The Research of the Korean Classic 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.53

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2022, Vol., No.57

  • 1.

    Digital Technology Environment and Humanities Classics

    Jae-Hee Kim | 2022, (57) | pp.5~34 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the role of humanities classics in the era of the accelerating Digital Turn. First, in light of L. Floridi’s information philosophy and B. Stiegler’s technology philosophy, the philosophical meaning of the current digital technology environment is elucidated. Based on this, it highlights the future of the humanities classics in the broader perspective of the PostHumanities that encompasses the Digital Humanities. According to Floridi, the conditions of human life after the computing and information revolution constitute the Infosphere, in which humans and non-humans form a cooperative network as equal informational entities. Stigler focuses on the algorithmic governmentality inherent in this Infosphere and calls for critical vigilance against the weakening of the human intellect. What role should the classics of the humanities play in a digital environment that is moving toward automation and virtualization of the real world? It must aim to recover the creative mental ability overwhelmed by the automated digital system, to uncover the real problems hidden behind the virtual world, and to prepare a new value and meaning of the life of a posthumanizing “human.” Humanities classics should not be limited to simply revitalizing the spirit of the liberal arts in traditional humanities or used for digitalizing humanities texts, but should contribute to discovering and creating the posthumanity that “we who are becoming” should have by triggering critical reflection and a new understanding of “we humans” standing at a historical turning point.
  • 2.

    An Essay on Digital Classics

    Ryu Intae | 2022, (57) | pp.35~60 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to outline the overall topography and academic consequences of the many classical studies that have been attempted as a component of digital humanities study in recent years, as well as to investigate the possibilities of digital classics derived from them. Sketching the design of digital classics may appear to be a contradiction in a situation where it is difficult to provide the traditional denotative definition of classical studies. While it is impossible to define classical studies in an analog context, it is equally worthwhile to investigate the universal qualities of classical studies generated in a digital environment to gain greater clarity on the meanings of classical studies as a “discipline” (學). This is because many components of classical studies undertaken in a digital context assume classical studies’ traditional problematic consciousness. In this sense, the term “digital classics,” as used in this paper, is not a precise definition of a discipline, but rather a broad statement intended to cover all parts of classical scholarship that intersect with digital technology. The continuation of “co-ation” represented by “cooperation” – “communication” – “computation” is necessary for digital classics to function as a point of interaction between classical research and digital technology. As an active exploration and tangible movement to continue such new research activities, a series of knowledge processing methods such as “sharing,” “representation,” and “analysis” of classical data must be accepted.
  • 3.

    Analysis of the message of Gam Eung-Story in Taesanggameung-pyeon through text mining

    Kim, Sooyoun , Ha Eun ha , SuMin, KIM and 1 other persons | 2022, (57) | pp.61~86 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze the message of Taesanggameung-pyeon published by the Joseon royal family in the 19th century through text mining. As it was issued by the state, the text of Taesanggameung-pyeon occupies a special position. In addition, the title and genre regulation of the book constitute a superficial message centered on “Taoism, the transcendental, good and evil, and cause and effect.” Superficial messages may trigger cognitive bias in the reading process. Data mining enables a new interpretation of texts that are prone to cognitive biases in that it treats fine-scale text information, which is easy to miss by human attention, as having the same value as information in units that human cognition readily understands. In this article, frequency analysis of vocabulary, visualization of vocabulary characteristics, and topic-oriented visualization were conducted to determine the actual message delivered to the readers of Taesang󰠀gameung-pyeon, which has a strong superficial message. For the linguistic approach and visualization, quantitative analysis techniques such as word cloud, TF-IDF, word2Vec, K-means clustering, and topic modeling were used. Following text mining focused on the vocabulary used in Taesanggameung-pyeon, the ethics emphasized in Taesanggameung- pyeon is not religion-specific, but has general applicability, and the desire that the Gam Eung Story satisfies is a transcendent desire. Rather, it was confirmed that it was a desire to make up for worldly and everyday shortcomings. This affords new insights in that it is distinct from the results of earlier qualitative studies.
  • 4.

