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2014, Vol., No.30

  • 1.

    Farming and Farmer in Chinese short story in late Joseon Dynasty - Running and Ruling Agriculture

    Kim, Sooyoun | 2014, (30) | pp.5~29 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study contemplates farming and farmer in Chinese short story in late Joseon Dynasty. In the process, I expect literature text would contri bute to finding images of farmers not captured by agricultural books. Farmers in Chinese short stories are generally of noble birth(兩班, Yangban). At this point, we can find farmers not predestined but professional. Strictly speaking, occupation or job is put focus on profe ssional farmers not predestined farmers. Today it is so natural to separate origin from job. Meanwhile, the classification of the traditional four classes of society (士農工商, scholars, farmers, artisans and tradesmen) makes us equate vocational farmer with familial farmer. In that farmers in Chinese short stories show us the process of division vocational from familial farmer, it foretells, in today's point of viwe, 'the birth of a job'. The short story records farmers' whereabouts literarily, but their attitudes in life were seen sincerely. It's because the image of agriculture of the day contains completely different side from that of history books, philosophy books, or agricultural books. Preceding researches defined farmers in Chinese short stories as a wealthy managerial peasants. However, the fact in each story comes near to smallholders rather than wealthy managerial peasants. In the first half of the work, the process of running agriculture(經農) was stood out, but the concept of ruling agriculture(治農) was emphasized in the second half. Preceding researches put more weight on the first half. They randomly connect ruined Yangban's engaging in farming with advancement of technology written in agricultural books and assert that farmers in Chinese short stories are wealthy managerial peasants. It is undeniable that it is caused by the theory of wealthy managerial peasants, a temporary vogue. Recent researches on agriculture history are pointing out mistakes of the theory of wealthy managerial peasants and verifying that late Joseon was the society of agriculture integration or small homogenization of farming land. If we read or understand objectively the first and second half of the story, the true life of farmers in the work is also the ruling agriculture by a small scale landowner. So there is room for reconsideration about the view which farmers in Chinese short stories are wealthy managerial peasants.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Cognition of Vocation and Practical Actions by Intelligentsia in the Late Choseon Dynasty - With Focus on the Baek-Woon(白雲) Shim Dae-Yoon(沈大允) in the 19th Century

    Hyeri Son | 2014, (30) | pp.31~63 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines intelligentsia in the late Choseon dynasty who were not financially independent by studying and cultivating morals engaged in commercial and industrial circles focused on Baek-Woon(白雲) Shim Dae-Yoon(沈大允, 1806∼1872). It is a very important document that Shim Dae-Yoon engaged in commercial and industrial circles such as making wood block and selling medicine to maintain his aged mother and two younger brothers. Because it rarely remains document which is related to working commerce and industry as a noble family, even though they fall in their circumstances. Shim Dae-Yoon expressed of joy on supporting his family and rediscovered value of working for his hard work he did. But, he experienced an inner conflict because of cold eyes and lost of identity as classical scholar. To overcome, he insisted on a logical argument called Byeontong(變通). It is meaningful that this paper reveals intelligentsia in the late Choseon dynasty who had practical actions and inner conflict to earn a scant living.
  • 3.

    Image of merchant shown on an old novel of late Joseon and its meaning - Centered on <Boeungiurok>

    Tak wonjong | 2014, (30) | pp.65~105 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The study intended to identify literary image of social and economic changes such as activation of money economy and commerce in the late Joseon, in addition, to let Boeungiurok establish itself as novel of merchant in Joseon. To this end, the author analyzed images of the merchant shown on <Boeungiurok> which is a long novel written in Korean. The first image of merchant on <Boeungiurok> is ‘running of butcher's shop by ruined Yangban’. The second image of merchant is ‘large usury man connected with an official’. The first meaning of merchant image on <Boeungiurok> is that ‘appearing of authentic merchant novel-catching of lives of merchant and exploring of ideal merchant image’. Through stories related to butcher's shop or usury, activity of merchant in the midst of daily lives and actual commercial business are vividly described. Furthermore, ethic of merchant or management guideline are disclosed. Although Wi Yeon-cheong is not a merchant, image of merchant with virtue is disclosed through him. This shows that there is an aspect to explore image of desirable merchant. The second meaning is ‘setting of new conflict between father and son- conflict in identity between scholar(士) and merchant(商)’. There is conflict between a father and a son - the father shows excessive hatred about reading a book which is a duty of Yangban while the son still emphasizes his class as a scholar. In addition, there is inner conflict of the son - the son has recognition about commercial activity or making money that shows some distance from identity of scholar class.
  • 4.

