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pISSN : 1226-0134 / eISSN : 2671-4450

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2013, Vol.21, No.3

  • 1.

    Comparative Study on Systems of Occupational Therapy in Both OECD and WFOT Member Countries

    Jeong Byoung Lock | JIHYUN KIM | 2013, 21(3) | pp.1~14 | number of Cited : 0
    Objective : This study was conducted to investigate the status of an OT system in countries registered in both OECD and WFOT, and to compare the selected OECD countries with Korea. Methods : Relevant data from a survey designed specifically for this study, and the published data from WFOT,were analyzed for 13 countries from several perspectives. Results : All of the 13 countries have educational systems and the average period of education for proper qualification is 4 years. Most of the countries are utilizing a national license system. Eleven of the countries have laws and acts related to OT, and four countries including Korea do not have separate legislation for only the OT profession. Except for Estonia, all countries define the scope of practice within official regulations. Korea is the only country in which occupational therapists are not authorized to practice independently without a physician’s referral or to open a private clinic. Conclusion : In comparison with other OECD members with an OT profession, Korea shows a tendency of having a comparable qualification system, but is deficient in terms of its legislative system. The current legislative system in Korea is outdated and lacking in a reflection of reality. Considering the world’s advanced concept of health, it is strongly recommended that the current legislative system for the OT profession in Korea be improved.
  • 2.

    A Study on Job Competency of Community-Based Occupational Therapists: Focusing on Job Analysis in Dementia Care Centers

    JEONG, WON-MEE | 박총순 | 황윤정 | 2013, 21(3) | pp.15~29 | number of Cited : 24
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to present a curriculum that will enhance the professionalism of community-based occupational therapists who intervene with people suffering from dementia. To do so, the duties and tasks of the occupational therapists who are working in dementia care centers have been analyzed. This study will help to set the roles and professionalism of occupational therapists. Methods : The data were collected by utilizing a survey questionnaire and a discussion questionnaire from August to November of 2012. The questionnaires were constructed by analyzing documents containing working group meeting minutes and the duties of occupational therapists working in regional dementia care centers located both domestically and abroad. As a result, a curriculum that will enhance the professional role of a community-based occupational therapist in terms of dementia care emerged. Results : The findings from the duty analyses showed that the priorities are in the following order: 1)administrative paper work, 2) occupational therapy intervention, 3) other work, 4) supporting projects, and 5) assessments. The rank of execution frequency is 1) paper work, 2) other work, 3) occupational therapy interventions, 4) supporting projects, and 5) assessments. Analyses of the meeting minutes revealed that education regarding an understanding of the work of other fields is needed to enhance the level of professionalism and allow therapists to effectively conduct their own work. Moreover, visiting treatment and caretaker education are also needed for professionalism in community-based occupational therapy. Conclusion : Research related to a systematic job analysis should be conducted periodically to identify the important duties and tasks of community-based occupational therapists. This will provide a professional role for community-based occupational therapists working in the area of dementia intervention.
  • 3.

    The Effects of Interactive Metronome on Memory, Attention, and Social Interaction Skills in Patients With Mild Dementia

    김정미 | kim su kyoung | 장지연 and 1other persons | 2013, 21(3) | pp.31~44 | number of Cited : 11
    Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an interactive metronome on the memory,attention, and social interaction skills of patients with mild dementia. Methods : This study was enforced through the ABA design of single-subject experimental research for three persons diagnosed with mild dementia and cognitive functional damage for a total of eight weeks, 25 times from August to October, 2012. This study enforced a baseline of 5 with and intervention-line of 15 and a re-baseline of 5. IM training continued 30 minutes per session for 15 sessions in total. The memory and attention of each subject was assessed using a Computerized Neurocognitive Function Test (CNT), and their social interaction skills were assessed using the Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI). A Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G) assessment was applied to each subject for an evaluation of their cognitive function, which took place during the initial and second baseline phases. Results : The memory, attention, and social interaction skills of all subjects were improved by the application of an interactive metronome, and effects continued even after ending its application. Subjects 1, 2, and 3revealed significant improvements in their memory, attention, and social interaction skills. All subjects revealed improvements in their memory and attention, based on the results of the LOTCA-G. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that an interactive metronome has an effect in improving the memory, attention, and social interaction skills of patients with mild dementia.
  • 4.

