The Research of the Korean Classic 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.53

Korean | English

pISSN : 1226-3850
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2012, Vol., No.26

  • 1.

    Korean Classical Literature and the Cognition of the Sea

    Jae Nam Choi | 2012, (26) | pp.5~48 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this article is to summarize the cognition and the figuration of the sea in Korean classical literature. We are able to read the records related to the sea in 『Samguksagi(三國史記)』, 『Samgukyusa(三國遺事)』, 『Koreasa(高麗史)』 and 『Chosunwangjosillok(朝鮮王朝實錄)』. In records, The sea is generally accepted as a road of envoy voyage, a road of trade, and a road of going abroad to study. When making voyage and trade in a rough sea, many seamen pray the Dragon God, and sometimes they are adrift on the sea, robbed of in crowds. And the sea is enveloped in flames of battlefield. The cognition and the figuration of the sea in literature is to be summarized as follows. The character of the sea is connected to the nature of water. Namely spring water trickles down to the river, and the river finds its way to the sea. This submission and non-reverse is transferred to the inside of the mind. The position and the direction of the sea is three side, the East sea, the Western sea, and the South sea. We are able to read the fear of the Japanese, and the spirit of sighting in The East sea. We are able to read the faith the Dragon God during the trade and tribute in the Western sea. And we are able to read the battlefield and the exile in the South sea. The width and the depth of the sea is connected to the general depth, and especially we are able to read the cognition of another world over the sea. The border and the separation from the sea is connected to a feeling of isolation in exile lives.
  • 2.

    A Study on Pansori with Focus on Yonggung Feast

    Seo, Youseok | 2012, (26) | pp.49~74 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine the epic meaning of the Yonggung (undersea palace of dragon king) feast as a different world as described in the Pansori epic chant. At the Yonggung feast, the beings of Yonggung and visitors to the palace from a different world meet each other. Unlike the existing epic literature, notably, biological novels or dream-based novels, the Pansori Yonggung feast does not create a momentum for beings from different worlds to be united. Rather, the feast serves as a momentum to confirm their identities as different beings from different worlds and to seek a new life. Depending on how real the Yonggung is, there is a difference in communication possibility between the Yonggung and the real world. There is no possibility that the Yonggung feast, similar to the real world, can communicate with the real world. Such Yonggung feast not only bares the contradiction of the real world for those who experience the Yonggung, but also confirms that there is no longer an ideal world. However, the Yonggung feast, which is not real, shows the possibility of communicating with the real world. This is because those with an experience in the Yonggung can be consoled about their real-world hardships through the Yonggung feast, and can further recognize a new life direction and possibility.
  • 3.

    A Study of Dualistic Meaning of ‘the Sea’ in Silla Folktale : Suro and Cheoyong

    Seo, Cheolwon | 2012, (26) | pp.75~104 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The sea is a space from which people leave and, at the same time, origin in which others flock together. In the Silla folktale, the former is observed in the Suro Folktale while the latter case is described in the Cheoyong Folktale. This study has attempted to find out the meaning of ‘the Sea’ in Silla culture by investigating similarities and differences between the two tales and comparing them with other folktales. The similarities between Suro and Cheoyong tales are as follows: First, the existence of another world, which has an impact on reality should be removed through language texts. Second, the main character in the tale accepts the existence of another world. Third, characters’ power originates from the sea. On the contrary, the differences are follows: Suro was just a person to be saved while Cheoyong was the main character in the tale. Second, Suro returns back to the world where he belongs while Cheoyong doesn’t. Third, compared to Suro, Cheoyong is much clearer in terms of his authority and effect. Regarding the sea as a space from which people leave, the stores associated with Yeonorang Seonyeo, Amenohiboko and Tomb of King Munmu were investigated. Then, characteristics of the sea, whether or not the characters have returned and meaning of change were inferred. Then, tales associated with the foundation myth of Silla Dynasty and the Legend of Manpasikjeok were examined regarding the characteristics of the sea. Then, the meaning of heroes returned from the sea and significance of change from human to an object were investigated. A further study needs to be performed to discuss the issues above in connection with the spatial concept of the cultural history of Silla Dynasty.
  • 4.

