Realistic Nationalism and Pluralistic Nationalism focusing on Laski’s Sovereignty Trilogy
From the history of political ideology in the West, the state has been regarded as a human association represented in the political system, rather than an illusion or a fiction, but as a word to represent a real, territorialized real body. However, considering the fact that social reality is established in relations, the word state is nothing more than a representative (signifiant) to collectively refer to various relations of a domain. In other words, economic and social relations are organized into social structures by dividing them through public power, and these organizations are created in the realm. The statehood is an ontological expression of this social construct, a relational concept of reality. Then, from the ontology, the state is an abstract concept that conceives the form of a state-scale state created by political power and socio-economic power, and is a general sign of territorial relations. In addition, from the institutional theory, the existence of a state is nothing but a complex whole that can be established by organically connecting the governing body and the social organization. The appearance of this state as a capitalist state is due to the unique organizational principles and patterns of socio-economic relations.
The word state is the most comprehensive and general concept of politics, but it cannot escape the versatility. This stems from the context constraints that the state is a general sign of a political community bordered by spatial separation, but its form is differently polymorphic in time and space. As such, it has been pointed out that the term state should be excluded from the terminology of politics from an empiricist perspective or from a functionalist, operationist paradigm, and opinions to that effect are also found everywhere. However, even if the implications of the state are subject to the constraints of time and space, if we ask about the territorial socio-economic organization or the association between this organization and the governing body and try to approach it, we will not be able to analyze the state as the explanatory port. In order to understand international relations and international politics, it is possible to take a peek at the fact that it is compelling to use the state as an analysis concept (or device) as an explanation clause. This is because the state is inevitable to emerge as a reality of unrest, considering that the state is established in the significant connection of individual relations and that international relations are people-state relations.
Based on this theoretical state theory, this paper examines Laski’s pluralistic state theory, realist state theory, the formation and deterioration process of Western nation-states, and the background and nationalism of major states.