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2021, Vol.5, No.2

  • 1.

    A Study on the Process of Seizing Power by Syngman Rhee : By Focusing on the Roles of Public Mobilization and Anti Communist Ideology

    Jung Han Woong | 2021, 5(2) | pp.5~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the process of seizing power within the right-wing political forces, by focusing on the main variables that became the power base of Syngman Rhee from the liberation period to the period of the First Republic of Korea. Various variables had an effect on the seizure of power within the right-wing political forces. For this study, the mobilization of the masses and the anti-communist ideology that served as main variables were dealt with. In the process of seizing power, Syngman Rhee actively used the masses of right-wing public groups, the police, the military, and youth groups to compete for political power. In particular, Syngman Rhee strategically used the disposal of Japanese vested properties and free aid from the U.S. to create a sponsorship-sponsored structure centered on loyal and benevolent aides. He also implemented farmland reform to attract farmers as his base of support and took advantage of them as a means of his governance. Syngman Rhee also used anti-communist ideology based on 'Anti-Communist' and 'Northern Unification' as the ruling ideology. The Anti-Communist Ideology was not intended for North Korea, but rather internally-directed. Northern Unification Movement made the residents put together to strengthen their impenetrable anti-communist stance, forcing them to obey his own power who was a leader. Busan's political turmoil and the constitutional amendment, shown in the process of taking over power laid the foundation for Rhee Syng-man's long-term seizure of power until 1960. The reason why Rhee Syng-man was able to take power under a limited structural framework was that he made a success in utilizing two factors; public mobilization and anti-communist ideology.
  • 2.

    Ways to strengthen publicity of Daejeon City Social Service Center

    Hag man Kim | Kwon, Jeong-Man | 2021, 5(2) | pp.45~67 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Currently, the social service center is at the point of spreading to large local governments nationwide through a pilot project. In particular, in the case of Daejeon, the establishment is planned and in progress in 2021. Accordingly, in relation to the social service center project, a more fundamental and specific strategy for realizing the public good of social services should be prepared. In this regard, this study examines the performance and problems of the basic pilot project for an appropriate management plan to enhance publicity, reviews the establishment plan and expected problems of the Daejeon Social Service Center, and based on this, the publicity of the Daejeon Social Service Center I would like to propose a plan for reinforcement. As a way to strengthen the publicity of the Daejeon City Social Service Institute, Solve the problems of overlapping with similar institutions and plans, abolish the independent debt system, and secure a large amount of financial and budget investment.
  • 3.

    Democratic Communication and Citizen’s Self-development : Focusing on the Theory of Communicative Democracy

    Sang Won Na | 2021, 5(2) | pp.69~96 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the relationship between democracy and Citizen’s self-development. In particular, it focuses on Iris Young’s communicative democracy. According to Young, communicative democracy is a democracy in which the perspectives of the socially marginalized citizens are not excluded in the process of public decision-making and communication. It purposes to show how democratic communication affects the self-development of socially marginalized citizens in light of communicative democracy, and as an example, how democratic communication leads the self-development of participants in the Sewol ferry movement. For this purpose, the paper aims to ultimately contribute to the establishment of a more just and substantive democracy theory by enabling an expanded understanding of democratic subjects and their communication methods. In the end, while existing democracy focuses on periodic elections and limited to understanding the way political communication and decision-making. Ultimately, while existing democracy only understands the political communication and decision-making method centered on periodic elections, this paper intends to contribute to expanding the meaning of democratic communication and citizen’s self-development through communicative democracy.
  • 4.

    The Current Status of North Koreans’ Access to Outside Information and Changes in Their Perception

    kang,Dong Wan | 2021, 5(2) | pp.97~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    South Korean media have flowed into North Korea in earnest since the mid-2000s and have become one of the major indicators of social change in North Korea. As the fact that South Korean videos are watched even in the closed society of North Korea was made public through media reports and the testimony of North Korean defectors, relevant studies are being conducted more actively. The question is how to interpret the spread of outside information in North Korea. It is a question about the perception of North Koreans who have accessed outside information in North Korea and social phenomena as well as how it affects the change of the North Korean system. In this regard, this study performed a survey with North Korean defectors who escaped Pyongyang during the Kim Jung-un era in order to investigate the actual status of access to outside information in North Korea and changes in their perception. Changes in the perception of North Korean defectors were explored in different categories, such as South Korea and South Koreans, perception of the North Korean regime, and democracy and human rights. This study aims to use the results as a mechanism to promote the dissemination of South Korean culture and perspective changes in North Koreans in the future. Based on the current state of use of South Korean media in North Korea, this study also explores ways to utilize media to “win over North Koreans for the future reunification of the two Koreas.
  • 5.