    A lengthwise comparative study of different versions of Yadam -Based on “Ok So-seon”

    Kwon, Ki-sung , Choi, Woonho , Kim Dong Gun | 2022, (57) | pp.87~120 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study uses lengthwise measurement of literary text using digital tools to classify various versions of the series ”The Story of Ok So-seon.” Although there have been several attempts at analyzing the development process or variation pattern of “The Story of Ok So-seon,” this study applies a new methodology to compare different versions of Yadam rather than denying earlier results or revealing new aspects. Therefore, the focus was on objectively corroborating existing studies and revealing new possibilities. First, the distances between different versions were measured and visualized as a check on earlier discussion through character unit sequence comparison and comparison of semantic types for each paragraph. As examined, the series classification of “The Story of Ok So-seon” was similar to that previous studies, and the cause of the difference was also a part that could be interpreted in the development process of Yadamsa Temple. However, in terms of disclosure, it was found that this study within the same series was relatively insufficient. This may be because there is no significant difference in narrative, although it was observed that objective and quantitative research of the literary summation series, which occupies a large proportion of Yadam’s history, is needed. If multiple Yadam books are examined, inevitable mistakes and inefficiencies are introduced into human processing capacity. However, until now, most studies of Yadam have been conducted following traditional humanities methods. While acknowledging their strengths, attempts to explore new possibilities should also be made. This can lead to visualizing the actual compartments and relationships of the Yadam enjoyment pattern in the future, and the horizon of research on the different versions of Yadam can be expanded using the research methodology of a new era of digital humanities.
  • 5.

    Graphing the King’s Voice: Reconstruction of Kyujangjŏnun through Network Visualization

    JAMIE JUNGMIN YOO , Sung, Kiho | 2022, (57) | pp.121~166 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is aimed to visualize Kyujangjŏnun, one of the most influential rhyme books published in Choson Korea, paying particular attention to various network structures among the book’s rhymes and their relationships with the rhyme families. By applying social network analysis as a main research method, this study delineates the compiler’s intention which has been embedded in the formal features of Kyujangjŏnun. King Chongjo, who initiated the compilation project, envisaged the establishment of a new literary canon of the day through the careful regulation of literary forms. Visualizing Kyujangjŏnun using social network analysis, in this respect, is intended to identify the major elements the compiler chose to apply to constructing a new literary model. This study also serves as a preliminary study to support future research on the process of canon formation and literary censorship in late Choson Korea. How do editorial practices reshape the literary canon? Through the process of selecting, categorizing, and rearranging literary works, the late Choson government attempted to establish new literary canons. By contextualizing the interactions between the actual literary works proposed by the government and Kyujangjŏnun, which laid out the formal regulations, we will be able to delineate the ontology of textual interpretation and value of the day.
  • 6.

    Public Data Act and humanities data -Applying for open to humanities data held by public institutions

    Kim Ba-ro | 2022, (57) | pp.167~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    To examine the present state of data disclosure by public institutions under the Public Data Act, I first analyzed the humanities data compiled by public institutions and explored problems in requesting open to them. In Korea, humanities data are mostly stored and managed with government support. In 2013, the Public Data Act was enacted, mandating that public institutions provide public open to the public data they hold and manage. However, public data in the humanities sector frequently have yet to be disclosed. Although secondary workpieces of public data are provided as a web service, such as the Annals of the Digital Joseon Dynasty, it is necessary to obtain RAWDATA corresponding to the primary feed for digital humanities research, a new form of study of the humanities in the digital environment. However, most humanities institutions that store humanities data do not disclose public data under the Public Data Act, citing reasons such as personal information protection, data updates, and copyright protection despite public data disclosure requests. Therefore, it is necessary to change public institutions’ attitudes toward the disclosure of machine-only RAWDATA such as CSV, XML, and RDF guaranteed by the Public Data Act for the study of the humanities in the digital era.
  • 7.

