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2020, Vol., No.50

  • 1.

    An Aspect Related to Children and Sino-Korean Literature in the Late Joseon Dynasty-Focusing on the Looks of Children Represented within Works

    Dong-jun Kim | 2020, (50) | pp.5~48 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis is the result of reviewing the relational aspect between Sino-Korean literature and children by researching the materials of Sino-Korean literature in the late Joseon Dynasty. Through this research, this thesis aimed to reveal the characteristics of children’s looks shown in Sino-Korean literature in the late Joseon Dynasty, and the value of researches on children in the history of Sino-Korean literature. The Chapter 2 examined the looks of children as an object of education. After going through the stage of distributing enlightening books for child education in the mid Joseon Dynasty, the exemplary image of children was strongly pursued through family motto and will of each family in the late Joseon Dynasty. The parents’ expectation of a child who would become a successor of family tended to force the ideal image of human to children even in childhood. The Chapter 3 examined children as a potential writer. The children who were great at writing sentences, especially poetry, were widely praised as a prodigy. Also, in the late Joseon Dynasty, the children appeared as a writer group of children’s songs. Meanwhile, just like the case of Shin, Hoo-Dam, there were also cases of attempting to write enthusiastically. This aspect of emphasizing the literary competency of children implies that the literacy education in childhood was regarded as very important. The Chapter 4 examined the forms of children described within works. Especially, in the late Joseon Dynasty, the works about children were sharply increased by utilizing various genres. Those works extensively represented my[our] longing and lovely children, extraordinary children overcoming a crisis based on their wisdom, immature and pure children in childhood, and socially-neglected/abandoned children. In conclusions, the characteristics of Sino-Korean literature related to children in the late Joseon Dynasty could be summarized. First, the sub-genres of Sino-Korean literature accepting children were expanded, and the frequency of works was remarkably increased. This shows the positive change of Sino-Korean literature in the late Joseon Dynasty, aiming to include children in the place of literature. Second, the children in the place of Sino-Korean literature were mostly based on the direct interpersonal relationship with authors. Most of the children represented in works were real people who could be called a proper noun, and they were mostly represented as beings of longing and love. Third, it was relatively rare to find a case in which the children captured in sociological gaze such as abandoned children or begging children became the main characters of works. This means that the Sino-Korean literature of those days was insufficient to righteously recognize the reality of children, so that it was insufficient to have a full-literary gaze.
  • 2.

    Consideration for <呈張侍郞自牧一百韻> of Lee Gyu Bo (李奎報)-Comments for Reviewing Youth Period of Lee Gyu Bo

    Bae, Gyu-ri | 2020, (50) | pp.49~82 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate the backdrop and literary characteristics of Googwansi (求官詩: a poem to ask for an official post) by Lee Gyu Bo (李奎報) that has not been relatively noticed thus far in the domain of Chinese literature research, thereby, shedding a light on the period that Lee Gyu Bo had lived and newly elucidating his literary value. Although Lee Gyu Bo passed the state examination for the government posts at the times, he was not granted as an officer for several years, and therefore, he created about 22 poems of Googwansi until being nominated as the very first official post. Googwansi was typically composed for those who have a friendly relationship, and in particular, he composed the <呈張侍郞自牧一百韻> for Jang Ja Mok (張自牧) who was in the position of Sirang (侍郞: a position of a vice-minister class) to demonstrate his literary competency. This poem well illustrates his literary competency and skills. In terms of the characteristics, the poem was structured with 4 paragraphs to persuade the counterpart, for instance, ‘praise of the counterpart – reminding of a special connection between himself and the counterpart – appealing for his position – emphasizing that the existence of the counterpart is essential’, and he used a strategy that gradually stimulates the emotion of the counterpart. In a formality aspect, <呈張侍郞自牧一百韻> was composed of utilizing ‘Woo (虞)’ rhyme on top of Baeyulsi (排律詩: a Chinese poem with violated rules). Since Baeyulsi has a relatively tricky form, it is suitable for showing off his skills and ‘Woo (虞)’ rhyme is also appropriate to conveys his complicated feelings. In this context, it can be speculated that Lee Gyu Bo chose the Baeyul (i.e. violated rules) and ‘Woo (虞)’ rhyme intentionally in composing the poems. Finally, he disclosed his knowledge level and hard efforts on studying through utilizing the broad and deep grounds, and he seemed to take advantage of those broad grounds to properly disclose his feelings rather than just listing them. In conclusion, it is thought that Lee Gyu Bo completely demonstrated his literary competence to other parties through <呈張侍郞自牧一百韻>. This study investigated 「jeong jang sirang jamok ilbaekwoon」(meaning of the 100 verses for Jang Ja Mok in Sirang position). It is the first step to trace and to harmoniously examine a figure named Lee Gyu Bo with a trajectory of life as the life cycle. It is expected to have an opportunity that can exhibit his different aspects and shed light on his entire life through more researches in the future.
  • 3.

