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2016, Vol., No.35

  • 1.

    Rediscovering leadership in Korean Classical Literature and Its Humanistic Value

    KANGJINOK | 2016, (35) | pp.5~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Literary works usually deal with how characters find and understand themselves in society and reality. When we discuss leadership in literature, characters’ perception of selves should be considered before anything else because the process of leadership building is carried out in the character’s existence in reality in which leadership qualities are realized and evaluated. Literature is a field of humanities which explore humans. Literature tries to discover truth by describing human lives in artistic form thus inducing empathy. The empathy that literature fosters help readers change their perceptions. The process of establishing identity of a protagonist shows a growing process as a leader. Many myths and novels tell about the lives of heros who realize their potential as a leader. This perspective that emphasizes leadership as an end value differ from the leadership discourse that views leadership education as a mean to acquire individual success. The narrative literature which depict the cross sections of human lives could be used as a text for leadership education. It shows various types of characters and their lives. Korean Classical Novels typically show the growth of characters and leadership of protagonists through the process of establishing their self identities. They also tell us the main goal of leadership education lies not in how to acquire the leadership skills but in how to grow as a human being with self identity. At the same time, it implies direction of humanistic leadership education. We should persue from humanistic perspective self realization as an end value of leadership education.
  • 2.

    The Leadership of Female Breadwinner Shown in Sohyunseongrok and its Significance

    Kang woo kyu | 2016, (35) | pp.39~65 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Sohyunseongrok is an ideology oriented work with the story that Sohyunseong, who grew up in the Confucian atmosphere and discipline under the female breadwinner, Lady Yang, takes filial duty as the foremost value and practices it, and stabilizes his family. During the process of upbringing, Lady Yang shows a rather coercive and authoritative leadership, which is understood as projecting her own desire to her son and forcing absolute obedience. As a result of that, Sohyunseong sometimes shows problematic behaviors such as cheating in national exam and displaying abusive remarks or behavior to his wives. This means that this work reflects the transition period of the mid-late 17th century and contains both the Confucian ideological orientation and realistic desires. In the meantime, in supplementary copy, the characteristics and roles of Lady Yang and Sohyunseong change, which results from the awareness of a problem about imperfect leadership in the main copy, and these can be understood as distinctive characteristics of the main copy and supplementary copy.
  • 3.

    A Study on Toegye(退溪) Yi Whang(李滉) and Yulgok(栗谷) Yi I(李珥)’s Leadership through Their Classic Poetry and Philosophy

    Yim, Jaewook | 2016, (35) | pp.67~99 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper has following three purposes. First is looking at the differences in Toegye(退溪) Yi Whang(李滉) and Yulgok(栗谷) Yi I(李珥)’s classical poetry, second is understanding their poetic differences through their philosophy, and third is considering their leadership on the basis of the contemplation of their poetry and philosophy. Toegye(退溪)’s Dosansipyigok(陶山十二曲) and Yulgok(栗谷)’s Gosan- gugokga(高山九曲歌) show their view of nature and human. Unlike Toegye(退溪) taked note of the constant and ideational facet of nature, Yulgok(栗谷) taked note of variable and practical facet of nature. Toegye(退溪) catched sight of the ideology or reason from the nature, but Yulgok(栗谷) enjoyed the nature and felt the interesting or pleasure from it. Toegye(退溪) had a keen interest in his own self, but Yulgok(栗谷) had interest in not only himself but also other people. The differences in their view of nature and human can be understood very naturally from the viewpoint of Yigi(理氣) theory that is a field of Confucian philosophy. Toegye(退溪) regarded highly Yi(理) that belongs to essential existence, but Yulgok(栗谷) thought highly of not only Yi(理) but also Gi(氣) that belongs to phenomenal existence. According to their tendency of thought, Toegye(退溪) expressed the nature ideologically and symbolically but Yulgok(栗谷) expressed it practically and concretely. The interesting and pleasure which Yulgok(栗谷) felt from nature also are associated with Gi(氣), because they are some sorts of Chiljeong(七情) that belongs to Gi(氣). Toegye(退溪) thought highly of Sadan(四端) which is four fundamental mind in Confucianism and belongs to Yi(理). In the sight of Toegye(退溪)’s thought it is regarded that all people have same inclinations and talents with a certain person. So Toegye(退溪) poetry that sings about himself can be read as a song for other person. On the other hand Yulgok(栗谷) thought highly of Gi(氣) and Chiljeong(七情). In the sight of Yulgok(栗谷)’s thought all people are regarded as individual existences that have personalities of their own. So Yulgok(栗谷) called friends and payed attention to other people in Gosangugokga(高山九曲歌) These differences in their poetry and philosophy are concerned with the problem of leadership. Toegye(退溪)’s leadership driven from the thought emphasizing Yi(理) and Sadan(四端) had absolute, normative and ideological orientation. But Yulgok(栗谷)’s leadership driven from the thought emphasizing Gi(氣) and Chiljeong(七情) had relative, selective and realistic orientation.
  • 4.