    The Study on the a Sea Island Space as Bandits Base in Classical-Novels

    Seo Hye-Eun | 2012, (26) | pp.105~142 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study on the sea island space as bandits base in <Hong-Gil- Dong-Jeon><Heo-Saeng-Jeon><Kim-Hak-Gong-Jeon><Seo-Hae-Mu-Reung-Gi>. What sea island space was created as bandits base in these novels are as follows. First wandering people go in to sea island and they were negatively perceived to people. Second natural environment of sea island was plenteous. So economic base of sea island was prepared than inland. Because these vintage background was sea island space was created as bandits base in <Hong-Gil-Dong-Jeon><Heo-Saeng-Jeon><Kim-Hak-Gong-Jeon><Seo-Hae-Mu-Reung-Gi>. But these novels creative manner of sea island space was different. The sea island space of <Hong-Gil-Dong-Jeon> is Je-Do island and Yul- Do-Guk. These sea island space are created oppositive space against king of Jo-Seon Dynasty. Gong-Do of <Heo-Saeng-Jeon> is created to prove cleidoic distribution structure of Jo-Seon Dynasty. Ge-Do island of <Kim-Hak-Gong-Jeon> and Seo-Hae-Mu-Reung of <Seo-Hae-Mu-Reung- Gi> are created to affection conflict and solution. The sea island space of <Hong-Gil-Dong-Jeon><Heo-Saeng-Jeon> are created overseas and sea island space of <Kim-Hak-Gong-Jeon><Seo- Hae-Mu-Reung-Gi> are created internal. The sea island space of <Hong- Gil-Dong-Jeon><Heo-Saeng-Jeon> are responsible for criticize conscious of the privilege of hierarchy and ruling system of Jo-Seon Dynasty. And the sea island space of <Kim-Hak-Gong-Jeon> is to act as criticize away from male and female servants and protect medieval feudalism like caste system. The sea island space of <Seo-Hae-Mu-Reung-Gi> is reflected settlement will of floating․vagrancy-group as rogue.
  • 5.

    Meaning of pursuit of a new world across the sea in the korea classical novel -Compared of <Hong-Gil-Dong-Chon> and <Su-Ho-Hu-Chon>-

    Choi yunhi | 2012, (26) | pp.143~174 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis aims to research on meaning of pursuit of a new world across the sea in the korea classical novel, especially Comparison <Hong-Gil-Dong-Chon> and <Su-Ho-Hu-Chon>. Analysis of why the characters were forced to seek a new world across the sea. Argumentation is aware of how the new world across the sea did. So, <Hong-Gil-Dong-Chon>, the frontiers of romantic utopian expectations expressed are. Optimistic expectations about realistic exile is revealed <Su-Ho-Hu-Chon>. Sea was described as a pathway of escape and was blocked and disconnected in the two works. But the former is passage and romantic expectations, the latter is a refuge to escape reality. In the same position, the former is no significance, the latter is space, the sea is causing the difference between civilization and discrimination. These is the recognition of the duality of marine.
  • 6.

    The Significance of Geojedo(巨濟島) and Representation of Exile in the Poems of WooAhm(寓菴) Hong Eun Chung(洪彦忠)

