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pISSN : 1226-0134 / eISSN : 2671-4450

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2017, Vol.25, No.1

  • 1.

    Effects of Task-Oriented Robot-Assisted Therapy for Motor Function of Upper Extremities and ADL Performance of Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Seoyoon Heo | Kyeong-Mi Kim | 2017, 25(1) | pp.1~18 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Objective: This study is aimed at finding the effects of task-oriented robot-assisted therapy for stroke patients in terms of the motor function of the upper extremities and ADL performance based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: RCTs were identified through a database search of MBASE, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochran CENTRAL from 1980 to December 2015, and through additional manual searches. Meta-analyses were separately conducted in terms of the motor function of the subjects' upper extremities and ADL performance. A quality assessment was conducted using SIGN, the level of evidence was reviewed based on GRADE, and the risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. The statistical heterogeneities were also investigated, and RevMan 5.3 was used for a Meta analysis covering the averages and standard deviations. Results: Twelve studies were selected and reviewed. The overall task-oriented robot-assisted therapy group was made up of 341 participants (235 male, 106 female) with an average age of 60.50±5.51. The control subjects totaled 301 (207 male, 94 female, with an average age of 58.55±17.1). The improvement in the entire motor function of their upper extremities showed a statistical significance (mean difference, 0.34; 95% CI, -0.30 to 4.38; p<.05; I2=65.0%) with an FMA of 2.98 (mean difference, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.72 to 3.48; p<.05; I2=52.0%), BB of 2.25 (mean difference, 2.34; 95% CI, 0,30 to 4.38; p<.05; I2=28.0%), and FIM of 3.04 (mean difference, 4.14; 95% CI, -1.47 to 6.80; p<.05; I2=73.0%). However, their WMFT, overall ADL performance, ABILHAN, and MAL did not reach a level of statistical significance. Conclusion: Task-oriented robot-assisted therapy was shown to have a positive possibility for the recovery of stroke survivors, particularly in the motor function of their upper extremities and ADL performance. Further research will be needed to ground the evidence and support the clinical use of task-oriented robot-assisted therapy.
  • 2.

    Effects of Task-Oriented Vocational Rehabilitation Program on Hand Function and Job Competency and Generalization for People With Intellectual Disability

    황민지 | Bang Yoo-soon | 손보영 and 1other persons | 2017, 25(1) | pp.19~32 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a task-oriented vocational rehabilitation program on the hand function and job competency and generalization for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: The study period was April 4 through June 24, 2016, and the subjects were four adults with an intellectual disability, who use the E welfare center in G. City. The study design was a multiple probe design across the behaviors of single subject research. The intervention was conducted in stages, i.e., basic competency, job competency, and the generalization process, for 50 min, two times a week, during a 12 week period. For the basic competency process, the grasping power, dexterity, and bilateral hand manipulation; for the job competency process, the number of finished strings and their accuracy; and for the generalization process, the number of finished bracelets, finishing time, and accuracy were all measured after the every session. Results: Their hand function and basic job performance were improved through the task-oriented vocational rehabilitation program. In addition, their job competency and generalization, which are required to hold and maintain a job, were improved through repetitive training of tasks conducted through a job analysis. Conclusion: The program worked effectively on the hand function, job competency, and generalization, all of which affect one's job performance. Therefore, this study proposes use of such a program for vocational rehabilitation.
  • 3.

    Effectiveness of Task-Oriented Intervention on Hand Functions in Patients With Hand Burn Injuries

    심선화 | Choi Jong Bae | You, Su-Jeon | 2017, 25(1) | pp.33~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment assignment training for a task-oriented intervention is more effective for hand functionally compared to a control group. Methods : A randomized controlled study was conducted for 30 patients with a hand burn injury. The patients were divided into a task-oriented intervention group (n=15) and a simple exercise therapy group (n=15). The experimental group was given task-oriented intervention, and the control group was provided with simple exercise therapy. The trial was applied for 30 min per day, three times a week for six weeks. To verify the effectiveness of the intervention, the Korean versions of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ-K) and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTT) were used. Results : After six weeks of intervention, The MHQ-K and JTT scores of the simple exercise therapy group and the task-oriented intervention group both showed significant improvement in hand function (p<.05). Task-oriented intervention also showed a better effect regarding writing skills, and simulated feeding, and level of satisfaction (p<.05). Conclusions : Based on MHQ-K and JTT scores, task-oriented intervention was shown to be more helpful than simple exercise therapy to improve the confidence in patients with a hand burn injury.
  • 4.

