Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of occupational reminiscence therapy on the communication and interaction skills of elderly people with dementia.
Methods : For seven elderly persons with dementia, four with mild dementia and three with moderate, we executed occupational reminiscence for eight weeks from May to July, 2012, with one session per week, at 40 minutes per session. A one-group pretest/post-test design, which is a quasi-experimental research tool, was also applied to verify the effects occupational reminiscence on the subjects’ ability regarding their communication and interaction skills. The measurements were performed using The Assessment of Interaction Skills (ACIS).
Results : The results demonstrated that the intervention significantly affected the communication and interaction skills of elderly people with dementia (p<.05). In addition, an improvement of their ACIS score showed no significant differences between those with mild dementia and those with moderate dementia (p>.05).
Conclusion : The results of this study show that occupational reminiscence for elderly people suffering from dementia is a useful therapeutic approach by enhancing their communication and interaction skills. If occupational therapists can obtain knowledge and make a program for occupational reminiscence therapy, research in this field will be further developed.
Objective : The aim of this study was to develop an Activity Participation Assessment reflecting Korean culture for school-age children.
Methods : The evaluation tool for the children’s participation in activities was developed through four steps. First, a total of 270 activities were collected through interviews with various children and their legal guardians, as well as a review of domestic and overseas literature and databases.
In the second step, the first round of selection was made for 111 of the 270 activities through a panel meeting. In the third step, a survey was conducted on 414 normal children between 7and 12 years of age for the second round of selection for these 111 activities. In the fourth step,a second round of panel meetings was held, and based on the survey results, a total of 83 items in which the children’s participation levels were high were selected.
Results : The developed Activity Participation Assessment tool for children included a total of 83activities. Elements that reflect Korea’s unique cultural characteristics such as ‘going to a public bath and Korean sauna with the family’, ‘doing workbook exercises’, ‘going to an extracurricular academy’, ‘playing with marbles/fivestones’, and ‘playing Korean chess or go’ were included, and the need for a newly developed Activity Participation Assessment tool for children was verified.
Conclusion : An Activity Participation Assessment tool reflecting Korean culture for school-age children was developed. This is the first tool for evaluating the levels of participation in various daily activities of elementary school students, and is expected to be very useful in the establishment of intervention plans and for teachers working in the Korean school system.
Objective : The purpose of this paper is to investigate the upper extremity shortness in people with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) compared with a normal control group, and evaluate the correlations between extremity shortness, muscle tone, and functional activity.
Methods : This study included 30 children with HCP (13 males, 17 females; mean age, 6.33 yr)and 17 normal children as a control (9 males, 8 females; mean age, 6.17 yr). The length of each limb segment composed of the humerus, ulna, radius, and the second and fifth metacarpal bones was measured for both the patients and and control group using a radiograph. The discrepancy in side-to side length was calculated as a percentage. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used in the evaluation of spasticity, and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) was used in the evaluation of functional ability.
Results : Upper extremity shortness differed significantly between the patients and control group (p<.05). The percentage differences in bone length correlated positively with the MAS point,and negatively with QUEST score in each limb segment (p<.05).
Conclusion : The hemiplegic upper limb length discrepancy correlated with the functional activity and spasticity of the upper limb. Further studies to evaluate the change in upper extremity shortness after functional improvement and spasticity management will help to demonstrate the effect of rehabilitative treatment and determine the method and intensity of therapy required.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an Interactive Metronome (IM) on the bilateral coordination, balance, and upper extremity function for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
Methods : For this study, single-subject experimental research was conducted using an ABA design.
We observed the child for around 40 minutes twice a week for 10 weeks, with a total of 20sessions. We evaluated the child's bilateral coordination without intervention in the baseline phase (A) for four sessions. In the intervention phase (twelve sessions), the child received 40 minutes of Interactive Metronome training twice a week. The bilateral coordination of the child was measured after each training. During the second baseline phase, data were collected using the same procedure as the first baseline phase. The child's balance was assessed before and after treatment. In addition, the child's hand function was assessed pre-, interim-, and post-treatment.
Results : After IM training, the participant showed an increase in bilateral coordination and balance,and demonstrated significant improvement. Additionally, the participant showed an increase in hand function, although not at a significant level.
Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that IM training has a positive effect on bilateral coordination and balance. In addition, IM training can be used as basic data for clinicians in the area of occupational therapy.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to identify the social network type of patients suffering from a stroke to find out the effects of their activities of daily living.
Methods : This study analyzed 95 survey questionnaires given to stroke patients receiving rehabilitation treatment at hospitals located in the Daejeon, Chungcheongnamdo, and Gyeonggido areas. The survey questionnaires were collected from September 5, 2012 to November 30, 2012.
The activities of daily living of the patients were evaluated by an occupational therapist, and the social network questionnaires were written directly under the supervision of this same therapist.
