389 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning structure and aesthetic consciousness in 'Saseoulsijo'(사설시조) with illusion-motif through the comparison with Yuefumin’ge in Ming dynasty, and to uncover the meaning of similarity and difference in them. At the same time, this study analyze the variation of the illusion-motif in 'Saseulsijo' and its meaning through the comparison with 'Pyeongsijo(평시조)'These poems have the meaning structure of 'illusion-realization- reaction' series in common. The woman narrator deludes herself that the lover(님) have come, so she runs out to realize it's a illusion, and to be in sorrow. As a result, the absence of the lover is clearer, and that makes her sence of lacking more serious. However in the narrator's psychological reaction after her illusion having been revealed, Saseoulsijo is quite different from Yuefumin’ge. In other words, while the narrator in Yuefumin’ge is seized with shame and self-deprecation, the one in Saseoulsijo gives a dog totally unrelated scolding, or is aware of the way other people are looking at one. The reaction like this is very problematic in that it pulls down the previous psychological tension at the same time, moreover, destroys the lyrical consistency. This difference is apparently exposed in everse of the last of the 3 verses of a (sijo) poem. The narrator in the last line in Sijo, makes different voice with first and second line, which causes confusion to express the feelings of conflict on the poetic situation. It means she herself denies ardent longing for her lover and the agony in wating him. Through this section, her intention of self-parody is shown, critical eyes are perceived, and she can maintain a sense of balance in a life that is intended not to be buried under the sorrow. As these works are apparently different from Gang-ik's and Sin-heum's sijo works when they are compared, they are distinguished from 'Hansi(한시)' or 'Pyeongsijo(평시조)' in that they take the ardent longing for her lover. It is because they are closely related to the expansion of entertainment establishment like 'Gibang(기방)' which is characteristic as the theme of Love.
  • 12.

    Ideal Women and Men in Traditional Stories and Discourses on Marriage

    Ryu Jeong Wol | 2011, (24) | pp.391~422 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies about ideal gender types which are expressed in traditional marriage. For the purpose I focus on marriage stories and discourses. In Korean old stories, people test to choose new family members(intentional test stories). Test for women is objective but for men subjective. In other stories, father or male relative meets a man or a woman, who becomes their new members later(accidental encounter stories). When he meets accidentally a young man or woman, he finds one good feature of him(her) and determine to marry him(her) with his daughter(son). At this moment, female's feature would be likely to be judged by one concrete behavior but male's feature to be judged by an abstract aspect. In the latter the subject of judgement has “Jinjigam[知人之鑑], good judgment of human nature” It is believed that one thing about a woman can say a lot about the rest of her. but one thing about a man can say nothing about the rest of him. In the discourses about marriage, a lot of standards to be applied for bride, phrenology for fecundity, writings to train daughters[Gnyeseo 戒女書]. But there are no phrenology or writings for groom. This imbalance of information to choose women and men means the difference of ideal gender types in traditional marriage. Aftter that, I read the imbalance with the code of substance and function and explain the reason why the information on ideal male feature is not enough in the discourse.
  • 13.

    Interrelationship between the descriptive character of <Baby Hero> and the movie <Highlander>

    Mi-Jeong Kang | 2011, (24) | pp.423~454 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article is aimed to consider that <Baby Hero> could be expanded into some contents, to predict <Baby Hero> giving some critical mind of our reality in Comparing between <Baby Hero> and the movie <Highlander> released in 1990 in Korea. So, For the relationship between Baby Hero and the person facing Baby Hero, <Baby Hero> has the repeated character of description so called 'the person who must be survived from the composition of competition is the one and also a remarkable man who has to exits in the world is the one'. <Baby Hero> has a similar side with the movie <Highlander> containing the contents which is the immortal is be in competition with other immortal, because that <Baby Hero> has the contents about the competition between the two characters who has heroic attribute. Futhermore, the movie <Highlander> have the advantage of being able to imagine the feature of story when if Baby Hero had succeed. Because, through the movie <Highlander>, we could be realized the real wisdom that Corner who has similar character with Baby Hero finally survives and helps the people. As mentioned above, we are able to organize what is a critical mind of our reality from <Baby Hero>. Frankly speaking, owing to competition between outstanding individual in our reality, as in the case of when two peoples join together, the prospect is not easy to be realized. But if we imagine successive case of Baby Hero, we will put this epic on expanded category about the movie <Highlander>. And reviewing <Baby Hero> in observation with the movie <Highlander>, I suggests that it would be able to realize the life helping each other through the imagination about success of Baby Hero.
  • 14.