    Fishery in Youngdeun Faith in Jeju - Focased on Chilmoridang Youngdeunggut

    Kang Ji Yeon | 2014, (30) | pp.107~136 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is looking into meanings and features of shaman ritual to the livelihood of fishermen through Chilmoridang youngdeunggut, which is deeply involved in the fishermen’s lives in Jeju. Especially, it is due to understand communicative aspects between the mythical world and the real world by investigating relevant codes of ritual to those who are engaged in the fishery industry. Youngdeunggut is Poong-eo-je, which is considered important to the residents of the sea. Although there are a number of rituals in Jeju so as to pray for both a good yield and safety in the sea, among them is Youngdeunggut, held in February by the lunar calendar, the biggest and most magnificent. The reason why sea-related rituals are particularly vital in Jeju is that because of the geographical characteristic, the ‘sea region’ may as well the living foundation as well as the means of livelihood to most residents. Also, the shamanistic ceremonies in Jeju traditionally have meant to play a key role of folk beliefs for a long time and become not just personal religion also cultural events for the local residents. Paying attention to especially the sea-related rituals to reconstruct their lives will contribute to comprehending close correlation between mythology and ritual to them. It seems that to the sea residents making their livelihood by fishing is in line with practicing religious activities. Considering these circumstances, it is possible to grasp this tradition group’s world view on the mythological world and to look into fishermen’s lives, who take part in the ritual. Also, many variables in the ritual related contextual circumstances as well as today’s ritual situations and participant’s psychological factors will determine the contemporary meanings of what mythology and ritual are today. Jeju Chilmoridang youngdeunggut has a distinctive characteristic for living. Especially, it is true that shamanism rituals and forms of religion have a great influence on their marine activities and mode of life by examining their expression of recognition through mythology, which puts importance on the ritual in the real world. The faith in making their own safety from marine accidents and praying for the fine yields from the sea throws a sideline on their being devoted to making livelihood by fishing.
  • 5.

    The influences of Lee yeo-soon(李女順) scandal in 17th century and the patriarchal society’s response to this scandal

    HONG NARAE | 2014, (30) | pp.137~170 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Lee yeo-soon was the widow whose father Lee Gyi(李貴) was the famous aristocrat in 17th century. In 1614(the 6th year of king GangHae), she broke away from home for execution of Buddhism with her male-friend O Eon-kwan(吳彦寬). And this incident caused for them to be arrested on a charge of adultery. Because of this scandal, Mr. O Eon-kwan was beaten to death in the process of the inquisition and Lee Gyi lost his position of government official, but Lee yeo-soon was favored with amnesty without any good reason then stayed in the Jasoo Palace(慈壽宮). After this, she was not only welcomed from royal concubines and court ladies, but also she was recognized as the hidden contributor to depose king GangHae(光海君). For these kinds of reason, the character of Lee yeo-soon came to be complicated. In this thesis, I found that this scandal is not individual incident, but representative incident containing the desire of women in 17th century. and also I found that the differences of understanding of her characters(some people think of her as a living buddha, and some people think of her as a hidden contributor in political incident) make her a mysterious woman. Therefore I considered how the patriarchal society reordered the women’s problematic desire after enthronement of a new king. The rumor of Lee yeo-soon was very resistant to patriarchy. At that time Lee yeo-soon was well known as the living Buddha who has surpassed the traditional values, and many women were eager to meet her, even some of them joined her practicing asceticism. I inferred the women who spread the rumor and believed in her could have an influence on the judgment of Lee yeo-soon scandal. The women’s network was comprised of diverse class such as ladies of a court, nobleman’s concubines, even slaves. They related intimately with religious belief and economic ties. But after the enthronement of a new king, the Joseon Society established patriarchal order to criticize the sisterhood and to record that Lee yeo-soon had been anxious for her father and her brother-in-law supporting them confidentially in the palace. This point of view intended to emphasize women’s family identification excluding women’s desire for identity on those days. Through Lee yeo-soon scandal, I reconstructed 17th century that the women could form public opinions in sisterhood and develope the communal self. These women’s conduct had severe limits, for example they pursued power relying on the king and could not make ethical alternative. Nonetheless it was significant incident that the women in 17th century felt doubts about conventional value and attempted to change their life.
  • 6.

