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2011, Vol.19, No.1

  • 1.

    A Survey of the Core Job of Occupational Therapists and Their Different Job Tasks Depending on the Therapist’s Experience in Years and Different Treatment Areas

    Lee Hyang Sook | 2011, 19(1) | pp.1~14 | number of Cited : 31
    Abstract
    Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the main job tasks in clinical practice in terms of their criticality and frequency. The findings analyzed here will be offered appropriately as basic data for occupational therapy education, field work, and the national licensing examination. Methods : This survey was conducted from December 2008 to April 30, 2010. Four-hundred and forty-two occupational therapists from 114 institutions participated. A job analysis was applied toward the criticality of each job and its frequency. In analyzing the data, the criticality of the occupational erapists’tasks and task elements, and their mean frequency and priority, were investigated, as were their core tasks and core task elements. Results : In order of criticality among the therapist’s duties,“ occupational therapy”was recognized as most important, and “patient evaluation”was most frequently conducted. In terms of criticality and frequency, there were 16 core tasks and 94 core task elements over the mean points. When comparing therapists on their first appointment with those with experience, differences in criticality were shown in 2 tasks, and differences in frequency were shown in 7 tasks. Given their different treatment areas, 8 and 13 differences were shown respectively in the areas of physical disabilities, children, and juveniles. Conclusion : This study showed that education should be prioritized in therapy and field work. The results of this study will also be useful in providing basic data for the national licensing examination.
  • 2.

    Current Status of Mental Health Service and the Role of Psychiatric Occupational Therapists in Korea

    강대혁 | 김선옥 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.15~27 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study was conducted to find a way to improve mental health service system in Korea by investigating the current status of mental health service system and compare it with that of other countries. The Mental Health Act was legislated in 1995 to prevent the onset of mental disorders and mandate the psychiatric service and rehabilitation for people with mental disorders. It has been revised four times since then. The most recent Mental Health Act revised in 2008 added(article46-2) occupational therapy service to promote human rights and warrant the legitimacy of occupational therapy in mental health service. The National Human Rights Commission of Korea administered on site inspection of seven mental health institutions (3public and 4 private) between October and December 2008 and reported the followings: absence or shortage of occupational therapy services, insufficient evaluation process, lack of treatment plans and daily log of occupational therapy, and human rights violation under the name of occupational therapy (i.e., cleaning nursing stations, toilets and taking care of severely disabled persons). These resulted from inappropriate use of the term“ occupational therapy”in Korean in the Mental Health Act contradicting between parent law and subordinate law allowing occupational therapy service be provided by unqualified personnel. Therefore, the current Mental Health Act has to be revised to include the definition of occupational therapy and job description of occupational therapist to protect the human rights of the clients and assure high quality services. Once the institutional framework is established, the professional role of occupational therapists can be expected in mental health service
  • 3.

    Research Literature in Korean Occupational Therapy by Using a Journal of Korean Society of Occupational Therapy

    유은영 | Jaeshin Lee | 이지연 and 2other persons | 2011, 19(1) | pp.29~41 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aimed to survey and analyze the research literature of Korean occupational therapy in order to identify the comprehensive trends and actual state of occupational therapy research. Methods : Articles published between 1993 (the first issue of the Journal of Korean Society of Occupational Therapy) and 2010 were surveyed, and a descriptive analysis was used to determine the types, topics, study designs, subjects, and intervention methods of the articles. Results : The analysis outcomes of the articles published in the Journal of Korean Society of Occupational Therapy were as follows: (1) The main topic areas were adult and geriatric disorders, (2) the diagnoses were stroke and cerebral palsy, (3) the highest percentage of research in terms of quality classification was level-4 (survey and non-randomized experimental study), and (4) independent variables addressed were the largest frequency of visuoperceptual and cognitive training, with the following sequence of sensory integration therapy and constraint induced movement therapy. Dependent variables were mostly for activities of daily living, followed by visuoperception, behavioral change, and swallowing functionality. Conclusion : Based on these results, further studies are warranted for research topics targeting the highest value in a variety of study populations. Scholarship should be focused on a research design that establishes evidence for occupational therapy approaches and practices.
  • 4.

