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2014, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    Neuroscience-based Action-observation During Upper Extremity Rehabilitation for Stroke Patients

    윤영식 | Kiyeon Chang | 원성윤 and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.1~14 | number of Cited : 5
    This study conducted a literature review to examine the neurological mechanism of the mirror-neuron system andits usefulness as a therapeutic approach for the rehabilitation of neurological patients in clinics. The mirror-neuronsystem means the nerve cells that are in action when observing particular motions or the movement of other objects,and it is known to exist in the ventral premotor cortex, which includes the human frontal gyrus, inferior parietallobule, inferior frontal gyrus, parietal lobe area, and superior temporal sulcus. For a neurological-based therapeutictreatment, action-observation training can be used. This is a training method of observing and duplicating motions;thus, it is a training method used to reach to a phase of exercise learning through understanding, selection andduplication of the forms and motions seen when observing other people’s behaviors. There are some currentstudies being conducted on the therapeutic efficiency and clinical application of action-observation training. Many ofthese studies have reported the effects of functional improvements. Such an action-observation training method canbe further revitalized when possible movements, rather than impossible movements, are observed through themovement of actual human hands in tasks related to observation, or in other words, goal-oriented tasks. In additionto the therapeutic aspect, action-observation training based on such a mirror-neuron system is convenient toconduct at home after the patient is discharged from a hospital, and can be an effective and economical method interms of cost-saving. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effectiveness and therapeutic applicability of themirror-neuron system in the area of neurological rehabilitation treatment by determining the neurological evidenceregarding the mirror-neuron system, and by reviewing studies in which action-observation training based on themirror-neuron system has been applied.
  • 2.

    Translation and Reliability Study of Korean Version of the Seated Postural Control Measure

    김진수 | Jung Min-Ye | Park Ji-Hyuk and 2other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.15~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to translate the Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), an outcomemeasure used to assess the effects of adaptive seating intervention, into Korean, and to examine the reliability ofthe Korean version. Methods : The Korean version of the SPCM was completed through a translation process that included thetranslation itself, verifying the translation, a reverse translation, and verifying the reverse translation, and wasexamined for its internal consistency, The test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were confirmed basedon 23 participants diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Results : The internal consistency was calculated to be .927 in total, i.e., .681 for the alignment section and .972for the functional section. The test-retest reliability was .954 in total, i.e., .936 for the alignment section and .968for the functional section, and the inter-rater reliability turned out to be .982 in total, i.e., .837 for the alignmentsection and .998 for the functional section. Conclusion : Through a systematic methodology of translation and reliability verification, a Korean version of theSPCM was confirmed as a reliable assessment tool to evaluate seating for people with cerebral palsy in Korea. Itis expected that professionals in the field of assistive technology can apply it to evidence-based adaptive seatingintervention.
  • 3.

    Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the School Function Assessment

    Shin, Ye-Na | Park Soo Hyun | 이지연 and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.27~38 | number of Cited : 7
    Objective : This study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the School FunctionAssessment (SFA). Methods : A total of 49 elementary school children participated in the study. Among them, 35 were diagnosed withan intellectual disability, and 14 were diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder. To verify the criterionvalidity, their scores on the Korean version of the SFA were compared to the Korean version of the AdaptiveBehavior Scale (School Edition; ABS‐SE) and the Korean version of the Social Maturity Scale (K-SMS). Adiscriminant analysis was conducted to examine if the SFA can discriminate between the two clinical diagnosisgroups. In addition, the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability were assessed. Results : The validity of the criterion was supported through a significant correlation with the ABS-SE (r=.84) andK-SMS (r=.77). In addition, a discriminant analysis was able to significantly predict the group membership of thestudents based on their SFA scores. The results show that the test-retest reliability and interrater reliabilityranged between (r=.83 to .95) and (r=.75 to .96), respectively, for the three subscales of the SFA. Conclusion : These results have contributed to an accumulation of validity and reliability evidence for the Koreanversion of the SFA, and suggest that this functional assessment may be effectively utilized as a valid instrumentin clinics and schools.
  • 4.

    A Study on Factors Affecting the Turnover Intention of Occupational Therapists

    No-yul Yang | Park Ji-Hyuk | Han Dae-Sung and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.39~48 | number of Cited : 16
    Objective : This study aims to identify factors affecting the turnover intention of occupational therapists. Methods : A survey of 33 questions in four areas was conducted by occupational therapists. A total of 564questionnaires were analyzed. The differences of each variable based on the general characteristics of theparticipants were analyzed. The correlation among the turnover intention, job satisfaction, and organizationalcommitment was verified. In addition, the factors affecting the turnover intention were estimated through amultiple regression analysis. Results : The levels were 13.1 for turnover intention, 45.2 for job satisfaction, and 17.4 for organizationalcommitment. The turnover intention showed significant differences based on the gender and monthly payment. Theturnover intention was correlated with monthly payment, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Moreover, the turnover intention was affected by job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conclusion : To reduce the turnover intention, regular training, an educational program, and a new communicationsystem must be provided.
  • 5.