    The Study on the Formation Process of Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui

    Heekyung Shin | 2011, (24) | pp.455~490 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper consider on the formation process of ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa- kye-ja-gui’ which originally based by yadam So-nang one hundred thirty four, but ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui’ has different storytelling method apart from yadam it shows ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui’s aspect of Bang-kak-bon. ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui’ tell how sons are cope with parting repetitively and using the Sa-sul-chi-re to give characters comical aspect, these storytelling methods have crossed characteristics which showed intentionally because it aims to become popular novel from the very first time. These formation process also reflect city’s entertainment and trends because it has to achieve merchantable quality of Bang-kak-bon. To put it shortly, ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui’ have yadam’s narration structure, Pan-so-ri’s format, genre characteristics in its storytelling methods. This storytelling methods reflected in ‘Hwang-jyu-mok-sa-kye-ja-gui’ have significant meaning in novel history since it show nineteenth century literature’s dynamics and diversity in short story.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Distance between Guwoonru and Guwoongi

    Seungmin Yang | 2011, (24) | pp.491~522 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The investigator recently conducted a study after newly discovering six volumes and books of manuscript of ten Shinjeungguwoonru(新增九雲樓). As its follow-up study, this study set out to compare and examine correlations between Guwoongi(九雲記), whose nine volumes are housed at Yeungnam University, and Guwoonru to figure out the characteristics and status of the former as a different version. First, it was examined how the revised letters in the Joseon revised manuscript of Guwoonru were inherited in Guwoongi. As a result, it was once again confirmed that Guwoongi made a few revisions to Guwoonru in the direct inheritance process. Then, the ‘additions and omissions’ in Guwoongi were examined in three types of ‘changing(異), addition(添), and omission(刪)’. The results show that the cases of replacing one with a different expression absolutely outnumbered the cases of merely adding or omitting. Guwoongi is a version with many problems of awkward or unnecessary additions or omissions and revision errors in addition to reckless omissions of ‘sentences’ here and there. Those were the changes made in the creation process of Guwoongi, which is separate from the original Chinese work. Directly inheriting the Joseon manuscript Guwoonru, it made many revisions and thus became more distant from the original Chinese block book. It should also be noted that the Yeungnam University version of Guwoongi is not a regular transcript but the compiler's manuscript.
  • 16.

    A study on the narrative characteristic and views of Gimyeongcheoljeon

    Eom Tae-sik | 2011, (24) | pp.523~557 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Among the different versions of Gimyeongcheoljeon, Bak Jaeyeon version is considered as the most similar one to original Gimyeongcheoljeon, and it’s more like novel than Jeon. In relation to the main character figure and inner function of war novel, the influence of jeon-gi novel is detected in Bak Jaeyeon version. Hence, it is important to understand the novelistic forming ways which can be found in Bak Jaeyeon version than the aspects of historical relation. In Gimyeongcheoljeon, Gim Yeongcheol had to leave Joseon because of war, and had family in a foreign country. But in the end, he went back to Pyeong-an-do. However, in Bak Jaeyeon version, Gim Yeongcheol was described as the man who didn’t want to go back to his native country. He wanted to stay in foreign country, and had comfortable life. The reason he went back to Choson was because of fate, not because of his desire. The spacial backgrounds of Gimyeongcheoljeon are Geon-ju, Deung-ju, and Pyeong-an-do. While Gim Yeongcheol was moving place to place, he met a woman in each place, and got married three times. In all three places, he had a son separately. However, comparing to other two places, the life in Pyeong-an-do was barely described. This characteristic is related to the ‘recording of experiences and observation’ style found in novelettish novel in 17th. In Gimyeongcheoljeon, Gim Yeongcheol conveyed his experiences to Gim Eung-won in his old age. Gim Yeongcheol didn’t tell the whole experiences to Gim Eung-won, but he chose some parts more meaningful to him, and recomposed the story. For Gim Yeongcheol, the symbolic meaning of Pyeong-an-do was death. When he was in Pyeong-an-do, his whole family was nothing but suffering. On the other hand, the symbolic meanings of Geon-ju and Deung-ju were ‘richness’ and ‘family affection’. Comparing to Pyeong-an-do, Geon-ju and Deung-ju were a paradise. Therefore, it can be said that the author of Gimyeongcheoljeon wanted to show the real aspects of Pyeong-an-do through the story of Geon-ju and Deung-ju. There are big differences in the narrative views among Bak Jaeyeon version, Hong Setae version, and An Seokgyeong version. Each author agreed that Gim Yeongcheol was a tragic character who was forced to do something usually unable to do. The author of Bak Jaeyeon version focused on describing how Gim Yeongcheol not want to go back to Pyeong-an-do, and embodied his psychology with excellent narrative technique. However, Hong Setae more focused on Gim Yeongcheol’s desire to go back to Pyeong-an-do, and merits as a soldier. And An Seokgyeong disagreed with Hong Setae version, and had a doubt toward Gim Yeongcheol. Even though some differences in the narrative views are found, there is one common recognition laid on the variants of Gimyeongcheoljeon. Because Gim Yeongcheol had wives and sons in foreign land, accusation is inevitable.
  • 17.

    A Study on the character and the voice of narrator of <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon>

    정인혁 | 2011, (24) | pp.559~582 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    'Heroic Novel' is one of the most beloved genre in the history of Korean classic novel. Among them, <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon> was the most popular work. So, <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon> has been regarded as a 'typical type' of heroic novel. 'Heroic Novel' has been regarded as a typical genre. Therefore, when we want to understand a text, it is useful to know the rules of the genre which include the text. But, this is not an absolute standard for evaluating the text but one way of understanding the text. It is a problem that <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon> is regarded as a typical heroic novel. Because, there are something that dose not match the rules of 'herioc novel' in the text, <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon>. The purpose of this study is to rethink the narrative features of <Yuchungnyeol-Jeon> through the character and narrative.