    Heo Gyun’s Patterns of Literature Exchange between Korea and China: Focusing on Late Ming Dynasty Woo Soonhee(虞淳熙)

    ahn nami | 2020, (50) | pp.83~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    During the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 (the Imjin War), Joseon and Ming dynasties had direct and close exchanges. In particular, literature exchange between Korea and China was actively conducted by Joseon literati who visited the Ming Dynasty as an official diplomatic mission or received envoys from the Ming Dynasty, among which Heo Gyun actively introduced Joseon’s literature to the Ming Dynasty. Heo Gyun compiled Joseon’s poems as well as his older sister Heo Nanseolheon’s poems and delivered them directly to writers of the Ming Dynasty who were interested in Joseon literature. In the process, Joseon’s literature was spread through the association of writers from the literary circles of the Ming Dynasty, focusing on Ju Jibeon (朱之蕃) and Gu Tan (丘坦), who met Heo Gyun in person and encountered Joseon literature. Writers from the Ming Dynasty never visited Joseon, but they had the opportunity to learn about Joseon’s literature and discuss and criticize it together. They again spread Joseon’s literature to other writers. Among them, Woo Soonhee, a renowned writer who has a personal network with Ju Jibeon and Gu Tan, added a preface (序文) to the collection of poems titled Joseonyeong (朝鮮詠). Woo Soonhee had an influential literary organization in Kangnam, which was the center of literature at that time. Ju Jibeon and Gu Tan, the envoys of the Ming Dynasty who met Heo Gyun of Joseon in person, introduced Joseon's literature to their writers in the second phase. The literary organization of the Ming Dynasty played an important role in the interest of writers of the Ming Dynasty in Joseon literature in the process of introducing Joseon literature to their writers in the second and third rounds of propagating Joseon literature to Heo Gyun of the Joseon Dynasty.
  • 4.

    A Contemplation of Alcohol Contained in the Poems of Ssangbeakdang Lee Se-hwa

    Lee Hwang Jin | 2020, (50) | pp.111~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Ssangbaekdang Lee Se-hwa(1630-1701) was a man who had high reputation during his life time with the acknowledgement of his integrity and loyalty by his strong opposition of dethroning of Queen Inhyeon in the year of Gisa (1689). This article has the subject of poetry with the alcohol showing in the poems of Lee Se-hwa to contemplate what role would the alcohol in the ordinary life style. There is a substantial portion, over 2/5 of entire poems, emerging with the alcohol in the literature collection of Lee Se-hwa, Ssangbaekdang-jib. However, the alcohols emerging in his poems displayed different trend from the contents handled in the alcohol related previous studies. The alcohol related previous studies have focused on obtaining the virtue and praise of most alcohols, ill-effect and borderline of alcohol, Chwiheung (fun and excitement from alcohol intoxication) and poetic adventure, means for forgetting worries and concerns, and things obtaining after intoxicated to the alcohol or efficacy from alcohol, such as, fresh new world, striving for ideal scheme and it is granted with literature implications. However, in the poems of Lee Se-hwa, such efficacy of the alcohol is almost not displayed and the alcohol is mostly the case of facilitating the ordinary life style of Lee Se-hwa as the material to display the same. When taking a look with the focus on poems written after the year of Gisa, there are three ordinary styles of the alcohol contained in the poems of Lee Se-hwa as this writer finds out. First, the tranquility that Lee Se-hwa felt while engaging in returning from government or civil service to the life in farming was displayed in embodiment through alcohol. Second, the longing and waiting for friend was demonstrated with expression of alcohol. And, third, the alcohol might enhance the mindset to long for the king and mindset to appreciate the grace and blessing of the king. As such, within the poems of Lee Se-hwa, the alcohol was facilitated as the matter that contains his life style without being a superficial mean in a plane way. This may be attributable to the fact that is closely related to the personality of Lee Se-hwa who had significant simplicity with less of pretensions in terms and his attitude in frugal and dignified life style. The 18th century has been appraised as the period when the search for the ordinary literature value was more broadly attempted. The ordinary style of the alcohol contained in the poems of Lee Se-hwa is considered as having the poetry tendency of the period from the end of 17th century to turn into the 18th century.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Literature Theory of Hong Naksun