    Self reliance and leadership in narration of Queen Woo in Koguryeo Dynasty

    Chung Kyungmin | 2016, (35) | pp.101~129 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Queen Woo in Koguryeo dynasty maintained the position of queen for 2 generation and passed away as queen as well. Since description of Samguksagi and Koguyu boni possess historical record as well as aspect of narration, this thesis analyses Queen Woo as the case of characteristical leadership by viewing the story of Queen Woo as one of the narrative text. Queen Woo had always taken the lead in relationship with others by flexible and nimble manner in accordance with situation in reaching her own goal of maintenance of power, monopoly of love and self-regulated life. And she was able to develop independency internally through clear self recognition. This effort on self-reliance became a cornerstone of leadership of queen Woo. Evaluation against queen Woo by later generation was pretty negative. However, a series of preposterous actions can be interpreted by viewpoint of independent doer as challenge of destiny and given circumstances. Moreover, in consideration of the fact that leadership based on mother's instinctive love were frequently sampled as women leadership, this story is regarded as the case of external extension of women leadership. On the other hand, there is limitation of her leadership in proposing value for community.
  • 5.

    Study on Leadership of Adjudging subject in Korean Classical Ruling tales

    Hwang In Soon | 2016, (35) | pp.131~159 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This essay will focus on Ruling tales in Kimunchongwha and ChungGuYaDam. Ruling tales can be defined as a tales which demonstrate public adjudging process by adjudging subjects. This process is significant to consider leadership in Korean classics because the judgment is kind of announcement of public issues. Adjudging process consist of two phases : to judge the situation and to announce the result. In chapter two and three, I classify the ruling tales considering with that perspective, especially concentrating the aspect of announcement. In chapter four, I conclude that announcing process itself is marked element than the intelligence of judging subject. It means that ruling tales is not only the story about ability of brilliant subject, but that story about the problematic code of social conflicts agreed in a certain community. If ruling tales demonstrate consensus standard in the society, the role of adjudging subject is to select the best solution among practicable candidates. Therefore, capability of judging leader depends on what is suggested, in other words, what is choose-able as practicable solutions in a society.
  • 6.

    Daily life examined in Korean Classical Novels and its effects of description

    Jeung Sun Hee | 2016, (35) | pp.161~190 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines daily life in korean classical novels. Korean classical literature contains koreans' life, ideologies, aesthetics, emotion and values. Thus, we should not lose the depth and dignity of classical literature, reasoning and aesthetic senses of authors of classical novels, and life and emotion of ancestors found in classical literature. Therefore, classical novels can be the best reading texts for development of knowledge of not only literature majors and scholars but also regular adults and students, and for improvement of quality of liberal education, reflective introspection about own life, and development of cultural and artistic discrimination and creativity. In addition, there will be effects of understanding lives of ancestors better by experiencing lives of ancestors indirectly through classical novels. Moreover, classical novels will make readers deliberate on essence of life by teaching korean values and identity, thoughts, words and writing of ancestors, and relationships.
  • 7.

    The Body Narratology–Deconstructing Division of the Body in the Late Chosŏn Novel

    Kim, Sooyoun | 2016, (35) | pp.191~221 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    There exist a hierarchy and discrimination in imagination according to an era and a society. Certain imagination itself comes to be a taboo. As for the Sujo mythology(獸祖神話) setting an animal as an ancestor in the Chosŏn Dynasty, imagination entering into a sexual relation with a dog and making it an ancestor was an almost taboo. However, in the Sino-Korean novel of the latter Chosŏn Dynasty, <任相國父子三娶記>, a character appears who was born by a sexual relation with a dog and became the progenitor of the Chosŏn nobel family. This work integrates various types of narratives and motives from the ancient mythology to the latter Joseon Dynasty's family novels. Representatives include a motif of border crossing(越境) by one marrying a person from other nation, that of man-animal marriage(人獸交婚) by one having intercourse with an animal and a structure of Youngsa novels(影射小說) criticising certain person. It is a kind of parody. However, this work tried to play a variation for readers to defamiliarize the existing motif through parody. Unlike the existing works having a border-crossing motif, a biracial son between Chinese envoy and Chosŏn woman was made a successor of a Chinese nobel family. Besides, a dog hardly dealt in a motif of man-animal marriage was set as a partner of human and its son was made a progenitor of a Chosŏn nobel family. Youngsa novels came to aim at the entire family beyond a person with a changed composition. It deconstructed division and difference between civilization and barbarism, Sinocentrism and eastern barbarism, human and animal, petit- Sinocentrism and barbarism. Such a parody is a destruction of taboo and it may be read as the outrageous to readers. However, creation of this work suggests that authors were people having a body of discrimination and taboo in a physical hierarchy. This work may be read as an effort for people having a tabooed body like 向化人(northern barbarians) of the latter Joseon Dynasty to construct a severe self-epic for a body acceptable in a society.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Meaning of the crane that appear on the Crane poem Ode[詠鶴詩] in 16th century midway - Focused on 「次玉堂失鶴韻」

    Lee Yeonsoon | 2016, (35) | pp.223~256 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempted to look at the meaning of the crane in mid 16th century, especially focused on 「次玉堂失鶴韻」 that a number of Dokseodang[讀書堂] writers have created works. Therefore first, I estimated the creative background and author period of this poem. Next, I tried to extract the meaning of crane that appeared on 「次玉堂失鶴韻」. As a result, I revealed that the mid-16th century writers expressed a willingness to fly mentally and academically through identify with crane.
  • 9.

