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2013, Vol.21, No.4

  • 1.

    Effects of Occupational Therapy Accompanied by Guided Compliance Training on Occupation Engagement in Children With Developmental Disorder

    Cho, Sun-Young | Bo-In Chung | Yoo, Eun-Young and 1other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.1~12 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aimed to examine the effects of three-step guided compliance training through positivereinforcement on occupational therapy for enhancing the engagement in children with a developmentaldisorder. Methods : The participants of this study were two children with a developmental disorder, and a multiplebaselineacross the tasks in single-subject experimental research was used. In this process, the level ofoccupation engagement was measured by conducting existing occupational therapy-I. Guided compliancetraining was then conducted using three-step guided compliance training through positive reinforcement. Next, the level of occupation engagement was measured by conducting occupational therapy-Ⅲ whileapplying reinforcement together. Results : In the case of participant 1, the level of occupation engagement increased more during occupationaltherapy-Ⅱ after guided compliance training than in occupational therapy-Ⅰ; and in occupational therapy-Ⅲwhen applying a reinforcement, the level of occupation engagement decreased somewhat compared tooccupational therapy-Ⅱ. In the case of participant 2, there were few changes in the level of occupationengagement between occupational therapy-Ⅰ and occupational therapy-Ⅱ, but in occupational therapy-Ⅲwhen applying a reinforcement, the level of occupation engagement increased significantly. Conclusion : For participant 1, it was more effective to perform occupational therapy after guided compliancetraining, whereas for participant 2, a positive effect on enhancing the level of occupation engagement wasshown when applying reinforcement with guided compliance training during occupational therapy.
  • 2.

    A Correlation Between the Adaptive Behavior of Children in Special Class of Elementary School and the Ability of Functional Performance in School

    Woo, Hee-Soon | Kiyeon Chang | 2013, 21(4) | pp.13~22 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the types of disabilities of students in a specialelementary school class and a special-education school by applying a Korea Adaptive Behavior Scale (KABS)to examine their adaptive behaviors, and an School Function Assessment (SFA) to examine theirfunctional performance in school, and to show the correlation between the K-ABS and SFA. Methods : The teachers who had instructed the children for over 6 months filled in a questionnaire. In addition,the types of disabilities of the children were mental retardation, brain lesions, and developmental disorders. Astatistical analysis was conducted for the 67 questionnaires used in this study. Results : A high level of correlation was found between K-ABS and SFA in all disabilities of the children(Pearson, r=.93). There was a significant statistical correlation between the total K-ABS and SFA scores inall types of disability. Conclusion : The results of the present study showed a correlation between K-ABS and SFA. A follow-upstudy is needed to increase the validity through a more concrete disability classification.
  • 3.

    The Influence on Sensory Processing Ability and Social Maturity of Children who Have Foreign Mothers With Acculturation Stress

    Kim Hee Dong | Baik Ji Young | OH MYUNG HWA and 2other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.23~36 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aims to examine the degree of stress that the mothers of multi-cultural families have inadjusting themselves to Korean society, and to investigate the factors that have an impact on the sensoryprocessing ability and social maturity of their children. Methods : This study carried out a test of cultural adaptation stress on 60 mothers of multi-cultural familiesthat reside in B country side of Gyungsangbuk-do and N City of Jeollanam-do, and a short sensory andsocial maturity profile of the children. Results : First, the mothers of multi-cultural families had trouble adjusting to Korean culture. Second, thechildren of multi-cultural families showed a retardation in their sensory processing ability and social maturity. Third, an analysis on how the acculturation stress of the mothers influenced the sensory processing abilityand social quotient of their children was conducted, and it was determined that cultural discrimination,homesick, fear, guilt, and acculturation stress all had a significant impact. Among the sub-factors of culturaladaptation, stress of the mothers, perceived discrimination, and other factors turned out to have an impact ontheir social index, while perceived discrimination, cultural shock, and a sense of guilt had an influence overtheir sensory processing ability. Conclusion : These research results indicate that the sensory processing ability of children and their socialmaturity are affected by their mother’s difficulty in adapting to South Korean culture. Therefore, this studycan be used as basic data for intervention in the problems of immigrant women of multi-cultural families andtheir children.
  • 4.