    The Satisfaction of Sexual Activity Based on the Characteristics of Post Stroke Patients

    방요순 | 김희영 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.43~53 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objective : This study was aimed at investigating the satisfaction of sexual activity based on the characteristics of stroke patients. Methods : Sixty patients were used as subjects of this study (male 36, female 24), each of whom had suffered a stroke. The data was collected through a self reporting form and Derogatix Sexual Function Inventory. Results : The sensation level of the patients showed a significant relation with their satisfaction regarding their sexual activity. The sub-areas of satisfaction of sexual activity showed significant differences based on gender, job, alcohol use, paralysis, sensory ability, and medications used (p<.05). The sub-areas of satisfaction of sexual activity including duration and frequency of sexual activity, comfort after sex, excitement through petting, orgasm, communications, sexual satisfaction with their spouse, interest in sex, variety of sex, and anxiety of sexual capacity show significant sequential relations with sexual satisfaction (p<.05). Conclusion : Considering the sensory dysfunction and real sexual activity of stroke patients, an exclusive sexual culture and early screening to identify their general and diathesis characteristics will be helpful.
  • 5.

    The Effects of Activities of Daily Living Training Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles for the Occupations of Children With Cerebral Palsy

    최유진 | Kyeong-Mi Kim | 신용범 and 1other persons | 2011, 19(1) | pp.55~67 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of ADL training based on Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) principles on the occupations of children with cerebral palsy. Methods : Eleven children with cerebral palsy between 2 and 6 years old were used as subjects. They were divided into an experimental group of 5 and a control group of 6 using a single-blind method. The study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. ADL training based on NDT principles was applied to the experimental group during two 30-minute sessions per week, with 12 sessions in total over 6 weeks. There was no special treatment for the control group. To assess the effects of the ADL training based on NDT principles for the occupations of children with cerebral palsy, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and a paediatric version of the Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were used. A Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups and a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to analyze the differences between the pre- and posttests in the experimental group. Results : The experimental and control groups showed a significant difference in their occupational performance abilities based on their GAS total T-score, but showed no significant difference in occupational performance based on the COPM and WeeFIM results. The experimental group showed a significant difference in occupational performance ability based on their GAS total T-score, but showed no significant difference in occupational performance based on the COPM and WeeFIM results before and after the experiment. Conclusions : This research suggests positive effects and the possibility of improving the occupational performance of children with cerebral palsy after applying ADL training based on NDT principles.
  • 6.

    Effects of Intentional Multisensory Environments (snoezelen) on Eye-hand Coordination in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    황기철 | 정지심 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.69~81 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aimed at determining the effects of intentional multisensory environments (Snoezelen) on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. Methods : For the analysis, a Snoezelen program was applied to three children with cerebral palsy over twelve weeks. To verify the effects of Snoezelen and changes in their eye-hand coordination ability based on a Jebsen Hand Function test, changes in the runtime of children taking seven subordinate tests were measured, who had their dominant-hand and nondominant-hand respectively tested. Results : After the intentional Snoezelen program, each runtime for the seven subordinate tests was reduced by more than 23.4 percent. In particular, in a simulated feeding test, three children failed to carry out the task in their preliminary tests, but after the program, all of them succeeded. After the Snoezelen program, changes in every test except for a test on the lifting of small objects were statistically significant in terms of their dominant hand. Meanwhile, changes in the test results on simulated page turning, lifting of small objects, simulated feeding, and stacking checkers were also significant in terms of their non-dominant hand (p<.05). Conclusion : Through the results of this study, intentional multisensory environments were proven to have positive effects on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. It is expected that there will be many follow-up studies verifying the effects of Snoezelen.
  • 7.

    The Relationship Between Manual Ability and Functional Capability for Children With Cerebral Palsy

    김장곤 | Kim Hyoung Ryoul | Youngil Shin | 2011, 19(1) | pp.83~91 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional capability, based on a Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and manual ability, based on the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), for children with cerebral palsy . Methods : The subjects were 186 children with cerebral palsy who are using a rehabilitation program from one of sixteen welfare centers. Therapists classified the children using MACS, and the parents evaluated the functional capability of their children based on a PEDI questionnaire. The differences in their functional capabilities at each level of MACS were compared. We used Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients to analyze the relationship between the MACS and PEDI scores. We inspected the differences in the functional scores at each level using an ANOVA analysis and Bonferroni post-hoc. Results : The mean age of the 186 children (105 male, 81 female) was 7y 5mo [range of 4y 0mo - 13y 7mo]. There were significant differences in self-care (r = -.79) and mobility(r = -.77) between each level of MACS. Post-hoc results showed significant differences in self-care ability at all levels of MACS. Posthoc results showed significant differences in self-care ability at all levels of MACS except levels 1 and 2. A significant difference in mobility was found (p<.05) at all levels of MACS. Conclusion : MACS showed a strong relationship with self-care and mobility domain among the functional skills, with significant differences at each level. In conclusion, it is possible to roughly explain the functional skills of children with CP using MACS, indicating that MACS may be useful in clinical fields.
  • 8.