    The Poetic World of Yang-sim-dang Cho Seong

    Cho, Yong-ho | 2022, (57) | pp.193~233 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to comprehend the poetic world and the historical background of the literature of Cho Seong, a literary scholar in the early Choseon Dynasty from Joongjong to Myeongjong. Before the full-fledged study, I created a framework to categorize his poems according to motive by using the motive for writing the poetry and the subject matter that was key to embodying the subject of the poetry as the reference line for the compartment. Based on this reference line, I created four categories as follows. Type A: The motive of delivery prevails, and the subject matter is about human beings. Type B: The motive of delivery prevails, and the subject matter is about material phenomena. Type C: The motive of expression prevails, and the subject matter is about human beings. Type D: The motive of expression prevails, and the subject matter is about material phenomena. All four categories involved each type, and the poet expressed his intention and emotion similarly in the poems assigned to each. In Type A, poems mainly showed the intention to encourage the recipient to be diligent and wakeful. In Type B, the sentiment of aspiring to intimacy and companionship with the recipient was the main focus. In Type C, the poet's voice was prominent in expressing his hardships and anguish. In Type D, the assurance of self-sufficiency and prudence formed the principal emotion. In his poetry, Cho Seong faithfully represented the reflective human figure living in personal suffering and unhappy times. This aspect was deeply applicable to him, as despite being afflicted with several diseases throughout his life, he devoted his life to academic exploration and student education. Besides producing typical literary works, he wrote poems that were unconventional in terms of form, content, and theme due to his extraordinary personal and historical condition. In particular, epistolary poetry was a disparate and specific style that stands out in his literature. Simply by creating this form, he made a significant contribution to Korean literature.
  • 8.

    Brush Talks and Poetry Exchange in Travel Journals by the T’ongsinsa of 1711 and 1719

    Jinyoup Jang | 2022, (57) | pp.235~287 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to review the brush talks and poetry exchanges included in the 18th century travel journals produced by the T’ongsinsa (通信使, the Chosŏn envoy to Tokugawa Japan) of 1711 and 1719. First, the brush talks from the T’ongsinsa travel journals of each era were examined. The T’ongsinsa of 1711 produced three different records. Cho Tae’ŏk’s Tongsarok includes exchanged poetry—95 verses under 74 titles. Im Sukwan’s Tongsailgi contains an independent account of brush talk titled Kangguanp’iltam, while Kim Hyŏnmun’s Tongsarok only documented significant episodes from the brush talks and poetry exchanges. Regarding the T’ongsinsa of 1719, the letters exchanged while negotiating diplomatic procedures were included in Haesaillok by Hong Ch’ijung. Chung Hukyo‘s Pusanggihaeng, in its diary portion, provided summarized accounts of the brush talks and poetry exchanges that took place in each era, and then provided 74 verses of exchanged poetry and 11 verses of original rhymes written by the Japanese. Sin Yuhan’s Haeyurok contains nearly 70 entries in diary, and Munkyŏnjapnok provides 36 accounts of brush talks and poetry exchange, showing a clear difference from the records produced in the previous era. Three aspects of the inclusion of the brush talk in these travel journals—produced by the T’ongsinsa of 1711 and 1719—are noteworthy. First, the T’ongsinsa travel journals of this period include more accounts of brush talks, as more such talks were held then. Second, people were becoming more open to the idea of leaving records of the brush talks. The term “brush talk” (筆談) appears frequently in the travel journals of this era, implying its increased recognition as a mode of communication that could be distinguished from the spoken word. Such notion led to a greater focus on “what was being said” in the brush talks than the mere fact that they occurred. The third aspect relates to the characteristics of narrative style. There are two stylistic characteristics apparent in 18th century brush talks in T’ongsinsa travel journals: recapitulation and reproduction of conversation. The former was widely used in T’ongsinsa travel journals of this era, while the latter was partly employed in Pusanggihaeng, and openly utilized in Haeyurok. Haeyurok in particular strategically employed the records of the brush talks in relations to the purpose of writing his travel journal—an important characteristic succeeded by the travel journals of later eras, including Wŏn Chunggŏ’s Sŭingsarok. The most crucial trait of the records of brush talks in 18th century T’ongsinsa travel journals is that an active consciousness formed regarding the utility of “brush talks” as a means of communication, and that its end product came to be employed as an object “worth documenting.” These findings may well be given consideration when examining the accounts of brush talks from Chosŏn envoys’ travel journals produced in later periods.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Narrative Characteristics of Park Woo-hyeon’s Exile Diary Jasanrok(玆山錄)