    Effects of a Multimodal Intervention Program on Cognitive Function and Depression of the Elderly With Early Dementia

    Kim, Seo-Eun | 박상미 | Jung, Min-Ye | 2017, 25(1) | pp.45~55 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal intervention program organized with purposeful activities, including physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, play, and craft making on the cognitive function and depression of older adults with early dementia. Methods : This study was executed using a single group pretest-posttest design. The participants joined eight weekly sessions of group intervention, and every session took 90 min to complete. A Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) and the Korean Version of the Short form Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS-K) were used to evaluate the cognitive function and depression of the participants. Results : After a multimodal intervention, the participants showed a significant increase in their average score of cognitive function, and a significant decrease in their average score of depression. The six participants with a suspicious depression were shown to be within the normal range after intervention. Conclusion : Multimodal intervention has the effect of delaying the progress of cognitive impairment and decreasing the depression level of older adults with early dementia. Further research is recommended to prove the results of this study more concretely. Research on the quality of intervention regarding therapists’ attitude or abilities in terms of the way they provide intervention for their clients is suggested
  • 5.

    Coping Strategies for Job-Related Stress of Occupational Therapists in Korea

    조두나 | Daehyuk Kang | Taekyoung Lee | 2017, 25(1) | pp.57~69 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job-related stress and coping strategies of Korean occupational therapists, and to suggest strategies for managing such stress. Methods : The survey participants were recruited from the database of the Korea Association of Occupational Therapists, and Quota sampling was used based on the gender ratio and geographic areas. The survey was conducted from October 1 to 31, 2016 through an online survey system. A total of 450 occupational therapists responded, and 406 responses were analyzed, with 44 incomplete responses. Results : Job-related stress such as work demand, lack of reward, and the organizational system were higher than the total average. The main factor of job-related stress was work demand. The strategies for stress management commonly used by occupational therapists were wishful thinking, problem-focused coping, social support, and emotional relaxation in that order. On the other hand, emotional relaxation, which is a passive strategy, was relatively low in use. Statistically significant relationships (r=-.37,-.30, p<.01) were found between active stress management strategies (problem-based and social support) and job related stress. Conclusion : Occupational therapists need to identify the cause of job related stress, and establish individual coping strategies rather than avoiding them. In addition, the work place should promote quality occupational therapy service through various work environment improvement programs supporting job-related stress management.
  • 6.

    Effects of Work-Hardening Program on Job Retention in Industrially Injured Workers : Focused on Self-Efficacy, Depression, And Rehabilitation Motivation

    노동희 | 조은주 | Han Seung Hyup and 1other persons | 2017, 25(1) | pp.71~83 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of work-hardening program on Job retention in industrially injured workers in the view of self-efficiency, depression, and motivation for rehabilitation. Methods : Forty-nine injured workers who attended work-hardening program at Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (KCOMWEL) C hospital in Gyeongsangnam-do from June 2015 to August 2016 were recruited. Work-hardening program was offered to 49 injured workers 1 session (at least 3 hours) a day, 5 times a week, for 4~8 weeks. We evaluated self-efficacy, depression, and rehabilitation motivation before and after intervention. Additionally subjects were divided into two groups depending on whether or not they had returned to their own work two months after the intervention, and differences between two groups were investigated. Results : There were statistically significant differences in self-efficiency, depression, rehabilitation motivation between before and after work-hardening program (p<.05). Two months after the intervention, there was a significant difference in self-efficacy between two groups (p<.05). Conclusion : This study showed that the work-hardening program have positive effects on self-efficacy, depression, rehabilitation motivation and suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor for returning to work.
  • 7.

    Intervention of Neglect for Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review

    고석범 | HAE YEAN PARK | 김주희 | 2017, 25(1) | pp.85~104 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to examine the trend of intervention ameliorating the neglect of stroke patients, and to provide evidence and implications regarding their occupational therapy. Methods : For the main key-words of a database search, “Stroke or cerebrovascular accident or CVA AND Neglect or visuospatial neglect or hemisphere neglect AND Intervention or rehabilitation” were used. We systematically examined papers published in journals from January 2005 to December 2015, using Scopus, PubMed Central, and MEDLINE. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Results : The results indicated the level of quality and trend for each study, the type of intervention, the effectiveness of intervention, the stroke patients’ recovery stage, applied tools, and dependent variables measured based on neglect. The quality and quantity of such studies and the combinations of intervention are increasing. For the combinations of intervention studies, combinations of visual scanning training and task oriented training, mental practice, and electrical stimulation showed statistically significant improvements in ameliorating neglect. In addition, the interventions were mostly provided on stroke patients at a chronic stage. The ‘Line bisection test’ and ‘Star cancellation test’ were most frequently used, and ‘functional independence in ADL’ was consistently measured with neglect. Conclusion : Through this systematic review, we were able to find and understand the trend of intervention for neglected stroke patients. This systematic review is expected to help select the proper intervention, frequency and intensity, and assessment according to the stroke stage of the individual.
  • 8.