    Kim Bo Kyeong | 2012, (26) | pp.175~212 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Involved in the Gabja Annihilation, WooAhm Hong Eun Chung(1473 -1508) was exiled to Geojedo for two years during which he created around 60je(題)(approximately 110pieces) that composed one quarter of his entire oeuvre. This study analyzes the representation of Geojedo and Hong Eun Chung’s experience of exile in the following three aspects. First, island as a prison—the figure of prisoner and sense of separation. During the Gabja Annihilation, his father Hong Gui Dal was executed and his brothers were exiled to Geojedo. What the distinctive in Hong’s poems are the reality of detainment in an isolated island, claustrophobic sense and the demise of family. The representation of prison and the figure of prisoner are accompanied with the sense of separation, in which depression and lamentation is more dominant than anger or frustration. Second, island as a space of culture—the consolation and self-development through poetry and friends. Most of Hong’s works were involved with relationship as he was surrounded by many colleagues who had the same fate in Geojedo. Geojedo, particularly after a group of literati including Lee Haeng, became a locus of cultureand cultural exchange as the exiled, intellectual in and outside of Geojedo frequently visited and participated in the intellectual activities in the island. Consoled under this circumstance, Hong could communicate and developed himself in literature. Third, island as a passage—contemplation, acceptance of his fate and discovery of truth. During the time he spent in Geojedo, Hong contemplate on the world and himself to find the truth. He found the topics as to who he was and how he should live the rest of life in the everyday life of exile and as a result he accepted the given situation and turned more introspective. As his father’s pseudonym, HuhBaek(虛白), describes, he accepted what was given to him and chose to find the truth of "huhshil(虛室)" rather than manage public affairs. Hong secluded himself after returning from the exile not just because of the illness. The way he accepted his exiled life in Geojedo determined the rest of his life. His exiled life, Geojedo and poetry led to "find the way to the truth of huhshil," and determined the life after the exile.
  • 7.

    Literary Images of Whale: Based on the Works of Yi Sik (李植)

    Lee, Gidae | 2012, (26) | pp.213~246 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Whale has been traditionally recognized a typical sea animal, and has invoked a wealth of imagination in our mind particularly due to its gigantic body. That is why whale often appears in various artistic categories including literature. In the same context, this study focuses on the literary works of Yi Sik (李植) to discuss literary images of whale that appears in classical literature. Literary images of whale that appears in Yi's works develop in various aspects, but they can be classified broadly into 4 categories: First, they are embodiment of whale's dynamic appearances. Secondly, they use whale as a means of metaphor and embodiment about people's life in literary illustration. Thirdly, they use the images of whale to embody the designation of certain figures in social and historical aspect. Fourthly, they highlight cultural images of whale on the basis of ancient Chinese poet Li Po(李白)'s traditions or symbolism as Jongeo(鐘魚)This way, the images of whale revealed in Yi Sik's works are full of dynamics and are closely connected to our life in reality. And this is different from our thinking about abundance of sea and the precious value of environment when whale comes to our mind, because scientific knowledge about whale is generalized among people, but the width of our imagination about whale becomes ironically narrowed. Therefore, it is expected that continuous concerns for the images of whale appearing in ancient literature will contribute to more affluently improving our literary understanding about whale and sea.
  • 8.

    A study on images of 'sea' in Korean traditional sijo

    SEUNG-KU BYUN | 2012, (26) | pp.247~276 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The current paper examined 'sea' which has been disregarded in sijo literature focused on images reflected in works and clarified the meanings. First, 'sea' in sijo is involved with total 156 pieces and it is confirmed that short sijo is 119 pieces and long sijo is 37 pieces. In addition, writers of these sijo are 52 and 77 pieces. Meanwhile, we can see that for the writer base, the all the classes are involved from kings and civil and military officials to poets and gisaeng. Next, for acceptance features of images of 'sea' in sijo, writers' poetic concepts are developed accepting ‘images of properties’, ‘images of depth’, and ‘ immemorial images’ sea has. Besides, 'images of tolerance' was also found that properties sea has is transformed or recognized into meanings of long time to be accepted. External images are what images are accepted which can see through surface looks of sea and 'images of contemplation' and 'images of broadness and blueness' were accepted. Meanwhile, acceptance of spatial images was acceptance with boundary images such as ‘the earth and heaven’, and ‘the reality and ideal world’ etc. Finally, we examined the roles and meanings of images of 'sea' in sijo and first of all, it is indicated that internal and external images of sea were accepted diversely and literary imagination was maximized and sea is forming internal structure of literary works etc. As mentioned above, images of 'sea' in sijo were employed with roles and meanings serving considerably for development of authors' poetic concepts, which indicates that sea treated in depth in narrative literature was also accepted in sijo of short forms for significant materials, themes, and images of internal structure.
  • 9.

