The Research of the Korean Classic 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.53

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pISSN : 1226-3850
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2021, Vol., No.53

  • 1.

    The Way of Connection and Communication in Classical Literature in the Era of Disconnection and Isolation -Focusing on the Story-in-depth of Classic Novels and their Female Readers

    Donghun Shin | 2021, (53) | pp.5~62 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study discusses the characteristics and values of classical literature as part of finding a humanistic solution to the disconnection, isolation, depression and anger felt by modern people. While applying the concept “story-in-depth” of literary therapeutics, the “story-in-depth of text” of classical novels and the “story-in-depth of self” of female readers were linked. Particular attention was paid to existential expansion and social solidarity through narrative connections and connections inside and outside the works. This approach was considered a powerful pathway to overcome the psychological disconnection as a current problem. Women in traditional Korean society had to endure a more severe disconnection and isolation than modern people. It was a lifelong self- isolation situation. It was a classic novel that conveyed comfort to these women and opened a psychological outlet. Cnovels inclde Guunmong(九雲夢), Sassinamjeonggi(謝氏南征記), Manboksajeopogi(萬福寺樗蒲記), Banghanlim󰠀jeon(方翰林傳〉, and Sukhyangjeon(淑香傳〉. While reflecting the reality of the lives of women of the day, they showed the possible world beyond reality and made it internal. The fictional imagination expressed by these works is not to be regarded as a mere escape fantasy. It has a function of surpassing the limits of reality and establishing people as subjects of life while vividly reflecting the real situation like a “tomb”. It was inherent in the text of the work, and it was “constructed” through readers’ subjective reading. The literary process was an existential struggle for self-discovery and self-realization. The significance of the narrative connection between classical novels and female readers is not limited to personal private experiences. It served as a driving force for social change while expressing synchronic and diachronic connectivity. Its aesthetic energy has achieved psycho󰠀logical solidarity that transcends gender and class. it also led to real resistance and practice, breaking social restrictions and repression. The freedom we have today result from the efforts of “finding narrative way” carried out in all directions in the past. To achieve the fundamental connection and communication beyond the modern isolation and disconnection, we need to reflect on the aesthetic and existential struggle that has progressed through classical literature and make it a new meaning.
  • 2.

    The Daebaekrok description strategy from the perspective of communication

    Kim Girim | 2021, (53) | pp.63~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the strategies and meanings for communication used in Daebaekrok from the perspective of Daebaeknok as a communicative text. Hong Joong-in recognized that the “public opinion” formed by Noron was distorted and wrote Daebaeknok to respond and communicate. This book is likely to have been written around 1750. The contents dealt with the Jeongneung󰠀byeongo incident(정릉변고사건), Gichukoksa(기축옥사) and related figures such as Jeong Cheol, Seong Hon, Choi Young-gyeong, and Jeong Gae-cheong. In addition, Ii, Kim Jang-saeng, Song Si-yeol, Yoon Seon-geo, and Yoon Jeung were also covered. Hong Joong-in refuted the discussions of the Norons, which were considered public opinion at the time. To this end, he arranged the arguments side by side to secure objectivity. He ruled out partiality by using the Nargument and secured fairness as a way to criticize his party. Thus, it sought to increase the possibility of becoming a public security by drawing recognition from the arena of public communication. In this regard, Hong Joong-in’s Daebaeknok is an attempt to break the prejudice of the world and rebuild a balanced perception by mutual communication, free from confrontation between Noron(노론) and Namin(남인).
  • 3.