    Ha Ji Young | 2020, (50) | pp.139~172 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the literary theory of Cheongryu group in the mid 18th century, focusing on the literature theory of Hong Nak-sun. Hong Nak-sun's literary theory is meaningful in that it shows the background and unfolding aspect of ancient prose(古文) theory in Joseon. He criticized the literary worlds of those days, which was enthusiastic to study the expressional techniques by applying the writings of Dang-Song as a prime example. In order to raise the level of writing, he emphasized the writings of Qin-Han, especially Shiji, as a prime example. He has repeatedly read the writings of Qin-Han to acquire Energy(氣) and Thought(意). In addition, he advocated Jaedoron(載道論) and pursued to express universal ethics in concrete facts and plain style. Such literary theory is similar to the art theory of the Noron Cheongryu literary group represented by Lee Yun-young and Lee In-sang. These antiquarianism and moral literary theories reflected the conservative view of the Cheongryu literary group, and at the same time, they were sometimes used as the basis for advocating their lives by being dedicated to literary arts. Cheongryu literary group can be used as a clue to see the detailed composition of Noron literary group and the changing aspect of literary theory and reveal the origin of Yeongam group literature.
  • 6.

    The Description Method of War and its Literary Meaning in Sojungwhayeokdaeseol focusing on Imjinyaoran

    Boyoon Yoon | 2020, (50) | pp.173~218 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sojungwhayeokdaeseol is a historical narrative focusing on the achievements of the king in the Joseon Dynasty while covering the description of capable statesmen and famous figures. It deals with s a story about Imjinyaoran, the Japanese invasion of the Joseon Dynasty in 1592, which covers a considerable part in this work. We can find the author’s consciousness added by literary elements in many areas in spite of a characteristic of delivering the facts of the war faithfully. First, it begins with the introduction of an independent story in which the conditions and circumstances of outbreak of the Japanese invasion are listed. It contained the ominous sign from heaven or extraordinary figure’s prediction warning the coming war. He also introduced the circumstances of being unable to prepare for the war in the Royal court due to the strife between political parties and the ambition of Pungsinsugil. Second, the anecdotes of JoHeon and Yi Sun-sin were embodied and highlighted as central figures while listing the progress of the Japanese Invasion over time. It was emphasized the fact that Jo Heon continuously filed an appeal to urge preparation of war and that he was killed heroically by raising up forces in the cause of justice. Yi Sun-sin was depicted as a figure respected by the people by constructing turtle ships in advance to prepare for the Japanese invasion and by winning a series of battles. Third, he tried to portray the King Seonjo positively while advocating the historical narrative with the list of objective facts. To this end, he emphasized the king’s ordeal, shifted his responsibility to other people, and excluded descriptions of his failed administrational situation. The author of Sojungwhayeokdaeseol reconstructed the whole story for the reader to easily understand instead of simply arranging the fact when dealing with the Japanese invasion. In addition, the author included literary elements by reflecting his consciousness on the description of the fact. In the meantime, there revealed characteristics such as the fact that the story became different from the truth in trivial parts or the biography of a distinguished person was described with extension. This literary style brought about popularity for this historical narrative not only by stimulating readers' interest but also satisfying the pleasure of enjoying real history, not fiction.
  • 7.

    A Study on “Jusaengjeon” seen through Perspective of the Dreamlike-story: Jusaeng's Desire being reflected in Image of Baedo and Sunhwa

    Cho Hongyoun | 2020, (50) | pp.219~246 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Jusaengjeon” is a romance that represents historical changes in literature of the late Joseon Dynasty and has been discussed by many researchers. However, in each study, different opinions have been drawn over all areas related to the internal and external interpretations of the work. Therefore, the concept of dreamlike-story was proposed by a former researcher to understand “Jusaengjeon” clearly as a romance with enhanced reality. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the narrative of “Jusaengjeon” by actively applying the concept of dreamlike-story. In this regard, Jeondang and Hoju, the dreamlike spaces in narrative, and the encounter with Baedo and Sunhwa held in it, were all considered as projection of Jusaeng's desire suppressed in reality. As a result of analyzing the narrative from that point of view, I revealed that Jeondang is a space for resolving jusaeng's desire to be recognized and to have a background for goodwill, while the former desire is reflected in Baedo and the latter in Sunhwa. However, the two desires were forced to collide with each other even though they were adjacent. Accordingly, Jusaeng, Baedo, and Sunhwa were forced to conflict due to the conflict between the two desires that occurred within Jusaeng's inner side, and thus the narrative of “Jusaengjeon” was bound to be a tragedy.
  • 8.