    The classification system of a book for the names of objects in the late Choson Dynasty

    JANG, YOO SEUNG | 2014, (30) | pp.171~206 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the motive for a compilation of a book for the names of objects in the late Choson Dynasty from the perspectives at the time, and review the features of the book for the names of objects by analyzing the classification system of a currently existing book for the names of objects. The fundamental purpose of the book is to let readers accurately recognize the target which the words indicate by matching the words and the objects which are indicated. Thus, editors of the book try to match the words and objects by presenting Korean words and different Chinese words corresponding to the original one. The book for the names of objects has been regarded as a kind of Chinese classical encyclopedias which provides detailed information on objects, but most of existing books just present the names of objects. It is natural to regard the book as a kind of a dictionary with the purpose to match words and objects. In addition, when the classification system of the book is reviewed, it is found to mainly deal with specific objects. It suggests that interests in objects which are relatively neglected compared to Sky, Land and Humans are being highlighted. It has been known that the books for the names of objects are influenced by the Chinese classical encyclopedias in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The classification system of the book dealing with specific objects rather than abstract concept seems to be influenced by medicinal herb books which provide a variety of information on objects.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Violations, Sutures and Cracks in the Heroine Novels

    Cho, Hyun Woo | 2014, (30) | pp.207~244 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper tries to overcome the dichotomy between resistance and obedience those were the key words for describing the Heroine Novels. From the feministic perspective, we can find the things that represent resistance to the patriarchy and the binary gender system in the heroine novels. On the other hand, we can also find the things encouraging obedience instead of criticism to the laws of patriarchy even in the same novels. In this paper, those things were designated as the terms of 'violation' and 'suture'. The 'crack' was designated as the term to mean anxiety and fear inherent in patriarchy. The perfect disguise of heroine was able to perform social roles as hero, while she has to be returned to her own sex. But it is to be reminded that the heroine can be the female by the female costume and even woman's disguise. In that sense, the heroine performed a successful trans-gendering. Concerned with the changes of heroine, there is a series of step-by-step processes. The heroine was a female who was not interested in woman's work, successfully disguised as a hero, and still remember for once she was a hero. Those changes and disguises mean the gendered body is constructed through a stylized repetition of acts and reveal that there is no natural and stable gender identity. The crack of gender identity can function a subversion of the binary gender system, because it is inherent in the patriarchal system. Finally, the heroine novels show the cracks in the patriarchy, which is the most important significance of those novels in the novel history.
  • 8.

    A study on the role model of heroines in the female-general novel

    Cho, Yong-ho | 2014, (30) | pp.245~275 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In many studies about Korean classic novels of female general, Seol-in-gui-jeon(<설인귀전>) had considered as a foreign agent for formation of those novels. I thought the novel was not the only agent because several female generals really existed in China and many Chinese classic novels involved female generals as characters. This study was focused on confirming whether those Chinese female generals had affected in formation of Korean female-general novel. Firstly, I examined female generals represented in Chinese history. I searched Chinese female generals written in records of literary artists of Korea(Chosun). And then I investigated how they acted and what effect they had on Korean female-general novel. As a result of this investigation, the origin of Korean female-general novel was based on the heroic deeds of Princess Pyeong-yang(평양공주), Madam Se(세부인), Jin-yang-ok(진양옥) of China. A motif of woman in man's disguise(especially, Hwang-sung-ha (황숭하)) also significantly influenced on representing heroine in Korean female-general novel. Secondly, I examined female generals' activities in Chinese novels and confirmed that they had become a role-model of the heroine in Korean female-general novel. For example, Beon-ri-hwa(번리화) in Seol-jeong- san-jeong-seo(<설정산정서>) was an important role-model who acted as a general, placing her husband under her orders. Including Mok-gye-yeong(목계영), female generals' collective activities in Yang-ga-jang-yeon-eui (<양가장연의>) greatly affected in representing main characters in Korean female-general novel. A series of Seol-in-gui-jeon and Yang-ga-jang-yeon-eui actually had decisive effect not only on the structure and overall characterization but also on details. The fact that Chinese records had a great effect on Korean female-general novel must be importantly considered in terms of assuming the author.
  • 9.