    cho su mi | 2022, (57) | pp.289~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    asanrok is the exile diary of Park Woo-hyeon (朴遇賢, 1829-1907), a scholar from the late Joseon Dynasty, who was exiled to Heuksando for 12 years, as reported in Geumpa Yujip. This study focuses on the descriptive characteristics of Jasanrok and explores the universality and individuality of Jasanrok as a diary of an exile. One of the descriptive features of Park Woo-hyeon’s Jasanrok is that the frequency and number of records are closely related to the circumstances and contents of exile. For example, as the description of the reason for exile must be recorded in detail, numerous accounts have been included in this regard. Although there are not many narratives on the exile course, the frequency of their occurrence is high because of the need for objective records. On the other hand, as the opening and ending parts play a functionally appropriate role, the text has a structurally stable appearance, emotions are expressed dramatically through appropriate descriptions, and the objectivity and realism of the information can be secured through citations. Such descriptive characteristics of Jasanrok can be re-examined by dividing it into the aspects of universality and individuality. Universality as an exile diary is a narrative characteristic that is inevitably acquired because it records an experience that is both unique and general; additionally, being a diary, individuality is retained. It may be stated that it is a characteristic that appears because it is a strictly literary document that reveals the personality of the author who wrote it. Its universality corresponds to the correlation between the frequency and quantity of records and the circumstances of exile, and the use of the introduction and conclusion, and of description and citation corresponds to individuality.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Characteristics of Peony and the Garden of Flowers in “Anbingmongyurok”

    Nam Hyekyoung | 2022, (57) | pp.315~342 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the theme of “Anbingmongyurok” (安憑夢遊錄) by comparing similar texts such as Shin Kwanghan’s collection of writings, “Gijaejip” (企齋集), and “Choi Hyunmi” (崔玄微) in Taepyeonggwanggi (太平廣記). Existing discussions have often described the flower garden kingdom as a corrupted space, and have stated that there was a confrontation between the female and male groups. However, if there is a confrontational structure in this work, there is room for it to be thought of as being between plants and rainstorm, as in 〈Choi Hyun-mi〉 of Taepyeonggwanggi. This is because there are many poems written by anthropomorphic plants related to rainstorm, as in 〈Choi Hyun-mi〉. In “Anbingmongyurok,” Shin Kwang-han mixes the images of Donghwang, Rainstorm, King, and husband. Thus, the female character’s melancholic sentiment toward her husband may also be understood as political rhetoric. In Shin Kwanghan’s collection of writings, “Gijaejip,” the spring day symbolizes the grace of the king, not a space of corruption. In addition, like the female characters of the flower garden kingdom, he left numerous poems that expressed regret over the fall of flowers and the aging of his body. The speaker of “Hwaisogyeong” (和離騷經) decorated himself like a peony and kept his manners and laws, but died after a long time without gaining the king’s trust. In conclusion, the flower garden kingdom and the Peony Queen were not objects to be overcome, but rather objects that reflected Shin Kwang-han’s inner self. The significance of this study is that Shin Kwang-han’s “Gijaejip,” which has been neglected until now in the study of “Anbingmongyurok,” served as principal reference material. It is expected that the author’s values will reveal the truth of the flower garden kingdom full of metaphors and symbols.
  • 11.

    The study on figuration of the son-in-law in the series Sohyeonseong-rok

    Jeung Sun Hee | 2022, (57) | pp.343~367 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on figuration of the son-in-law in the series of Korean full-length novels Sohyeonseong-rok of the late 17th century, dividing the relationship between the in-laws and son-in-law in the family composition into four categories, and explored their respective meanings. In particular, this study examines cases where the son-in-law is alienated from or welcomed in relationships with the father-in-law, mother-in-law, and other sons-in-law, or where the son-in-law ignores his in-laws or the other sons-in-law. The son-in-law, like the daughter-in-law, as a new family member is often secretly alienated or ignored, and is often portrayed as an ugly or promiscuous person. By doing so, the family members attempt to reveal the superiority of their family and highlight their daughter’s qualities and personality. However, if the relationship between the son-in-law and his in-laws is good, the marital relationship is good, but if not, it was the daughter, or the wife, who experienced suffering, being caught between her family and spouse. The victim of the conflict between husband and in-laws was often a woman. In particular, So Woon-seong is an overconfident male character who acted violently against his wives. Meanwhile, there are cases where members of the son-in-law’s family are presented as evil or inferior people, or the son-in-law himself is presented as a negative character, such as in the case of Kim Hyun. In short, the narratives related to the "son-in-law" in Korean-style novels, including Sohyeonseong-rok, reflect the status of sons-in-law in the family or family composition, and the influence mainly impacted their wives, and the related conflicts and resolution strengthened the fun and vitality of the work.
  • 12.