    Gongmudohaga's characteristics as an oral ballad and subject consciousness

    Cho, Yong-ho | 2020, (50) | pp.247~288 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In studies of Gongmudohaga, most researchers had hitherto regarded Gogeumju(by Choi Pyo) as a main text, not Geumjo(by Chae Ong), even though Gogeumju was written later than Geumjo and the former did not record the lyrics of Gongmudohaga. I thought, this was a wrong routine and must had been corrected. Therefore, I first tried to corroborate whether the song were directly derived from the tale in Geumjo. For this first purpose, I analyzed the tale in terms of a sentence structure of the original text written in classical Chinese and a rationality of unfolding events in the tale. As a result, I ascertained that the wife of 'Gwangbu(crazy man)' was drowned earlier than him and he sang the song and drowned after seeing his wife's death with his own eyes. Based on this result, I secondly tried to demonstrate that the song Gongmudohaga was a longstanding oral ballad having been occurred from a universal human life irrelevant to the background story in the literature. This judgment led to the conclusion that the meaning of the song should be interpreted on its own, separate from the tale. In analyzing the lyrics of song, I focused on letters used in the song and the stream of poetical imagination. Especially, I translated '公(Gong)' as 'Thou(그대: a title of respect normally used)', and '墮(Ta)' as the meaning of falling into the river of death by linking it to '河(Ha: river). Gongmudohaga's subject consciousness was involved in the original mind such as the fear of death, which was an inscrutable phenomenon, and the curiosity of the posthumous world. So, I thought it must have been created before the religious beliefs of posthumous world were established. For this reason, the song could have been widely spread over a long period of time, and eventually it would have been known to China and recorded in the literature.
  • 9.

    The Problems of Oppression and Escape of Parental Roles in Stories of “The Enemy Born As My Child”

    Jaiin Park | 2020, (50) | pp.289~320 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article looked at the meaning of gender in the stories of “The Enemy Born As My Child”, and discussed excessive alertness and overidentification reflected in the narrative flow. It was embodied in the Oral Folktale with vigilance, fear, and overidentification of the child, and such the meaning of gender was related to the role of the parent in the work or the sex of the subject. These issues concretely reveal the concerns and fears of dealing with children from the perspective of “parents”. And these are the responsibilities and duties that our society imposed on fathers and mothers. And among the “The Enemy Born As My Child”, there was also a story about breaking out of the role of parents that this society demands. <Spider son who Mother's milk sucking> shows the way of another narrative. This story is a verbal story that considers motherhood as a woman's instinct and examines the problem of Oppressed Motherhood, which forced the mercy and sacrifice of a noble mother, and allows the Hate Emotion of children. Through the literary device of “The Enemy Born As My Child”, we were able to explore the primitive emotions of human beings and the liberation of its natural nature, which hell of us as a guilty guilt by expressing the primal emotions of human existence that civilized society does not allow. It can be said that it is the literary imagination of the oral story that leads to escape from.
  • 10.

    The characteristics of rural life and farming method and agricultural production in the Namyang County in the late Joseon Dynasty -Focused on Lee Ok's BaekWoonPil

    YEOM, JEONGSUP | 2020, (50) | pp.321~365 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this Essay, focused on Lee Baek Woon-pil of Lee Ok, a person who lived in Songsan, Namyang county from the late 18th to early 19th centuries, we examined the daily life of rural life at the time, the characteristics of farming methods, and the market orientation of agricultural production. While experiencing the daily life of rural life in Songsan in detail, Lee Ok directly practiced cultivation of seeds and flowers related to agriculture, and internalized the way of interpreting farmers' natural phenomena. In addition, Lee Ok briefly summarized the farming methods of the Namyang County area based on his own opinions, and made clear his suggestions regarding the rice farming method, varieties of rice, the importance of ploughing and weeding. He also tried how to improve or improve the farming method, or to explore and experiment with farming methods that can produce a lot of harvest. Lee Ok was approaching principle of farming in a number of ways of hearing and seeing from the old farmers, the peasants, and neighbors. At that time, in the BaekWoonPil, Lee Ok summarized and recorded various aspects of agricultural production aimed at the market. He paid attention to the appearance of making strings or nets through primary processing and conducting his business. Tobacco cultivation also emphasized the merchandise through emphasis on fragrance and spiciness. In addition, the emphasis on cultivation of ginseng, a pronoun for crops, can be found. Cases of raising beef and raising profits were found in Hoseo and Ssangbu regions, and the distribution of flowers comparable to the flower market was taking place. In this way, the characteristic of agricultural production in Namyang County, explained by Lee Ok, was that it was market-oriented.