    The Factors Influencing the Ability of Driving Performance in Stroke Patients

    Jae-Hong, Lee | Jaeshin Lee | kim su kyoung and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.49~60 | number of Cited : 2
    Objective : This study was conducted to identify the relevance between the functional level and driving skills instroke patients, and to compare their driving performance according to their functional level. Methods : To evaluate the functional ability of the participants, an Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3(MVPT-3), Manual Function Test (MFT), Rapid Pace Walk Test, The DriveABLE Cognitive Assessment Tool(DCAT), and Korean form of Geriatric Depression Scale (KGDS) were used. In addition, an STISIM Drivingsimulator (OTRehab-2.evt) was used to investigate their driving capability. Results : Their brake reaction time had an effect on their visual perception ability (spatial orientation), as well astheir cognitive and depression levels. The total length of the run time influenced their gait function and depressivelevel. Centerline crossings were related to their visual perception (spatial orientation), and road edge excursionwas linked with their visual perception (spatial orientation). In addition, off road accidents affected their visualperception (visual closure), gait function, and depressive level, and collisions exerted an influence on their visualperception (visual short-term memory) and cognitive status. Conclusion : This study will serve as fundamental data for further studies on driving rehabilitation in strokepatients.
  • 6.

    Effect of Korean Computer-based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program (CoTras) for the Memory and EEG Activity in Stroke

    김정미 | 조아영 | 장지연 and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.61~76 | number of Cited : 3
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical effect of a Korean computer-based cognitiverehabilitation program (CoTras) for recovering the memory and Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in strokepatients. Methods : A single-subject multiple-baseline experiment research design was used to determine the effect ofCognitive Training System (CoTras). Three participants who have had memory deficit post-stroke were trainedusing CoTras for 30 minutes per session. A total of twenty sessions were conducted. Their EEG was recordedduring each session, and their relative power spectrum was analysed based on the beta/theta ratio. A Digit SpanTest (DST) of the Computerized Neurocognitive Function Test (CNT) was used to assess the memory of eachsubject during each session, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G)was used to evaluate their brain activation pre- and post-test. The data were visually analyzed using graphs anda descriptive statistical analysis. Results : All of the participants showed a significant increase in memory, and their LOTCA-G and DST scoreswere improved post-test. However, no significant changes in EEG were shown. Conclusion : These findings provide evidence that CoTras is an effective approach to memory recovery after astroke; however, their EEG levels did not change.
  • 7.

    The Phenomenological Study on Driving Experience of the Drivers With Stroke

    NAMHAE JUNG | Moonyoung Chang | Kyeong-Mi Kim | 2014, 22(4) | pp.77~88 | number of Cited : 2
    Objective : The aim of this study is to understand the driving experience and adaptive strategy of drivers after astroke using a phenomenological method. Methods : A phenomenological method was applied to this qualitative research to investigate the experiences offive drivers regarding their difficulties and strategies while driving after a stroke. Their disability ranking was 4or 5. To gather information, the researcher had face-to-face conversations at each driver’s home. The interviewcontent was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Results : Three themes, 12 main ideas, and 24 meaning units were presented. After their stroke, the driversexperienced anxiety in their driving capacity, interference and negative reactions from other people, perceptualproblems and environmental barriers, and they implemented coping strategies such as gathering first-handinformation, self-encouragement, installation of assistive devices and gear transmissions, avoided exposure todangers, and actively pursued their social rights. After their stroke, the drivers easily performed their roles,rested, and enjoyed leisure time through driving, consequently leading to an improvement in their self satisfaction. Conclusion : Predicting certain difficulties and applying planning strategies will be an efficient and safe method notonly for stroke patients but also their families and driving rehabilitation specialists. This study will be used asbasic data for such research.
  • 8.

    Development and Assessment of One-hand Propellable Manual Wheelchair for Hemiplegic Patients

    Jemo Park | Baik Ji Young | Chung Hyunae and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.89~102 | number of Cited : 1
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the usage problems of a standard manual wheelchair forhemiplegic clients and to develop a ‘one-handed propellable manual wheelchair’ and identifying its effectiveness. Methods : Thirty hemiplegic clients who were admitted into a rehabilitation and convalescent hospital in ametropolitan city participated as subjects. The research tools were standard manual wheelchairs commonly usedby people with an impaired gait and a one-handed propellable device equipped on a manual wheelchair developedfor this study to evaluate its effectiveness. Wheelchair Skill Tests (WST), drivability, convenience, difference, andacceptability were adopted as the evaluation tools. Results : The failure rate of all WST items was recorded for more than 96.7% of the participants who drove astandard manual wheelchair without using their feet. As compared to an existing wheelchair, the statistical resultsshowed a significant effect on the WST, drivability, convenience, difference, and acceptability for the participantswhen driving a manual wheelchair equipped with the developed device. Conclusion : These findings imply that the use of a one-handed propellable wheelchair can be an active andeffective solution to solve the problems for hemiplegic clients who are using existing manual wheelchairs. Therefore, the government should provide institutional support to develop and distribute this technology andpromote relative research, allowing the mobility and occupational performance of hemiplegic clients to increase.
  • 9.