    Groundwork for the Cultural Ecology of Fishery Origin Myths and Mythology so Embodied -Comparison of Fish Catching Myths with Agricultural Fishing Myths-

    SONG KITAE | 2012, (26) | pp.277~310 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Culture related to the sea focusses on fishing, and specifically ‘fish catching’. With the advent of modern times, however, and the introduction of aquaculture farming techniques, the seas were transformed into cultivation areas in the same manner as on land, in becoming areas of ‘agricultural fishing.’ The whole area of the western and southern coasts of Korea is now farmlands for marine plants and shellfish. In this study, fishery origin myths are compared to understand the cultural differences between fish catching and agricultural fishing. The concepts of ‘fish catching’ and ‘agricultural fishing’ were first classified from a viewpoint concerning the history of cultivation. The traditionally passed down myth of shell harvesting, and the 'Goddess of the sea' myth were researched and compared with the standard status of fishery origin myths and the nature of cultivation history. This was a purposeful effort to break out of the civilization origin myth which is equated with the agricultural origin myth. According to the viewpoint of fishing culture, the west coast shell harvesting myths and Jeju-do’s 'Goddess of the Sea myth' are classic myths concerning ‘fish catching’ and ‘agricultural fishing.’ However, the changeover of fishing culture actually began just one hundred years ago, with the introduction of modern fishing and aquaculture techniques. Viewing writing from this understanding, the truth concerning the cultural shifts viewed through fishery origin myths was ascertained. On the basis of these myths, an awareness and embodiment of the inherent ‘cultivated sea’ was discussed. The myth of shell harvesting is a myth handed down in west coast fishing villages and by fisherman who catch fish. It tells the story of a general named Lim Kyung Up from the Joseon Dynasty who stuck a thorn bush in a mud flat during a journey to China, to try and harvest shellfish after his food had run out. The myth of shellfish harvesting is offered by the village communities, recited in a ritual, and ceremonially reenacted. This myth of shellfish harvesting is understood to have been adjusted to incorporate changes in fishery techniques. The 'Goddess of the Sea' myth is the story of Grandmother Yeung-Deung who sprinkled crop seeds and shellfish when crossing the sea to Jeju-do. In Jeju-do, the myth and ceremony is passed down to female divers, and the ceremonial habit of sprinkling seeds in the sea is reenacted for big catches. The 'Goddess of the Sea' myth and attendant ritual is thought to originate from an agricultural shift that spread from person to person. The process of gathering marine plants and shellfish along the shore illustrates the methodology of cultivation and farming, but the original foundation of the 'Goddess of the Sea' myth reveals its connection to agriculture. This is due to the emergence of an aquaculture industry in Jeju-do in recent times.
  • 10.

    Meaning of the Sea in Korean Mythology

    Oh, Se-jeong | 2012, (26) | pp.311~334 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    Space of myth as narrative determines the nature of characters and proceed with events in stories. The sea is outstanding mytheme and mythical space which stimulate man to make understand the world and human. The meaning of the sea in Korean mythology can be summarized as follow. First, the sea is the mythical world which can be distinguished from human world and there are mysterious treasure or useful thing and mysterious persons who have unusual abilities. <Sondang bonpuri> and <Simcheong muga> shows the ‘Yonggung’ that is the Dragon King's underwater palace. Second, the sea is a block perimeter space between the worlds and a mediative space which takes place cultural exchange. Female protagonists in <Myth of Garakguk> and <Myth of Samseog> who came across the sea leads to the cultural development. Finally, the symbolic meaning of sea is death and exile at the same time resurrection and rebirth. The protagonists of <Myth of Talhea>, <Sondang bonpuri>, <Chilseong bonpuri> and <Simcheong muga> die by moving into the sea while they are born again with the divine presence.
  • 11.