    The leadership education of Dasan : the annotation of 「Daehakkongui」

    LEE SOEN SOO | 2016, (35) | pp.257~280 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about a leadership education from the annotation of 「Daehakkongui」, written by Dasan Jeong Yak-Yong. The leadership of 「Daehak」 aimed to futher stabilize the people’s livelihood based on ‘In’(仁), which is originated from Hyo, Je, Ja. In is not only a common, altruistic value but also an ethical principle, and the love. He considered the education of leadership was for Juja(冑子). His ‘Sugichi-in’ is ‘Jihaengkyeomjin’ that means governing the world through cultivating one’s ‘Jiduk’ simultaneously. Sugichi-in could be classified into Susin, Jega, Chiguk, Pyeongcheonha. Susin includes Seong-ui, Jeongsim, Kyukmulchiji and Chi-in consists of Jega, Chiguk and Pyeongcheonha. Each of these could be interpreted sincerity, right-mind, insight, fairness, Solseonsubeom and the politics of sympathy from the contemporary view point.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Significance of Literary History in SaseolSijo(辭說時調) in which SaesSeoBang(샛서방) appears

    Yi Su Gon | 2016, (35) | pp.281~302 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the existing discussion, I understood the following to <How to~(어이려뇨~)>. First, the main content of this song is in the rebellion against the medieval order. Second, in order to express the rebellion against the medieval order, the virtual world which can not be realized in reality was taken as a poetic background. This study is based on a reflection review of existing discussions. During the late Chosun dynasty, the main subject of the study was 『SimRiRok(審理錄)』, which is related to the murder case. The results are as follows. <How to ~(어이려뇨~)> and other SaseolSiJo(辭說時調) appeared in the 'SaesSeoBang(샛서방)' is a song of everyday life based on reality. We express everyday human form, desire, and conflict as they are. From these two points, I have found that there is literary historical significance. Since patriarchal order was strict in the late Joseon period, it is presumed that it was difficult to expose the 'SaesSeoBang' to the surface. It is the reason why there was a limit to clarify the status of 'SaesSeoBang' through 『SimRiRok』. It is also a problem of this paper. We are preparing a follow-up discussion to supplement this.
  • 11.

    The genealogical approach to the discourse of ‘the people’ rising in the study on the oral literature of North Korea

    YOUNGHEE KIM | 2016, (35) | pp.303~373 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This essay is the analysis on the genealogy of the discourse of ‘the people’ in the studies of the oral literature of North Korea. Since Korean War(1950-1953), the researchers of North Korean literature had concentrated on framing and making tradition, genealogy, and identity of North Korean literature, affected by the government, the Korean Workers’ Party and the Council of People’s Commissars. So they recalled the terms of “In-min-chang-jak”(meaning of a creation by the people) and the concept of “by the people and for the people”. The people means political subjects conditioned by historical situations of North Korean society from the late 1950s to the early the 1960s. Go-Jeong-Ok was the researcher of leading studies and projects of the Korean Academy of Social Science in North Korea, from the late 1950s to the early the 1960s. He majored in Korean oral literature, especially folksongs. He had studied about Joseon-literature in the class of Kyeogseoung(Keijo) Imperial University(京城帝國大學) in 1930s. When he graduated from university in 1939, he wrote the thesis about Joseon-folksongs. After the Japanese colonial period had finished, he re-wrote his graduation thesis and then published the book of the study on Joseon-folksongs(『朝鮮民謠硏究』) in 1949. Then he went to North Korea, and had written the book of the study on oral literature of Joseon(『朝鮮口傳文學硏究』) in 1962. He had studied and had written about the oralities and the characters of the people in Korean folksongs. And he had influenced on the studies of oral literature in North Korea. At that times the researchers of oral literature of North Korea were influenced by the scholars of folklore of Soviet and China, especially by В.И.Чичеров, as a soviet folklorist. And the researchers of the Korean Academy of Social Science in North Korea investigated and studied materials of oral literature-oral narratives, folksongs, folk dramas, proverbs and riddles- in terms of what was things created by the people and for the people in those days. And they published the journals of “In-min-chang-jak”(meaning of a creation by the people), which was the organ papers of the Korean Academy of Social Science in North Korea. Since then, ‘oral literature’ and ‘In-min-chang-jak’ have been competing concepts each other. The researchers of oral literature in North Korea had to examine the relation between orality and literacy, folklore and literature, orality and the people, in more detail. In 1990s Jang-Kwon-Pyo used the term of ‘oral literature’ instead of ‘In-min-chang-jak’. But the term of ‘oral literature’ has predicated the idea of a creation by the people and for the people.