    Evidence-Based Intervention for Improving Imitation Ability of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    김미지 | HAE YEAN PARK | 2017, 25(1) | pp.105~122 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objective : The purpose of this study was to introduce intervention for improving the imitation skills of children with an ASD, and to emphasize the importance of the occupational therapist’s role and the need for further research in this area. Methods : For the main keywords of a database search, “ASD AND Gesture imitation AND (Intervention OR Training)” were used. Using ProQuest, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus, we systematically reviewed articles published from 2006 to 2016. A total of 13 studies were included in the analysis. Results : The results reveal that many studies followed a single subject study design. The most commonly applied intervention was reciprocal imitation training. In addition, intervention was mostly provided for a wide range of ages. Improvement of one's imitation skills affected the language, social skills, behavioral problems, motor skills, and ADL skills of children. The study field accounting for the highest proportion was shown to be psychology. Conclusion : Through this systematic review, we were able to determine and understand that the imitation skills of children with an ASD are a prerequisite for learning, and affect other developmental areas. In the future, based on this study, research on intervention for improving children’s imitation skills may be developed further by occupational therapists.
  • 9.

    Development of Evaluation Criteria of Accreditation Standards for Occupational Therapy Education in Korea

    Lee Hyang Sook | Daehyuk Kang | Moonyoung Chang and 7other persons | 2017, 25(1) | pp.123~137 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    Objective : The aim of this study was to develop evaluation criteria for the accreditation standards of occupational therapy education in Korea. Methods : Faculty members were surveyed regarding the validity of the evaluation criteria from June to August, 2016. Six categories were developed through a literature review, and the validity of each item was measured on a four-point scale. 84 responses were received and analyzed. Through focus group meetings, the results were reviewed, and the core competency categories and items of occupational therapy were revised. The final evaluation criteria were completed, and their content validity was assessed by ten occupational therapy education experts. Results : The final evaluation criteria consisted of six categories, 15 items, and 31 sub-items. The mean validity of the items ranged from 3.3 to 4, and the final Content Validity Index (CVI) was between 0.8 and 1. The core work competency of occupational therapy was classified into interview/evaluation and intervention/others, and the mean validity of the sub-categories ranged from 3.0 to 3.6, with a CVI of 1. Actual testing was preferred for assessing the core work competency of both interview/evaluation (40.6%) and intervention/others (37.5%). Conclusion : The establishment and application of evaluation criteria for occupational therapy education will facilitate the accomplishment of public responsibility and international recognition.
  • 10.

    Development of a Bathroom for Wheelchair Users Through a Usability Test

    Kim Hee Dong | OH MYUNG HWA | Baik Ji Young and 5other persons | 2017, 25(1) | pp.139~150 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Objective : This study was conducted to develop a more comfortable and convenient user interface that can be used in a front-entry sitting bathroom for wheelchair users, as determined through a usability test. It aims to promote the convenience and safety of wheelchair users and contribute to a revitalization of diffusion through associated research and policies. Methods : Forty male and female college students 20 to 24 years in age, who were divided into four groups according to their body size, were selected to monitor and measure the appropriate dimensions while using a front-entry sitting bathroom, including various components, in a convenient and safe manner. The principle of design for extreme individuals for the measured dimensions was applied to develop the final prototypes, and thereafter conduct usability tests on the subjects. Results : The front-entry sitting bathroom was developed by appling a user-centered approach to facilitate the use of wheelchair users. The results of the usability test were considerably positive in terms of convenience, appropriateness, recommendability, and applicability of the developed bathroom. Conclusion : The availability of a front-entry sitting bathroom was shown to be able to increase the convenience and safety of wheelchair users, as well as reduce the existing bathroom space. It can also improve their self-esteem by allowing wheelchair users to solve their own hygienic problems and thereby facilitate social participation. Efforts are required to adopt and distribute the developed bathroom, and it is recommended to push forward with this project on a national policy level.