    The Preliminary Study on Praxis in Preschoolers in Korea

    손미숙 | 김형경 | 맹호경 and 4other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.37~46 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to present a preliminary data of the praxis in Korean preschoolersusing items of SIPT, and to compare the differences in gender. Methods : Fifty typically developing preschool aged children consisting of 27 boys and 23 girls (mean age of75.88 months, SD=4.66) were selected. Each participant was evaluated based on four items selected fromthe SIPT (Postural Praxis, PPr; Praxis on Verbal Command, PrVC; Sequencing Praxis, SPr; Oral Praxis,OPr). This study was conducted from 21st Oct. though 29th Oct. 2011. The collected data were evaluatedusing SPSS version 19.0, and technological statistics were used to analyze the results, including the meansand standard deviations. A t-test was administrated to compare the results of the two different genders. Results : The results showed a mean and standard deviation in PPr of 25.72±4.35, PrVC of 15.62±4.35, SProf 84.52±13.09, and OPr of 31.36±6.01. There was a statistically significant difference in the praxisbetween the two genders (p<.05). Conclusion : This study presents the average score of the praxis in preschoolers. Significant differences in thepraxis were found between the two genders. The reliable information in this study can help therapists whoare willing to evaluate their clients’praxis and to compare the score with those of typical preschoolers. However, an enhanced study has to be conducted with larger numbers of participants, and all items of theSIPT need to be applied.
  • 5.

    Effect of Oral Sensory Treatment on Oral Function in Dysphagic Children With Cerebral Palsy

    SONGWOOJIN | Park,Ji-Hyuk | Jung, Min-Ye and 1other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.47~58 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Objective : This purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of oral sensory treatment on the oral functionin dysphagic children with cerebral palsy. Methods : Eighteen children with cerebral palsy hospitalized in the department of rehabilitation at a universityhospital were chosen. They were diagnosed with cerebral palsy and received a total score of below 40points in an evaluation of the oral function while feeding. The study was a one-group pre-posttest designand showed a difference in oral function before and after the oral sensory treatment. The oral sensorytreatment included pressing with the fingers, and stimulating the cheek, chin, lips, tongue, and soft palate withan ice stick and electric toothbrush. The oral sensory treatment was conducted thirty minutes per day, twodays a week, for 8 weeks. Results : The results suggest that the oral sensory treatment had an effect in the improvement of the childrensoral function. In particular, ‘chin closing’, ‘closing the lips over a spoon’, and ‘tongue control’showedsignificant improvement. In addition, after oral sensory treatment, the subjects showed an improvement intheir American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurements Systemswallowing scale (ASHA NOMS). Conclusion : Further studies into the co-relationship between the types of cerebral palsy and oral functionshould be conducted.
  • 6.

    The Relationships Among ADL, Self-Esteem, and Motivation for Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

    김다혜 | OH MYUNG HWA | Chung Hyunae and 1other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.59~70 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    Objective : This study was conducted to check the ADL, self-esteem, and motivation for rehabilitation ofstroke patients and to investigate their relationship and effect. Methods : This study looked at 121 stroke patients, and as the study tools to check the ADL, self-esteem, andmotivation for rehabilitation, each study participant filled out a questionnaire using the Korean version of theModified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Motivation for Rehabilitationmeasurement tool. For the data, a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient,and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results : Statistically significant correlations were found between the patient’s self-esteem and ADL, as wellas their task-oriented motivation, change-oriented motivation, and amotivation among synchronous subareas of rehabilitation. Self-esteem was the factor most affecting the stroke patient’s motivation forrehabilitation, with a 16.3% effect. Conclusion : We can conclude from the above that the self-esteem of stroke patients is an affecting factor fortheir motivation for rehabilitation. Consequently, it should be considered that not only an improvement inphysical function but also the support of the patient’s internal psychology be performed for the rehabilitationof stroke patients.
  • 7.

    The Development of Swallowing Function Test of Stroke Victims Using a Rasch Analysis

    홍덕기 | Lee Jaeshin | kim su kyoung and 1other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.71~90 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to develop a Swallowing Function Test (SFT) for stroke patients byapplying a Rasch analysis based on the item response theory. Methods : The subjects were 153 stroke patients with dysphagia in 5 categories based on 23 items of apreliminary SFT. The data were analysed using a Rasch analysis to investigate whether the persons anditems fit, the distribution of item difficulty, separation reliability, and the appropriateness of the rating scale. Finally, the items were categorized using a factor analysis. Results : Eleven out of 153 subjects were found to not fit. Six out of 23 items were also found to be misfit. Themisfitted items included‘ history of pneumonia’,‘ oral sensation’,‘ gag reflex’,‘ nasal/oral regurgitation’,‘swallowing delayed’and ‘stridor after swallowing’. Of the appropriate items, the most difficult was‘laryngeal elevation’, and the easiest was‘ alertness’. The SFT rating scale was shown to be appropriate forstroke patients with dysphagia. The item separation reliability was .95, and the person separation reliabilitywas .98. Finally, four categories for 17 items were completed for the SFT through a factor analysis. Conclusion : The SFT for stroke patients with dysphagia was proven to be reliable and valid. It is expected thatSFT may help identify the clinical features of patients, and the recovery level may present interventionguidelines, considering the level of difficulty of the items.
  • 8.