    The Effects of Mirror Therapy on the Hand Function Recovery in Chronic Stroke Patients

    우희순 | Kiyeon Chang | 박우권 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.93~103 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week mirror therapy on the hand function recovery in chronic stroke patients. Methods : This study was conducted on 14 subjects staying in the OO rehabilitation hospital in Geunggido from Jan, 2010 to Feb 28th, 2010. The subjects were randomly selected and divided into experimental (6) and control groups (8). The hand excercise program was provided to subjects of both groups for 30 minutes a session, 5 sessions per week. Visual feedback was provided to the subjects of the experimental group but not to the control group. The Brunnstrom recovery stages and Manual Function Test (MFT) were used to evaluate the hand function recovery pre- and post-experiment. Results : The MFT showed significant differences in the experimental group after intervention. These difference were found in the subjects' shoulder flexions, and in their ability to grasp a ball and carry a cube. Also based on the MFT, the control group showed a significant difference in the ability to pinch a pin. Conclusion : The chronical stroke patients group used in the mirror therapy showed better recovery in hand functionality than the group without undergoing mirror therapy. Therefore, this study demonstrated the clinical effects of mirror therapy on the hand function recovery in chronic stroke patients.
  • 9.

    Comparison of Cushions for Prevention of Pressure Ulcers and Backrest Angle on Seated Pressure

    안나연 | 공진용 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.105~115 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objective : The objective of this study was to examine a comparison of cushions for the prevention of pressure ulcers and of backrest angles on seated pressure. Methods : Five male and nine female subjects (mean age = 23.1 years, SD = 2.1) were tested. The subjects sat on a pressure mat placed over a cushion with different backrest angles for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Pressure readings were taken for five types of cushions and two backrest angles of the front of the seat relative to back. A repeated two-way analysis of variance was used for the data analysis. Results : Meaningful differences were found in the Average Index (AI), Standard Deviation (SD), Peak Pressure Index (PPI), and Dispersion Index (DI) measurements of the cushions and backrest angles of the seat. Conclusion : The data indicate meaningful evidence that air-filled type cushions with backrest angles of 110 degrees are the best choice for the prevention of pressure ulcers.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Hippotherapy on Spasticity and Muscular Activity in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    이인실 | 김진상 | Kim, So young | 2011, 19(1) | pp.117~124 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Objective : In this study, the effects of hippotherapy sessions on spasticity and muscular activity in children with cerebral palsy were investigated. Methods : Nine children under 12 years old with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study. The subjects met the following criteria: the ability to sit independently with their feet on the ground with no back support;the ability to stand and walk independently with or without an assistive device; and sufficient hip abduction for sitting astride a horse. The spasticity of each subject was obtained using a Modified Ashworth Scale, and the muscular activity was measured using a TelemyoTM 2400TG2, which is an EMG device from Noraxon, Inc. before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the hippotherapy sessions. Repeated ANOVA measurements using SPSS were conducted to analyze the influence of the hippotherapy sessions on the spasticity and muscular activity of the children. Statistical significance was defined as p<.05. Results : There was a decrease in the spasticity of the elbow and knee flexions after the hippotherapy sessions. There was an increase in the muscular activity in the brachii muscle of the biceps and in the quadriceps muscle after the hippotherapy sessions. Conclusion : After the application of hippotherapy for childeren with cerebral palsy, a meaningful decrease in the spasticity and an increase in muscular activity could be seen.
  • 11.

    Clinical Application of the Model of Human Occupation on Job Retention for the Visually Impaired: A Case Study

    Heeyoung Yeum | 이효성 | 2011, 19(1) | pp.125~136 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Introduction : Based on the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), this study identifies the barriers to job retention for the blind and visually impaired. The results of this study can be used for suggesting an effective intervention method for job retention and work adjustment of the visually impaired. Body : From March to November of 2009, MOHO-based interviews and Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) assessments were conducted on one visually-impaired massage therapist. Further interviews were conducted with the therapist's employer and supervisor in order to identify work-related problems. Next, a MOHO strategy was used as a method of problem intervention. After the intervention, one-on-one interviews and post-evaluations were conducted, the results of which showed a positive change in the work environment awareness of the visually impaired subject. Conclusion : Applying the MOHO in the process of work rehabilitation forms a basis for judging the subject in a holistic and general way, changes how the subject is viewed, suggests various strategies for improving the fessionalism and qualities of occupational therapy service, and may help expand the range of other relevant areas.