    Novel's Possibility as a Field of Knowledge Formation and Thinking - Focusing on Samhanseupyu[三韓拾遺]

    Kyungmi Kim | 2012, (26) | pp.335~364 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This paper takes notice of knowledge as a motivator of novels in the 19th century. Thus, in this paper, various aspects of knowledge in novels have been investigated at first. Then, Samhanseupyu[三韓拾遺] is mainly referenced to show facets of the novel as a field of knowledge formation and thinking. In the 19th century, knowledge has been accepted in many novels, not only novels written in Chinese characters such as Samhanseupyu, Oksunmong[玉仙夢], but also in long term novels written in Korean character such as Myunhangjeongyilok[明行正義錄] and fable novels such as Dukkupjeon[두껍전]. This phenomenon is related to the trend of the era, which can be explained as "distribution and arrangement of knowledge". This research do not simply focus on the amount of knowledge accepted in the novel, but aims to prove that novel itself became the field that both accepts existing knowledge and forms a new knowledge, and accordingly, it activates the implosion of the medieval ideology. The main text, Samhanseupyu, adopts a traditional format, Yŏlnyo biography[烈女傳], however, it creates a brand new plot which ends up with the remarriage of Yŏlnyo[烈女]. The factor that makes the new kind of plot persuasive is the logic, based on knowledge. In this point, knowledge in Samhanseupyu can be evaluated as a motivator to the creation of a new plot. In other words, Samhanseupyu shows an example of implosion of the medieval ideology through medieval knowledge. As the novel encounters with knowledge, this kind of implosion was possible, so Samhanseupyu is an important literary achievement in the 19th century. Furthermore, Samhanseupyu is also important in a sense that this phenomenon contributes to the rise of modern novel.
  • 12.

    A Consideration on Others Consciousness of Princesses on the Boundary of Co-existence and Deviation - focusing on their life at husbands' house revealed in <Doaenghaeng>and <Chuimisamseonnog>

    koo sun jung | 2012, (26) | pp.365~400 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with the others consciousness of princesses married to men of ordinary family and their survival strife to be born again from others to members of the family as shown in <Doaenghaeng> and <Chuimisamseonnog>. The survival pattern of princesses is divided into the life before marriage, the marriage process and the life in husbands' house. In <Doaenghaeng>, the father-in-law Judang thinks of Yeongpyeong as an other who disturbs the group consciousness and the order of his house during the marriage process. To hide this uneasy state of mind, he strengthens the internal tie more and rejects the princess. In <Chuimisamseonnog>, the husband Yangsong thinks of Muyang as the object of aspiration and hospitality to satisfy his desire of status elevation. Meanwhile, in <Doaenghaeng>, Yeongpyeong recognizes her husband's family as "those who are captured by a vain pride of fame". And in <Chuimisamseonnog>, Muyang sees her husband's house as "a wicked and heartless place". Up to now, the others consciousness of married princess toward husbands' family has been discussed. Husbands' houses where the princesses came to dwell were the places ruled by patriarch ideology. In there, the position and the privileges of royal princesses became a great hindrance in adjusting themselves to and settling into husbands' house. The princesses could not adjust themselves to the spaces that were totally different from their sense of values. Therefore, they either deviated to remain forever as others or lowered their sight level and changed themselves to be born again as subjects. Meanwhile, the husbands' families looked the princesses as the objects of rejection and hospitality, behind which there were the crisis consciousness and the sense of inferiority. Through the lives of married princesses in <Doaenghaeng> and <Chuimisamseonnog>, we can see the attitude of husbands' family toward the princesses the superior others and their survival ways.
  • 13.