    The Development of the Computer-based Driving Situational Awareness Task for Brain Injury

    Kim,Young-geun | Lee, Jae Sik | 2014, 22(4) | pp.103~120 | number of Cited : 1
    Objective : The purpose of study is to prove the validity of a computer-based situational driving awareness taskdeveloped to evaluate the cognitive functions related with driving after a brain injury. Methods : For this purpose, 73 patients (CVA, TBI) participated in the situation awareness test, andneuropsychological cognitive assessment tools were applied. The participants were evaluated based on a ‘drivingsituational awareness task’ and Mini-Mental State Examination for Korean (MMSE-K), their working memory,and a coding subtest on the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Ⅳ (K-WAIS-Ⅳ) in order to verify theconcurrent validity. The patients participated in a Star Cancellation Test and Trail Making Test A, B (TMT A, B). Experts in driving situational awareness, a loss adjuster, and occupational therapists participated in verifying thecontent validity. Results : The results were as follows. The correlation between the coding subtest in K-WAIS-Ⅳ and the ‘drivingsituational awareness task’ was the highest. The best cognitive assessment tool predicting the situationalawareness was the coding subtest. The TMT A, B and Star Cancellation Test are related with the driving situationawareness task. Conclusion : A ‘driving situational awareness task’ is appropriate in evaluating cognitive functions related withdriving performance. These results will support occupational therapists in their plans to conduct a cognitiveassessment related to situation awareness while driving.
  • 10.

    Preliminary Research for Standardization of Clinical Terminology System for Occupational Therapy

    Lee Hyang Sook | Song, Young-Jin | 이미영 and 7other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.121~134 | number of Cited : 4
    Objective : This study was conducted to be used as an essential resource for standardizing a future medicalterminology framework by analyzing the current status of the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system andmedical terminology used in health-care institutes where occupational therapists are employed. Methods : A total of 121 health-care institutes where occupational therapists are employed completed surveysregarding the current status of occupational therapy related to medical terminology use. This study was dividedinto two categories performed individually based on the use of the EMR system. The data were analyzed using anSPSS multiple response module. Results : Among the 121 health-care institutions, 102 institutions use the EMR system, which is a rate of 84.3%. Treatment plans are already recorded in the system, and the progress notes can be edited by pulling out therecorded data. More than 60.0% of the institutions expressed limitations in using the occupational therapytreatment terminology of the system. In addition, 85.1% indicated the necessity of standardizing medicalterminology, and 74.5% showed a strong willingness to apply standardized terminology if the Korea Association ofOccupational Therapists (KAOT) approves an official standardized medical terminology framework. Conclusion : The standardization of Korean occupational therapy medical terminology needs to be promoted byincorporating the International Classification of Health Intervention (ICHI), Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)code, and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF) terminology.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Life History of a Person With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Focused on Before and After its Onset

    Jang Jong-Sik | 송병남 | Jae-Ho Lim and 1other persons | 2014, 22(4) | pp.135~148 | number of Cited : 2
    Objective : By making use of a life history research method, this research described understanding what life is forclients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We were able to have an in-depth understanding ofthe physical and psychological experiences after the disease occurred. Based on these data, we should utilizeeffective work treatment arbitration with other clients. Methods : To explain the physical functions and psychological changes from the management of ALS, in-depthinterviews were conducted with two clients for thirty minutes, 7 to 10 times each. We carried out the experimentuntil no more additional findings occurred. Results : Thus far, the two participants who took part in the research have had some physical experiences incommon; such as a change in weight, limbs, and respiratory muscles, as well as dysphagia. However, they wentthrough a different psychological experience; more precisely, One participant, Mr. Kim, who did not have hisfamily members' support, accepted his death calmly rather holding onto hope. On the other hand, the otherparticipant, Mr. Choi, who had his family members’ support at first lived with hope for life rather than with fearof death, but he also seemed to prepare for his death as time passed. Conclusion : From the above results, we can conclude that there are two different roles of an occupational therapistfor their clients suffering from ALS. In full, at the early stage of the disease, the therapist should act as arehabilitation expert who can comprehend and sympathize with the patient about the changes to their body, Forthe psychological and social functions, and during the terminal stage of the disease, the therapist should act as ahospice expert.