    The space narrative and meaning of Korean-Chinese goddess Hanga(Cháng’é) related novel - focusing on Sukhyangjeon and Three Tricks on BaiMudan

    박마리아 | 2014, (30) | pp.277~318 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Korean Sukyangjeon is a novel with Chinese setting which commonly transmit the narrative of Hanga fly to the moon along with Chinese Three Tricks on BaiMudan. Here, a mutual similarity is noteworthy in the aspects of space narrative. These two novels explain that Hanga is doing her best to be born again as a perfected ego by purifying her body, while performing a ritual of atonement through the ordeal in this human world after being born with the sinful karma of taunting the opposite sex during her stay in heaven. Here, the narrative space of Yaochi-abode-body form a comparative structure with the meaning of identity-eliminating misfortune-rehabilitation. The space called Yoji (瑤池:fairyland of immortals), as the center of heavenly realm where XiWangmu is taking charge signifies holiness, order and authority and through violating the order of heavenly realm due to playing around with the opposite sex, they get to leave a blot on their own statuses. Seen from this fact, Yoji becomes the space where Sukhyang and BaiMudan testifies their karmas as well as their identities proving that Sukhyang and Baimudan was Hanga. The human world is also seen as the place where Sukhyang and BaiMudan are going through the ritual of purification, and where they are related to their fatalistic figures. Although, the love nest where they reside is the space where they can gain happiness and consolation through peaceful settlement, they get to face with the situation that they have to leave this comfort base when they are in crisis and danger. The other characteristics of space narrative shown in Sukhyangjeon and Three Tricks on BaiMudan is the symbolistic meaning of body. To Sukhyang and BaiMudan, the body is not the space where there should be a unity with purified spirit, but also a sacred pavilion where the ritual of purification should be completed through experiencing ordeals by themselves. In this meaning, the body is recognized as the space where they have to fulfill completion as well as the place where the eternity is guaranteed as a completeness itself. Seen from this, in Sukhyangjeon and Three Tricks on BaiMudan, Hanga’s sin and escape shows the possibility of infinite enlargement and development of narrative space through creatively reinterpreting the spatial room of Hanga fly to the moon, while overcoming the spatial simplicity which corresponds to the space of ‘kwanghanjeon’(廣寒殿) on the earth and in moon. Likewise, these two novels reveal differences in its consciousness of intention in that Sukhyangjeon and Three Tricks on BaiMudan strongly expresses Taoistic idea, while Sukhyangjeon intends for a combination of realistic consciousness seeking fortune as well as the meaning of Taoism.
  • 10.

    Cultural Meaning of Popularity of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese and its Status in History of Korean Chinese Literature

    Hong In Sook | 2014, (30) | pp.319~359 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to examine the meaning of cultural phenomenon of popularity of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese between the 1900s and 1950s and explain its status in the History of Korean Chinese Literature. For this purpose, this article looked at 13 kinds of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese representative of each period in terms of the aspects of ‘old tradition(舊)’ and ‘contemporary meaning(時).’ Through this process, it analyzed the dual effects of simultaneous acquisition of ‘authority’ and ‘practicality’ was fundamental reasons for the popularity of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese. In other words, the genre essence of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese lied in the co-existence of opposite tendency of ‘old/authority’ and ‘contemporary/ practicality’. This article ultimately claims that the reason why modern people continue to consume the Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese is because of these dual effects. To prove this, this article examined the dimension of maintaining ‘old tradition(舊)’ in Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese in terms of two things. First, it focused on the order and principles of Confucianism embodied through the table of contents and example sentences in Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese. Second, it focused on the function of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese as a medium defending the old classic studies and details of the function. Also, it examined the dimension of reflecting ‘contemporary meaning(時)’ in Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese in terms of following two aspects. First, it analyzed the chronological change of Korean and Chinese mixed style as well as the stylistics on the Korean and Chinese characters by the authors of major Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese. Second, it examined the contents of various products of civilization introduced in Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese, and pointed out that it also served as a cultural learning material. Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese at the level of History of Korean Chinese Literature should be seen not as a text in the period of decline, but as a genre that ‘promptly responded to the historical change and demands of the public.’ The agonies and search for solutions by various readers of Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese were contained in this text, through which the écriture that is ‘Chinese Classics’ became popularized and lasted. Thus, the status of Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese in the History of Korean Chinese Literature should be evaluated more actively.
  • 11.