    Aspects and meanings of secular severance in Joseon Taoist figures

    Kim, Sooyoun | 2021, (53) | pp.93~123 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the meaning of the “Rise of Taoist Figure Stories” in the late Joseon Dynasty. To this end, the creation purpose and composition of the Taoist Figure Stories in early China were first examined, and the Joseon Taoist Figure Stories were then considered from the perspective of its literary historical succession. In particular, the meaning of “social disconnection and communication” of the Taoist Character Stories was derived, focusing on the aspects and meanings of secular disconnection and secular regression seen by the figures. The purpose of creation, which is confirmed in the Liexianzhuan, Shenxianzhuan, and Heo Gyun’s Taoist Figures Stories, is to confirm the historicality of Taoist figures. Specifically, the content is composed of “Birth-training-doing bizarre deed-getting Immortality”. This is re- described in the structure of “secular-severance-return-severance”, and the content is “subordinate to the world-being cut off by the world-being voluntarily returning to the world-being perfected by spontaneous disconnection from the world” In addition, the structure of “secular-severance-return-severance” is “discovery of other qualities contrary to the Confucian order-existential transformation through becoming a Taoist person-confirmation of the existence of a Taoist character, and communication with the world of the converted being- becoming a complete human.” Taoist figures are people who pursue a new way of life that is different from the neo-Confucian order. They communicate with the people and expand their presence. In HeoGera, it was a social request to prove the existence of Taoist figures, and in the later generations, it was the task of the Taoist Figures Stories to discover them in the anonymity of the people.
  • 4.

    Make a path between communication and disconnection, A Study of the Oral-epics 〈YangsanBaek and Chukyeongdae〉 in Hamgyeong-do

    Yoon Joon Seob | 2021, (53) | pp.125~158 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Mangmukgut in Hamgyeong-do, where the epic “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” of “Mungut” is featured, is a ritual of death. Because the ritual[gut] begins at the disconnection from the dead of the dead and the living beings. At this time, the living beings hope that the dead will go to the otherworld well, but hope to see them again. To do so, the living beings needed a way to communicate with the dead. This study examined the process of the main character of “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” becoming a god connecting the cut-off path between the living and the dead. First, unlike the classic novel “YangsanBaekjeon”, it was confirmed that “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” is an epic that focuses on the love between YangsanBaek and Chukyeongdae. However, there were many questions when discussing it in connection with “Mungut”, known as the “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae”. It is not clear whether “Mungut” was performed in Mangmukgut and “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” in “Mungut”. However, the survey report left by Lim Seok-jae, Jang Joo-geun, and Kim Tae-gon confirmed that there was material to explain why “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” was played in Mangmukgut. The first was a comment on “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” left by Kim Tae-gon. He explained that the epic only applies to die young. This paper found that Kim Tae-gon made such annotations because “Yangsan󰠀baek and Chukyeongdae” was performed in Honsagut(otherworld wedding ritual). In other words, the main characters of the epic, “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae”, proved that they did not achieve love in reality, but they achieved love in the otherworld. Thus, Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae can be seen as gods that comfort the spirits who died young without achieving love. The second was the actual name of “Mungut” left by Lim Seok-jae and Jang Joo-geun. They labeled the ritual procedure, which performed “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae”, as “Munduchoendujilgut.” In response, this study attempted to interpret “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” from the perspective of “Gilgut” beyond “Mungut”. As a result, in “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae”, Chukyeong󰠀dae confirmed that a new path to Yangsanbaek is set by the power of love. Therefore, the Chukyeongdae was able to become a god connecting the broken road between the living and the dead. In short, “Yangsanbaek and Chukyeongdae” is a multi-layered epic about a god who comforts the specter who died young without achieving love and a god who reconnects the broken path between the living and the dead.
  • 5.

    Male Characters’ Morbid Jealousy in Three-Generation Series Novels - Focused on “Sounmyeong” in Sohyeonseong-rok Series

    Gong hye-ran | 2021, (53) | pp.159~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In three-generation series novels, many characters are embodied due to their massive volume. Of them, the husband who doubts his wife’s fidelity, even though she is not unfaithful, is often embodied such novels from 17th and the 18th century. This study first defines a long line of acts by Sounmyeong Sohyeonseong- rok series in the 17th century, which is an early three-generation series novels on “morbid jealousy”, a modern pathological phenomenon to examine its symptoms and investigate causes and the impact of such a type of male characters on these novels later in the 18th century. This study received help from concepts in Modern Psychiatry and Sigmund Freud’s studies. In addition, of the three-generation series novels in the 18th century, this study was concerned with Yussisamdaerok in the early-18th century, Hyeonmong󰠀ssangryonggi in the 18th century and Jossisamdaerok in the 18th to the early-19th century. this study classifies and investigate the male characters who show symptom of morbid jealousy aforementioned novels. this study also examines various aspects of male characters in Korean full-length novels through this discussion.
  • 6.