    Effects of Mental Imagery Training Combined With Electromyogram-Triggered Electrical Stimulation on Upper Extremity Motor Function and Activities of Daily Living in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Ji-Su Park | Jong-Bae Choi | 2013, 21(4) | pp.91~106 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Objective : This study aimed to determine the effects of mental imagery training combined withelectromyography-triggered electrical stimulation on the paretic upper extremity functions in chronic strokepatients. Methods : Randomized and controlled trials were conducted on 44 chronic stroke outpatients at the K clinicbetween August 2012 and February 2013. The patients were divided into two groups: an experimental groupwas given mental imagery training combined with electromyography-triggered electrical stimulation, and acontrol group was given common functional electrical stimulation. The trials lasted for six weeks, consistingof 30-min treatment sessions conducted five days/week. As assessment tools, a Fugl-Meyer Assessment(FMA) and Manual Function Test (MFT) were used to assess the upper extremity functions, and a ModifiedBarthel Index (MBI) was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment of activities of daily living. Results : 1) After the six-week intervention, the FMA and MFT scores of the experimental group presented atatistical significant change (p<.05). 2) The MBI pre-post score comparison of the experimental group didnot show any statistically significant changes, except for personal hygiene and clothing items (p<.05). On theother hand, the control group showed a slight improvement in scores after intervention, but the differencewas not statistically significant for all items. Conclusion : The results of treatment with mental imagery training combined with electromyography-triggeredelectrical stimulation in chronic stroke patients demonstrated that this combined therapy is more effectivethan functional electrical stimulation for an improvement of the paretic upper extremity functions in strokepatients, and that it was also effective in enhancing the performance of hand manipulation-associatedactivities of daily living.
  • 9.

    Job Analysis of Occupational Therapists Engaged in the Field of Vocational Rehabilitation

    구인순 | Seung-Pyo Hong | 김동진 and 5other persons | 2013, 21(4) | pp.107~122 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract
    Objective : The purposes of this study are to define the job of occupational therapists engaged in the field ofvocational rehabilitation, and to derive the duties, tasks, and task elements of occupational therapists. Methods : We used the DACUM technique for a job analysis of occupational therapists. To do so, we derivedthe final work elements after we made up the DACUM committee and held a DACUM work shop. We thenconfirmed the duties, tasks, and task elements after we received the content validity from vocationalrehabilitation teaching faculties. Results : Through this study, we derived the job definition of an occupational therapist engaged in vocationalrehabilitation including nine responsibilities (counseling, evaluation, work place evaluation, work preparationtraining, work adjustment training, linkage of employment, education, research, and administration), 41 tasks,and 101 task elements. Conclusion : The results of this study are expected to elaborate on the job description of occupation therapistsengaged in vocational rehabilitation and provide a background and educational content for departments ofoccupational therapy and continuing education courses of the occupational therapy association.
  • 10.

    A Phenomenological Study of the Driving Experience of Elderly Koreans

    Park Myoung Ok | Jung, Bong-Keun | 2013, 21(4) | pp.123~134 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Objective : The objective of this study was to explore the meaning and behaviors of elderly Korean drivers andidentify the structure of driving experience through a phenomenological qualitative study. Methods : Four active older drivers were recruited. A phenomenological study design was used to collectinformation regarding the meaning and value of driving experience among the elderly Korean subjects. Thedata collection process was conducted using a structured interview and survey. Results : The driving experiences among the elderly participants can be summarized into three main themes: 1)a change in driving pattern, 2) the meaning of driving, and 3) future driving plans. The elderly driversexperienced a decrease in their driving abilities and recent difficulties in their driving. They indicated thattheir physical condition has worsened from aging and they feel a psychological burden. These changes haveaffected their driving patterns. The participants responded that traveling with their own vehicle positivelyaffects their quality of life and they want to continue driving as long as their physical condition allows it. However, some respondents stated that they will reduce their driving owing to a feeling of fear. Conclusion : A comprehension of the physical and psychological conditions of elderly drivers are necessary toprovide an effective driving rehabilitation service.