A Sociological Study on Nurses’ Specialty Area Regulations - Specialized and non-specialized areas formed by professionalization -
It has been recognized that the acquisition of knowledge and skills to engage in the profession and the education thereof are carried out by the professional group and that the profession is empowered. Having these elements is a condition of a profession, and at the same time, inheriting the uniqueness of the profession. From ancient times, when it comes to professions, doctors, lawyers, and priests have been called the three black professions (Trois robes noires).
These occupations represent a socially established status, and that ‘the predecessor form can be found in the pre-modern society long before industrialization,’ ‘received as a model by workers of many professions aiming at professionalization.’ It is a job that is being taken in. If so, how did the nursing profession become a profession? The professionalism of the nursing profession is revealed by the educational content in the training process, the acquisition of national examination qualifications, and the exclusive job content after qualification acquisition, as well as the recent sudden high-level professional education in graduate schools and the qualification recognition system by the professional group. However, the nursing profession was initially considered a semi- (or semi-professional) profession because it lacked the elements to become a professional position.
It is also important to point out that it would be impossible to approach the reality of modern professions and professions with the concept of professional workers or professions. In recent years, the medical profession has been specialized and advanced due to the progress of division of labor, so it is also a problem whether it is the former ‘three black medical professions’ that can show the expertise of many professions. In particular, occupations in health, medical care, and welfare are human and service, which is far from the achievement of authority shown in the ‘black job.’ It is thought that it is necessary to show what kind of professionalization is in a relationship. This can be seen as a contrasting position between the so-called monopoly of knowledge on the professional side and the relative ignorance of the client or the public about it, as the basis of professional authority. This is because authoritative performance based on contrast such as the presence or absence of specialized knowledge requires a medical attitude based on an equal relationship between other medical staff and patients.
Previous studies on nursing professions have tried to reveal professionalism through job or nursing practice ability, and research studies targeting individual nursing professionals have been the mainstream. Because the basic education for obtaining qualifications was not uniform and varied, there were individual differences in ability acquisition and necessity, and it seemed that it was because they tried to reveal the professionalism in relation to the individual's career orientation.
The purpose of this thesis is to reveal the expertise of the nursing profession in the profession of human service, which is the ultimate in authority. First, the nursing profession is summarized from the point of study on the profession. Next, research on the professionalism of the nursing profession is difficult to find in its entirety as there is no continuous data accumulation or systematic overview of the research papers. To this end, we review the history of discussions about nursing professionalism in three aspects: job content of the nursing profession, autonomy related to the profession, and professional education. After that, the characteristic elements of the profession found so far and the professionalism of the nursing profession will be compared.