    The Effect of a Group Occupational Therapy on Cognitive Function and Depression for Mild Dementia Patients in a Community

    신송재 | Jaeshin Lee | kim su kyoung and 1other persons | 2013, 21(3) | pp.45~60 | number of Cited : 24
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of group occupational therapy on the cognitive function and depression of patients with mild dementia within a community. Methods : The subjects of this study were 29 people with mild dementia living in a community. The period of administration was three times a week for 50 minutes per session for four weeks. We assessed their cognitive function and level of depression. One group pre-post test design was implemented as an experimental study to compare the results before and after applying the group occupational therapy. Results : The cognitive function and level of depression in patients with mild dementia improved significantly after receiving group occupational therapy. Conclusion : The results showed that group occupational therapy is effective for improving the cognitive function and level of depression for patients with mild dementia within a community.
  • 5.

    Occupational Performance and Leisure Activity Participation Level Research According to Cognitive Level of the Elderly With Dementia

    Paik Young Rim | Jaeshin Lee | 2013, 21(3) | pp.61~74 | number of Cited : 10
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the problem of performing occupational and activities that are currently participating items, according to whether the cognitive level reported by the elderly with dementia Methods : This study analyzed the occupational performance evaluation results of 30 elderly people with dementia who participated in practice targets during the 7th process to training elderly dementia occupational therapist. The occupational performance evaluation used the Dementia Care Assessment Package (DCAP),Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Interest Checklist (IC), and Allen Cognitive Level Screening (ACLS), and the collected materials were analyzed using a frequency analysis and descriptive statistics. Results : The number of occupational performance items for dementia patients reported through the COPM was 122 in total, with 52 self-management areas (42.6%), 46 leisure areas (37.7%), and 24 productivity areas (19.7%). The elderly with dementia reported a difficulty in performing individual management in the selfmanagement area, and a difficulty in performing household management in the productivity area according to the level of their ACLS performance. As for the leisure area, as the group which is more than ACLS 5.0reported the difficulties of static and dynamic recreation and the other two groups did the difficulties to carry out social activities, it showed the different results from those of the previous two areas. Evaluation of leisure activities could be found that there are no great changes in the leisure activities that have frequently been carried out in the past and now in the group which is more than ACLS 5.0, while those in the cognitive and social activities were reduced in the other two groups. Conclusion : The result of the study has found that there are differences between the matter area of working performance that the aged and patients with dementia realize and the leisure activity item that they now participate in according to cognitive levels. Therefore, it is suggested that appropriate therapeutic activities and an occupational therapy arbitration should be provided according to the evaluation results.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Quality of Life According to Physical Activities of the Elderly With Chronic Diseases Between Urban and Rural Areas

    Paek Hyun Hee | Kim, jeong ja | 2013, 21(3) | pp.75~86 | number of Cited : 12
    Objective : This study was intended to examine the practicing physical activity rates based on the general characteristics and quality of life according to the physical activities of elderly people over 65 with chronic diseases living in either rural or urban areas. Methods : Physical activities were examined for walking, flexibility exercises and muscle strength exercise, and quality of life data were collected and analyzed using EQ-5D (Euroqol-5 dimension). Results : The practicing physical activity rates were significantly different based on age, sex, marital status,housing type, income level, and educational level for those in urban areas, and based on housing type and educational level for those in rural areas. For quality of life, the urban areas showed significantly differences for exercise ability, self-care, daily activities, and pain/inconvenience of walking, flexibility exercises, and muscle strength exercise, whereas the rural areas showed significant differences for exercise walking ability. Conclusion : The practicing physical activity rates were at a low level for those with chronic diseases living in both rural and urban areas. In particular, the activities for those in rural areas were lower than for those in urban areas. An awareness of the importance of physical activity needs to have a positive influence on improving the physical function and quality of life for elderly people with chronic diseases.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Standardization of Computer-Based on the Computer Cognitive Senior Assessment System

    Kim,Young-geun | 조영남 | 김동희 and 1other persons | 2013, 21(3) | pp.87~102 | number of Cited : 3
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of a Computerbased cognitive evaluation system (called COSAS) for evaluating the cognitive level of the Korean elderly and to provide its normative data. Methods : For this purpose, 302 normal elderly people participated in a investigation to provide the normative data of COSAS. 52 stroke patients participated in an evaluation experiment to verify the reliability and validity. 302 normal elderly participants were evaluated using COSAS. The 52 stroke patients were evaluated with COSAS and two standardized assessment tools (MMSE-K, CSOA). COSAS consists of the orientation,memory, attention, visual perception, language ability, calculation ability and sequencing evaluation domains. Because the proposed system is an evaluation tool based on a computer system, all results and operations are processed consistently and automatically. Results : The results were as follows. The average accuracy was 45.03, and the standard deviation was 5.58. The average response speed time was 15.14 (sec), and the standard deviation was 3.69 (sec). Chronbach’s αscore of the inter-item consistency was .66. There was no difference in the average score between two investigators. COSAS was highly correlated with MMSE-K (r=.73) and with CSOA (r=.76). The specific domains of COSAS were correlated with MMSE-K and the common domains of CSOA. Conclusion : Normative data of COSAS for the Korean elderly were obtained, and the guidelines for the interpretation were provided. A reliable and valid clinically applicable computerized cognitive evaluation system was developed.
  • 8.