    The aspect and meaning of novelization of Umsung in classical novels

    Kim Moon Hee | 2021, (53) | pp.191~232 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study discusses aspect and meaning of novelization of Umsung, a historical figure that appears repeatedly in classical novels such as Changsungamuerok, Sassinamjunggi, Ilrakjunggi, Nakcheondeungun paying attention to Umsung in Ming history. Private historical books such as Myeongsagisabonmal, Hwangmyeongtonggijipyo, Myeonggipyunyeon were being imported and read in Chosun before the official Myeongsa which was published in Qing dynasty. Umsung, a figure in Ming history could be reorganized as a figure in classical novels because various historical books starting with Myeongsa were being circulated and enjoyed in this way. Umsung in classical novels constitutes a figure who has functions of complex inducer of discord and associative builder of evildoer in common. The complex inducer of discord means that Umsung functions as omnidirectional discord inducer who conflicts with royalistic father of male and female main characters and main characters as well. It is similarization of history to imitate the qualification of Umsung in Myeongsa as it is. Classical novels are easily able to build integral appearance of disloyal subjects by imitating qualification of Umsung through the similarization of history. The associative builder of evildoer means that Umsung functions as a figure who concentrates and associates evildoers. Classical novels bulid a narrative where a historical figure in Ming history and fictional evildoers associate centering around Umsung and constitutes a narrative where a historical figure in Ming history associates centering a main character on the one hand. Lastly, classical novels also show originalities where female main characters or surrounding people constitute new stories of friendship while making a journey to escape from adversities of Umsung. It achieves novelistic originalities with romantic awareness about love and fictional imagi󰠀nation actively involved by actualizing unrealizavle love imaginatively.
  • 7.

    The Representation of So Woon-myung Couple and Its Meaning in “SoSsiSamDaeRok”

    Jeung Sun Hee | 2021, (53) | pp.233~258 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes the representation of So Woon-myung couple and its meaning in the novel “SoSsiSamDaeRok,” a Korean full-length novel written in the late 17th century. So Woon-myung is kind and good at writing, but he was always considered deficient because he was not generous and was swayed by emotions. In comparison, his wife, Lim, was described as a woman like a scholar and a saint because she was virtuous and logical. His second wife, Lee, is a pretty and fragile-looking woman, but she is strong-minded, noble, and pure, so she is detached from Woon-myung’s love. Another wife, Jeong, is jealous of her husband looking at Lee only, so she commits an evil deed and is kicked out to her parents. The significance of this representation can be said to be the relationship between a husband and a wife as a test bed for a head of household, the karma and fate of a previous life, and the solidarity of a virtuous wife and a pure wife. It is noteworthy that “Woon-myung” as an “ordinary person” was considered interesting while receiving sympathy and criticism from the readers, making them immersed in the work.
  • 8.

    The Creation Method of “Namjeongpalangi” written in Chinese character - Focusing on the Use of Chinese classic novels

    Hyunsung Hong | 2021, (53) | pp.259~285 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviews creative style, noting the influence of Chinese classic novels in “Namjeongpalnangi(南征八難記)”. This classic novel was created mainly from “The Four Great Classical Novels(四大奇書)”, using various Chinese classics such as “jiandengxinhua(剪燈新話)” and “Xixiangji(西廂記)”. The most influential work was “The Water Margin(水滸志)”. In this classic novel, the influence of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms(三國志演義)” also appeared. The novel also imitated “The Journey to the West(西遊記)” to form an episode of monsters appearing. “The Plum in the Golden Vase(金甁梅)” influenced poetry among the text in “Namjeongpalnangi”. The creative method using Chinese novels has three meanings. First, it demonstrated that the author created Chinese characters in line with the cultural trend of reading “the Four Great Classical Novels”. Second, It showed the writer’s complex view of Chinese novels. Third, it indicated that the writer gave the enjoyment of reading the text.
  • 9.

