Computational thinking is the ability to solve problems logically and algorithmically, with the goal of solving problems with a computer. Developing problem solving skills based on computational thinking is gaining attention as an important capability in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Research directions for increasing computational thinking power can be largely divided into research on education based on educational programming language and on physical computing. Education using physical computing requires a small programmable computer that elementary school students can easily access. This study presents the results of analyzing the educational effects of physical computing education on the basis of micro:bit-based physical computing education, which is recently attracting attention. The education program was designed according to the 2015 revision curriculum of the Ministry of Education. For the analysis of computational thinking ability, the pre and post thinking test was conducted based on the Beaver challenge problems. Statistical analysis was performed with pre and post test results. As a result, it was confirmed that physical computing education with education program using the micro:bit computing tool has a positive effect on the improvement of computational thinking of elementary school students. It was also evaluated to have a uniform positive impact regardless of grade level.