    Effect of Sitting Position and Satisfaction on Wheelchair Sitting Education in Hemiparesis Patients

    Kim Hwan Hee | Moonyoung Chang | 2013, 21(3) | pp.103~114 | number of Cited : 9
    Objective : The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sitting position and the satisfaction of wheelchair sitting education in hemiparesis patients. Methods : The design of this research includes pre-test and post-test studies. A total of 38 hemiplegia patients participated in the study. As an intervention, the wheelchair sitting education was conducted one time for 30 to 40 minutes, involves postural education and counseling, controls the foot plate, and offers a seat cushion and insertion. The sitting position and satisfaction were evaluated using Tekscan mat, the anthropometric dimension, and QUEST 2.0. Results : As a result of this study, the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in asymmetry of buttockpressure (p<.05). An error in anthropometric dimension showed a significant reduction based on the seat width and depth, foot plate, backrest, and armrest height (p<.05). The wheelchair device and service area showed a significant improvement in all items (p<.05). Conclusion : The wheelchair sitting education showed a beneficial effect on the buttock-pressure,anthropometric dimension, and satisfaction. Therefore, occupational therapists need to provide wheelchair sitting education.
  • 9.

    Effects of Video Self-Observation on Behavioral Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    신민경 | Park Ji-Hyuk | 2013, 21(3) | pp.115~124 | number of Cited : 2
    Objective : This study aims to investigate the effects of video self-observation on behavioral problems in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Methods : An ABA single-subject design was used with three element school students with autism spectrum disorders. A total of 12 sessions including the baseline period were conducted during 7 weeks. The subjects watched a 10 minute video for self-modeling before undergoing a sensory integration session. The target behaviors were defined and tallied in each session. The Conners’Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) was used to assess their behavioral problems before and after the intervention period (B). Results : All subjects demonstrated a decrease in behavioral problems. Subject 1 showed a decrease from 63.3% to 22.8%; subject 2, from 76.6% to 44.5%; and subject 3, from 43.7% to 31.1% in terms of the average frequency of the target behaviors. In a visual analysis, the number of target behaviors decreased below 2 standard deviations of the baseline data. The CTRS score also decreased in all subjects. Conclusion : Video self-observation decreased the behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders. By reducing their behavioral problems, this approach can make children focus on productive activities at school, clinics, and their home.
  • 10.

    Comparison of Appropriateness of the Korean Version of MBI and the Korean Version of the PEDI for Evaluating the Activities of Daily Living on Infants With Cerebral Palsy

    신원호 | KWON, JEONG YI | 박흥석 and 3other persons | 2013, 21(3) | pp.125~137 | number of Cited : 3
    Objective : This study aimed to apply the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and the Korean version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) on infants with cerebral palsy, and on non-disabled infants, to compare the appropriateness of these tools when evaluating the activities of daily living in infants with cerebral palsy. Methods : The subjects of this study included 66 infants with cerebral palsy and 68 non-disabled infants aged between 1 and 5. The data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 and MedCalc version 12.3. For a discriminative power comparison, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was utilized. An independent t-test was conducted to compare the scores between the two groups. Results : Both the K-MBI and the Korean version of the PEDI showed a statistically significant difference between infants with cerebral palsy and non-disabled infants. In the case of the K-MBI, the difference was the greatest for“ ambulation,”followed by“ chair/bed transfer”and“ stair up/down.”The Korean version of the PEDI, on the other hand, showed the greatest difference in the mobility category, followed by the selfcare and social function categories in the Korean version of the PEDI. The AUC comparison, which was conducted to compare the discriminative ability of the two tools, determined that its total, functional skills, and caregiver assistance for the Korean version of the PEDI were significantly broader than for the K-MBI. Conclusion : The Korean version of the PEDI had a better discriminative power than the K-MBI, which is currently used as a criterion to determine the level of disabilities of infants with brain lesions. In clinical practice, it is necessary to compliment or replace the current methods used to assess an infant’s development through the use of tools that more properly diagnose and evaluate the infant’s level of disability.