    Exploring the Problem of “Name” in Pak Chiwŏn’s Prose

    Jinyoup Jang | 2021, (53) | pp.287~322 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the problem of “name (myŏng, 名)” in Pak Chiwŏn’s prose works Sŏn’gyultanggi (蟬橘堂記), Kwanjaegi (觀齋記), Palsŭngamgi (髮僧庵記), and Yŏngjaejipsŏ (泠齋集序). While Sŏn’gyultanggi discusses the emptiness and constraints of names, it also expects that they will induce efforts to discover the “true form” of the things themselves. Kwanjaegi observes how all things, from the self(ah, 我) to the name(myŏng, 名), change and die through the teaching of “obediently receiving and conveying.” While both works talk about the emptiness of names, they paradoxically also demonstrate their possibilities. Moreover, Palsŭngamgi highlights the contradictory existential condition of humans’, particularly literary intellectuals, ceaseless attempts to make a name for themselves, while Yŏngjaejipsŏ explores what this means through literature. The analysis can also be contrasted with Pak’s political treatise Myŏngnon (名論) in which he describes how the property of pursuing fame, that is, making a name for oneself, is a fundamental element that decides human action. In sum, the aforementioned works do not refute the making of names and making a name for oneself, but reflect Pak’s anxieties regarding such actions. Within his strong repudiation and doubt, he indirectly expresses the possibilities and necessity of leaving a name behind through humor, concealment, reversal, and twists.
  • 10.

    Research on Dukchon Yang Dukjung’s literature

    Yun Jeong Choi | 2021, (53) | pp.323~358 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined Dukchon Yang’s evaluation criteria on the literature and characteristics of each literary subjects, focusing on Book 4-6 in miscellaneous writings(雜著) under his Dukchonjip(德村集). Dukchon’s writings are about ideological issues than having literary aspects. In particular, poetry and are used as away of communication with other companions, rather than expressing his personal emotion. He described the motivation of composing the poetry, and made the contemporary situation the subject of poem or supplementally explained it, helping us understand the situation and issues in his era. It is difficult to ditermine his direct mention about literature but possible to guess his literature viewpoints by studying on his evaluation of his companion’s works or his own editorial articles. Dukchon rejected the false consciousness and emphasized Silhak(實學) which pursued the rightness in reality. This view of literature was characterized in his evaluation of other people and other’s writings. Dukchon focused on the internal details of the person or his works rather than his external eminence, and pursued fundamentality rather than false consciousness and the practice of knowledge than knowledge itself. We can characterize Dukchon’s literature into three aspects The first aspect is his pursuit of Self discipline(治心) and Autosatisfaction(知足). He realized his accommodative attitude to the world’s reasonableness in his works rather than blaming the environmental situation. The second aspect is his corresponding consciousness to the chaotic social conditions. Dukchon continuously self-examined to practise the truth and duty he believed, and left the poems as the result of these communications. The third aspect is his expression of focusing loyalty and substantiality. Above characteristics of Dukchon’s literature are related to those of contemporary Soron’s literature which was focused on the reality than the cause and the logical criticism. We can more concretely understand Dukchon’s literature through this study which will contribute to enlarge the horizon of Soron’s literature.
  • 11.

    Female Character’s Movement and Place Experience in “Igongbonpuri” and “Munjeonbonpuri”

    Sinjeong Kim | 2021, (53) | pp.359~388 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the movement and place experiences of the female characters of “Igongbonpuri” and “Moonjeonbonpuri”, which contributed to the formation of identity as a goddess and explored their movement patterns and the meaning of their experiences. “Igongbonpuri” and “Munjeonbonpuri” have several points in common. First there is a problem of “after” marriage and childbirth for female characters. In other words, after the creation of a family, the husband has to leave the house, and the female characters also leave the house, and the family is scattered. Second, the wandering female characters are killed by someone outside the house. The mythical world forms a more gendered space than the real world. The movement of female characters has no destination in the spaces of the mythical world that are gendered centered on men. Furthermore, there is no where women are protected or belong to. If movement of male characters is purpose-oriented, the wandering female character’s movement is relationship-oriented. Male characters move out of the house and then by anchor or confine their space is to be narrowed their space, while female characters experience death and then expand their space as the body spreads horizontally and vertically. In short, through the spatial experience of movement and death, female characters create a new meaning in the place by themselves and form a special mythical space. In Western mythology, death was interpreted as a destiny that even God could not solve and was negative. However, in Korean mythology, death acts as an opportunity for regeneration, and female characters inevitably become gods through death. In other words, the place experience of female characters in myth becomes a mechanism to establish the identity of a character in myth.