    A Study on discursive structure of Bibliographie Coréenne, of Maurice Courant

    Hwang In Soon | 2014, (30) | pp.361~396 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this project is to examine Bibliographie Coréenne, especially focusing on discursive structure. Bibilographie Coréenne, which is the representative work of Courant, and of Korean ancient study. The most important work in this research is to reveal how Courant realized the conception of “Korea”. Accordingly, it is significant to reconstruct the perspective and outlook from discursive structure. For example, it is possible to assume the conception of “Korean literature” of Courant by observing the table of content about “Korean literature”. Hence, I will define the Koreanity in Bibliographie Coréenne, as a translated partial characteristic of conception, in regards to the perspective of external describing subject. Therefore, Bibliographie Coréenne can be coded not only as a bibliography but kind of topographic map of 19th century's Korea.
  • 12.

    The role and meaning of classical korean novels as a general education in university - focusing on the use of classical korean novels

    Jeung Sun Hee | 2014, (30) | pp.397~426 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this manuscript is considering actual condition of human general education in university and suggesting using classical korean novels as solutions for its problems. That is, to discuss the role and meaning of classical korean novels as a general education in university and to develop liberal arts that use classical korean novels. It is also to diverge from indicating classical korean novel just as one of major subjects of department of korean language and literature and to consider ways to educate its various present values. I hope university students to understand literary tradition and identity of ethnic and to view korean culture variously through classical korean novels. In addition, there is a need to actively use classical korean novels for reading, speaking and writing education, which is for cultivation of students' communication skills, expression and the ability to reason. It is because classical korean novels are works that ancient writers and philosophers variously express thoughtful thoughts and literary sensitivity by a refined style and logical organization. Furthermore, with education that thematically connect classical korean novels and modern novels, students can diachronically experience korean literature, and by conceiving ideas and ways of remaking classical korean novels into modern poets, novels, movies and dramas, they can realize its contemporary values. The thesis of this manuscript is essential for invigoration and normalization of 'general education' that can help students expand liberal art knowledge and thinking, and will help set a foundation that students can do various mental and academic activities.
  • 13.

    The recognition of women of the Confucian scholar who lived in honam - focused on Ki Woo man(奇宇萬)

    Kim Girim | 2014, (30) | pp.427~459 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Ki Woo-man(奇宇萬) was Confucian scholar who had lived in Jang sung and in early modern period. He was grandson of Ki Jung-jin(奇正鎭) who was the great Neo-Confucianist philosopher. He cherished the thought of his grandfather -the thought of Wijung Chuksa(defending orthodoxy and rejecting heterodoxy, 衛正斥邪). He raised an army in the cause of justice in 1896 in Jang-sung. He sent up a memorial to the Throne which demanded to punish five persons who played a leading role for the Japanese annexation of Korea(Ulsaneukyak:乙巳勒約) in 1910. Ki Woo-man took a serious view of Yeolhaeng(烈行). He emphasized on that women who her husband died had to survive, serve her parents-in-law faithfully and bring up her son. It was that her mind was with the husband's mind(心從). This assertion based on the Way of Three Obediences(三從之道). They were the womem who perpetuating the family of her husband and continuing a ceremony for the repose of her husband's ancestors. So he acclaimed for women who brought honor to her husband's family. And Ki Woo-man emphasized on that woman dedicated to educate her son. So he had praise the mathers who moved to ideal educational environments, set up room where her son studied with his teachers and friends, work hard to make tuition fees. On the other hand, Ki Woo-man interested in women who gave relief to the people. He highlighted womne who extended a helping hand to relative and neighbors who was poor or starved during the drought. Ki Woo-man intended to consolidate the patriarchal social order becouse he thought the patriarchal social order has been shaken It increased the burden laid on the woman in early modern period. Ki Woo-man, besides, Yeol(烈) connected with royalty. So he cried out against the immoral and corrupt politicians and demanded that they should imitate Hyo Yol Bu Jon(孝烈婦)'s virtues.
  • 14.

    Chang Woo-soung’s Paintings and the Experiment on Aesthetic Function by Repeatedly Using the Same Chinese Poems and Chinese Prose Writings

    Choi,Kyung-Hwan | 2014, (30) | pp.461~499 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper it is studied how Chang Woo-soung has differently used the same Chinese poems and prose writings on his paintings, to make a series of experiments on their aesthetic function, such as function of letter-characters' shapes. The methods used by Chang Woo-soung are as follows: (1) The method of varying the form in which shapes of letter-characters are arranged. (2) The method of varying both the form and the position in which shapes of letter-characters are arranged. The latter method is again divided into two types according to whether the aesthetic function of letter-characters' shapes is the same or different.