    Financing Unification Costs by Reducing Armaments

    Byeon, Hyeon-do | Jong-Ha Kim | 2021, 5(2) | pp.133~165 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    South and North Korea have been intermittently discussing confidence building and arms reduction since the end of the Korean War, but they are practically continuing to increase their military capabilities. Armament competition due to increased military power cannot be ignored, not only hindering economic development but also political and social costs. These costs will grow over time and the cost of reunification will come as an unaffordable burden given the unification of the two Koreas. The unification of the Korean Peninsula can end the history of division, thereby promoting the prosperity of the Korean people and contributing to world peace. However, unification can cause various problems, including the cost of the two Koreas' economic power differences and social chaos. From this point of view, the financial burden could be reduced if the cost of reunification is calculated, financed and prepared. To illustrate these problems, this paper calculated the approach and cost of arms reduction from the perspective that budget savings for the procurement of unification costs could contribute to some extent by the reduction of armaments. The budget saved by the reduction of military expenditure explained the impact on the unification cost compared to the unification cost, and proposed a plan to accumulate the savings from the reduction of military expenditure and use it as the unification cost in the future.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Application of Cooperative Threat Reduction Program for the Dismantlement of NK WMD

    박재완 | 2021, 5(2) | pp.167~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find out how to apply a CTR program for the dismantlement of WMD, including nuclear weapons, chemical and biological weapons. The CTR program is a comprehensive program that aims to eliminate not only nuclear weapons, but also chemical and biological weapons. The CTR, which was applied to the three former Soviet Union countries, is a good precedent, but in order to be applied to North Korea, the specificity of North Korea must be considered. Its specialty is the difference in the security environment that North Korea faces, the opportunity cost and drivers invested in the development of WMD, and the compensation plan for asymmetric arms control. In order to apply CTR program to North Korea, it is necessary to consider the security environment, identify the status of WMD, measures to provide economic compensation and financial resources, establish a North Korean CTR model, and prepare inspection and verification measures.
  • 7.

    The ROK's Major Territorial Disputes and Their Solution Directions : A General Understanding

    Kang-nyeong Kim | 2021, 5(2) | pp.187~226 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Korea had many external invasions due to its geopolitical factors. As a result of external invasion and war on the Korean Peninsula, it has led to territorial disputes as well as human and material sacrifices. Baekdusan jeonggyebi(Mt. Paektu Demarcation Stone), North Korea-China Border Treaty, Gando, Roktundo, Dokdo, Ieodo and Sector 7 are just that. In addition, maritime jurisdiction disputes have emerged since the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1994. We have effectively ruled the Dokdo and controled the Ieodo. However, other territorial problems remain problems that we must solve after unification. Diplomatic and military preparedness efforts are required in relation to the territory in question. We must clarify our sovereignty and strengthen our territorial capacity. In addition, we should also review and seek multilateral territorial efforts. Regarding the territory in question, we need to make diplomatic(mainly to resolve the issue between the parties) and military preparation(to secure defense sufficiency military forces). Korea should clarify its sovereignty and strengthen its territorial capacity, and gradually review and seek multilateral territorial efforts.
  • 8.