    Management Strategies of Tragic Situations in Pansori Literature

    Haejin Lee | 2022, (57) | pp.369~395 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Pansori literature depicts various tragic situations encountered by an ordinary protagonist and their emotional reactions to it, strongly evoking empathy from ordinary people who read it. This study examines the characteristics of tragic situations in Pansori literature and discusses several discourse strategies used to manage them. The tragic situation in Pansori literature always frustrates the ordinary protagonist, and has irrational and contradictory characteristics. Furthermore, their immense emotional reaction to it intensifies the tragedy. However, Pansori literature does not leave such an emotional state unattended and includes internal discourse strategies to manage it, which is deeply related to the emotional management method of the readers. The “humorous relaxation strategy,” “moral comfort strategy,” and “precognitive alternative strategy” discussed in this paper all correspond to a kind of internal defense strategy that makes the situation less sad and painful by turning one’s eyes elsewhere in tragic situations. However, this is differentiated from simply avoiding the problem. When a good individual cannot change their life immediately on their own, it allows them to imagine an optimistic future instead of being overwhelmed by negative emotions. Management strategies of tragic situations in Pansori literature are thus significant as comfort and encouragement strategies for people and for providing ideas for the ways we live and create stories today.
  • 13.

    A Study of the Funeral Rites Characteristics of “Gulbongjeongchwalto” in “Garakgukgi”

    Seung-Hwan Hyun , Byeon Sook Ja | 2022, (57) | pp.397~430 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the nature of the funeral rites of “Gulbongjeong󰠀chwalto” presented in the story “Garakgukgi” from the Samgukeusa. “Garakgukgi” is the mythical story of the birth of the ‘Su-ro’. Since myths are transmitted along with rituals, the character and meaning of the myths of aqueducts can be understood concretely only when the ritualistic aspects appearing in the myths of aqueducts are clearly identified. In “Garakgukgi,” the portion pertaining to the birth of “Su-ro” is subdivided into two parts: before and after the birth of Su-ro. The birth of Su-ro signifies the emergence of a new king, while simultaneously signifying the death of the former ruler. In other words, the birth of Su-ro in “Garakgukgi”contains two events: the rite for the birth of a new king and the funeral rites of the former ruler. This is also illustrated through the placement of the tomb of the ancient ruler, “Jiseokmyo,” above that of “Gujibong,” and the rite for the birth of a Su-ro being performed on Gujibong. In this study, folklore materials handed down until today were used to investigate the characteristics of the funeral rites of “Gulbongjeongchwalto.” First, we examined the relationship between the custom of “Jejeol” and “Gulbongjeongchwalto” among the funeral methods handed down in Jeju Island today. Second, we discovered the tradition of singing and dancing to pray for the birth of a new life in the funeral process through the “Dasiraegi”, a funeral method in Jindo where the ancient funeral method called “double funeral” is handed down. “Gulbongjeongchwalto” and “Gujiga” performances consist of praying for the birth of descendants and the transmission of sacredness, raising the possibility that it would be passed down to future generations.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Grotesque Features Represented in the ‘Fox Sister’ Folktale

    JUNHEE KIM | 2022, (57) | pp.431~457 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates the “inconvenience” and “uncertainty” of the Fox Sister folktale through the concept of “the grotesque.” Beyond the visual grotesque of a specific scene, I tried to examine the grotesque in the mere existence of the fox sister and the grotesque that occurs in the tale itself. First, the parents’ wish for a daughter makes things coexist that cannot coexist, given that it is already a wish that defies the society in the story and the “common sense” of the transmitters. The parents’ wish for a daughter eventually becomes a curse that ruins the family, resulting in a conflict between the wish and the curse, as conveyed in the discourse. In addition, as the fox sister is an unnatural being, a hybrid of two heterogeneous species, she is a grotesque being that amplifies collisions with the human world in a state of incongruity rather than converging them, which leads to disharmony. The fox sister’s livestock predation embodies a grotesque in which familiar targets cause confusion. Distrustful of their grown-up sons, the parents also reveal their confusion between uncanniness and familiarity, and the fox sister’s brutal predation also reveals the clash of appearance and behavior and the grotesque of physical immoderation. The fox sister’s grotesque status reflects the character’s lack of specific aims. These grotesque interests and pleasures are related to “liminality” in that they do not pursue any value or high-level aesthetic consciousness. Furthermore, in the scene where the fox sister chases after her brother and is eliminated, the contradictory utterance of eating an inedible object (a person who is called “brother”) is repeated, and the grotesque of disharmony appears. Even if the fox sister is killed, the unresolved state remains in that the complete family cannot be recovered, which shows the “unresolved” in the grotesque.