    Jeon, Jin-ah | 2012, (26) | pp.401~424 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Heo-Kyoon(許筠; 1569~1618) was a writer who lived in middle age of the Joseon Dynasty. Although there have been a lot of accumulating results of Heo-Kyoon’s <NAMGUNGSUNSEONGJEON>, opposing opinions over whether his position on Taoist aspect was positive or negative haven’t been resolved. There is no doubt that <NAMGUNGSUNSEONGJEON> covers the theme of Taoist aspect since it contains the course of training to achieve the immortality that is described elaborately and many scenes where an assembly of Taoist gods. However, Heo-Kyoon’s stance on Taoist aspect has been in question. This is a problem which should be fixed through detailed and exhaustive analysis of his work. That’s because the problem ultimately starts with the author’s sense relevant to the subject. The narrative structure of <NAMGUNGSUNSEONGJEON> consists of narrative reiteration like ranging from Mr. Kwon(the master of immortality) to Namgung-Doo to Heo-Kyoon. In addition, the structure has pragmatics that gains its trust itself instead of depending on logic and evidence. Heo-Kyoon was able to justify his discourse and have his own authority by choosing the strategy for narration even though <NAMGUNGSUNSEONGJEON> dealt with Taoist aspect that was minority discourse of the time.
  • 14.

    Chang Woo-soung’s Painings and the Function of Painting Poetry

    Choi,Kyung-Hwan | 2012, (26) | pp.425~468 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper it is studied why Chang Woo-soung has composed Chinese poems about his own pictures and written the poems on the pictures in the period of exclusive use of Hangeul, by analyzing the functions of the poems. The poems on the pictures have two functions; one is to inform on the pictures as text messages, and the other is to form the whole pictorial images as shapes of letter characters. In conclusion, Chang Woo-soung has composed Chinese poems about his own pictures and written the poems on the pictures, not only to inform on the pictures but also to form the whole pictorial images.
  • 15.

    A Study on Diplomatic Documents (Pyojeons) during Joseon (2) - With a focus on the rhetorical strategy

    Eunyoung Lee | 2012, (26) | pp.469~500 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined Pyojeons, the diplomatic documents in the relation with Ming and Ching during the Joseon period from the perspective of rhetorical strategy to create a realistic effect of national interest and practical interests based on the logic of justification and the Sino-centric world view. Joseon had a conflict with Ming regarding the Pyojeons from its initial stage of founding a country. Thus, Joseon accepted the format of the Pyojeons suggested by Ming to the possible extent, but attempted to describe it in order to maximize an effect of delivery and persuasion. For Saeunpyo and Hapyo, which had strong commercial characteristics in its structure, it displayed the main theme in the front to emboss the respect and compliment. On the other hand, as for Cheongpyo, which was used to persuade Ching with special reasons, it secured logic and persuasion by using discussion type and displayed the main theme in the latter part. Jinwipyo, in which excessive wordings might be improper, was composed with short sentences. The expression had varied strategies by purposes and conditions. While regular Saeunpyo or Hapyo focused on making the counterpart to be pleased and keeping stable relation in the form of Byeongryeomun, Cheongpyo or Saeunpyo, which was intended to plea the position of Joseon in the conflict situations or to gain diplomatic goals by attracting communication and sympathy, employed a prose style to deliver truthfulness and desperate sense. However, detailed description was excluded but abstract ideological pattern was employed in order to express the duty of the superior country along with the submission and ideology while sustaining peaceful world rather than to make a reckless respect to a specific object. The Pyojeon, which was devised with meticulous efforts by the country in the name of prose type, was an important resources to demonstrate Joseon’s effort to seek balance between justification and practical interests keeping national interest and pride in writings even though Joseon had to opt submission policy in the Sinocentric world order. The critics of the Pyojeons have argued that “Beauty and desperate [Wanijeol]” are the conditions of good Pyojeons. Thus, vocabularies, display of sentences and rhetorical expression were meticulously reviewed in order to make a ‘beautiful’ writing, and the ‘desperate’ sense was attempted to be achieved by logical and persuasive expression. Thus, it might be proper to evaluate the value of the Pyojeons in Joseon in terms of literary value.