    A Study on the World of Movies by Director Oh Duck-Soo of Japanese-Korean : Focusing on the Documentary Film

    Youngeon Yim | Kim, Tae Young | 2021, 5(2) | pp.227~255 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the existence of Japanese-Koreans that he intended to express in the film, focusing on the fact that the film world of director Oh Duck-soo is the world of Japanese-Koreans at the time of 70 years after liberation after 1945. Director Oh Duck-soo realized that not only himself but also Japanese-Koreans did not know his history well, and made a documentary film for Japanese -Koreans. The main contents of the film dealt with the issue of foreigner registration, the issue of fingerprinting system, the North Korean repatriation movement, post-war compensation and discrimination against women, and the issues of discrimination among Japanese-Koreans covering the modern and contemporary history of Japan. His film world, which treats Japanese-Koreans from the perspective of discrimination, is summarized as follows. First, it seems that director Oh Duck-soo's film world was influenced by the labor union movement after graduating from Waseda University and entering Toei. Second, director Oh Duck-soo was introduced to the Japanese film industry under the influence of Japanese film director Nagisa Oshima, but the relationship with the director was found to have chosen a completely separate path in terms of ideology. Third, Director Oh Duck-soo seems to be more convinced while dealing with the Japanese issue that the issue of discrimination between the emperor and villages exists as the biggest problem among the ideologies that dominate Japan. This is also leading to the hate speech problem today in Japan. Fourth, the purpose of the documentary film related to Japan by director Oh Duck-soo is interpreted as portraying Japan by portraying the irrationality of Japan in the sense of thinking about the problems of Japanese society through Japan. Through the film, he stipulated that the problem of Japan is the problem of Japan itself. In conclusion, it is believed that director Oh Duck-soo tried to express Japanese absurdity through films as a means of expressing “the existence of Japan” through Japan. His film is evaluated to have attempted to show through the unique visual world of Japanese-Koreans the double standard and irrationality of Japanese-Koreans by the Japanese government, and the search for the identity as a diaspora.
  • 9.

    Divided Germany and Unified Germany : A Dialectic Method on the Construction and Destruction of the Berlin Wall

    Joo-Shin Chung | 2021, 5(2) | pp.257~288 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the current study is to discuss the unification of East and West Germany based on the division of Germany into four parts and the division of Berlin into four parts by the four winning nations, the construction of Berlin Wall by the Soviet Union and East Germany, and the destruction of Berlin Wall by the people of East Germany for Freedom of Travel Open. The methodology was Hegel’s dialectic of These → Antithese → Synthese on the construction and destruction of Berlin Wall which has been at issue by the four winning nations and the two Germanies. In sum, ⓛ These is the four winning nations’ intention to dominate the powers by dividing Germany into east and west and Berlin in half as a result of pre-war talk, ② Antithese is the construction of Berlin Wall by the Soviet Union and East Germany to break the international order and maintain communism, and ③ Synthese is the unintended destruction of Berlin Wall through Aufheben when the people of East Germany’s candle protest as a part of the democratic movement beyond migration and deviation and G. Schabowski’s mistaken remark to open the national borders ‘immediately, without delay’ at a press conference as the spokesperson of East Germany’s SED operated as ‘negation of negation.’ The four winning nations led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union intended to divide Germany to maintain the international powers, but the Soviet Union and East Germany constructed the Berlin Wall to reinforce their own communist systems. However, the Berlin Wall was destroyed by the liberation of people of East Germany for liberal traveling between East and West Germanies and opening of borders and the East German authority’s ambiguous attitude toward the opening of borders. As the destruction of Berlin Wall triggered the unification of Germany, the settlement of German people and unification of Germany would be a fact that supports the dialectic logic that the division of Germany could not persist.
  • 10.

    Reconsideration on the Studies of Adaptability of Austrian type Permanent Neutrality Reunification in Korea

    박수희 | 2021, 5(2) | pp.289~312 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the similarities on the regaining of independence and the subsequent partitioned allied-occupation at the end of World War II, Korea and Austria have developed into seemingly opposite circumstances: prolonged partition and reunification. Such divergence made Austrian type neutrality reunification an important research topic in the Korean Academia. Nevertheless, the previous researches focused on how Austria achieved permanent neutrality reunification, but not on why Austria chose permanent neutrality policy. Therefore, this study assessed the reasons why Austria chose neutrality policy, using the diplomatic papers of the United States and declassified documents of the CIA. The analysis showed that the Austrian type neutrality was not a mere neutrality policy, but a special policy designed and applied to Austria by the occupational powers during the Cold War. Therefore, it is argued that the Austrian type permanent neutrality reunification strategy is less likely to be adaptable as an unification method to Korea.