Results : As the social networks of patients post-stroke, the relationships with family members were closer than the relationships with neighbors or friends. Stroke patients who perform basic activities of daily living independently have closer relationships between their neighbors and friends, and those with dependent activities of daily living have closer relationships with their family. When performing instrumental activities of daily living for the stroke patients more independently, the social networks for all groups including family, friends, and neighbors, appeared to be good.
Conclusion : This study determined the types of family-centered social networks of stroke patients.
We were also able to determine the correlation between social networks and activities of daily living for stroke patients. The results of this study suggest that stroke patients with a good ability to perform activities of daily living, and who have social support through good relationships with their neighbors and friends, should return to society.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the upper extremity function and trunk muscle activity from stable supporting surfaces in patients with stroke-induced hemiplegia.
Methods : Fifteen hemiplegic patients (9 male, 6 female) who attended the ○○ rehabilitation hospital in D Metropolitan participated in this study. Their level of upper extremity function was measured using a multidimensional bimanual coordination KEPAD work sample test. Their trunk muscle activity (internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae), depending on changes from the use of stable supporting surfaces, were measured using surface electromyography.
Results : The differences in the level of upper extremity function and trunk muscle activity while being seated were compared for three surface supports. Their level of upper extremity function while seated was significantly different when support was provided for both sides and for the affected side. However, there was no significant difference when the support was provided for both sides and when the support was provided for the unaffected side. Their trunk muscle activity while seated was not significantly different among the three types of support surface.
Conclusion : The results of this study showed that support to both sides of hemiplegic patients while in a sitting position affects their upper extremity function. Occupational therapy for hemiplegic patients in the form of repetitive training to support both sides can enhance the functional movement of their upper extremities.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) on the cognitive function and activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic stroke patients in their 50s, 60s, and 70s.
Methods : This study was performed at I Hospital in Busan from June to September, 2011. Thirty participants who passed the 24-month stage from stroke onset were grouped into three age groups: 50s, 60s and 70s. CACR was performed using Rehacom 30 minutes a day, three days a week, for nine weeks. The cognitive functions of the patients were assessed using their K-3MS and NCSE scores, and their ADL performances were assessed through their FIM and MBI scores.
The assessments were performed four times: before training, after 3 and 6 weeks of training,and at the end of 9 weeks of training.
Results : Before training, the cognitive functions and ADL performances of the patients showed significant differences among the three age groups (p<.05). As time passed, the K-3MS and NCSE scores of the three age groups increased. There was a significant difference in K-3MS score among the three groups after training. Analysis results of the ADL performances showed significant changes in the patients in their 60s and 70s, but not those in their 50s. After training,the FIM scores of the three groups showed significant differences (p<.05). Analysis results of the patients' cognitive function recovery on their ADL performances showed that an improvement of their K-3MS scores based on CACR and age are factors influencing their MBI and FIM scores.
Conclusion : The results showed that CACR using Rehacom is effective for an improvement of the cognitive function and ADL performance in chronic stroke patients 24 months after onset. This was more effective for those in their 70s than those in their 50s and 60s. This study suggests that CACR is an effective tool for elderly chronic stroke patients.
Objective : This study aimed at determining whether the application of vibration stimulation over the flexor digitorum superficialis can be helpful in improving the hand dexterity and reducing the onset and end times of the muscle contraction.
Methods : We used a single-subject experimental A-B-A design. The experimental sessions were divided into three phases: baseline, intervention, and withdrawal, with eight sessions in each phase. In the intervention phase, the vibration stimulation was applied over the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle of the affected side. Measurements included a box and block test (BBT),and the onset and end times of the muscle while gripping and releasing a cup.
Results : During the intervention phase, the BBT score was clinically and significantly increased when compared to the baseline (p<.05), and this improvement was maintained during the withdrawal phase with no intervention. Further, there were significant decreases for the delay in the onset and end times of the flexor digitorum superficialis (p<.05), and these trends were favorably maintained during the withdrawal phase.
Conclusion : Our findings suggest that vibration stimulation may be helpful in enhancing the dexterity of the affected hand post stroke, and optimizing the activation patterns of flexor muscles of the wrist and hand while grasping and releasing objects.
Objective : This study measured the orofacial muscular strength of healthy adults residing in a domestic area in Korea. By investigating the differences in orofacial muscular strength in relation to gender and age, this study attempted to look at factors influencing their swallowing skills.
Methods : Using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), the orofacial muscular strength was measured for 341 healthy adults with ages ranging from 20 to 89 from May 5, 2012. to Jan. 1,2013. Specifically, the strength of the forward and back elevations of their tongue, their buccinator muscle strength, and their lip strength were each measured three times, and the average score of each was then calculated.
Results : The findings show that 1) the orofacial muscular strength of healthy Korea men is stronger than that of Korean women (p<.01), and 2) the older the participants are, the weaker their orofacial strength, regardless of their gender (p<.01).
Conclusion : The IOPI scores of the participants showed that their orofacial muscular strength is affected by their age and gender, which may help guide future swallowing treatments.