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2009, Vol.47, No.47

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    Referential and Emphatic Functions of Demonstratives in the Poetry of Shin Dong-yeop

    김흥수 | 2009, 47(47) | pp.15~36 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper aims at studying the definite referential and emphatic functions of demonstratives in the poems of Shin Dong-yeop, particularly the transfer of referential functions to emphatic functions. Methodologically based on pragmatics and discourse ·text analysis, special attention is directed to poetic context and the intentions of poetic narrators. Major points are as follows: Demonstratives’ definite referential functions become more subjectified and specialized in Shin’s poems than in ordinary language. Their emphatic functions also become active to the effect of generating impressive literary impact. Referential functions come out as situational deixis and anaphoric reference, and situational deixis appear as textual situation and narrator situation deixis. The more redundant the contextual definiteness becomes, the greater referential emphasis the anaphoric reference is accompanied with. Contextual types, in which the referential functions transfer to emphatic functions, comprise adjacent pro-forms and repetitive expressions, relative clauses, cleft constructions, unspecific temporal words, and universal quantifiers. In contexts in which nouns or modifiers follow demonstratives, 【Abstracts】 36 제47집(2009. 8. 30) connotative meaning or content emphasizing functions become dominant.
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    The Change of Vowel System and Featural Combination Conditions in Middle Korean

    Park, Jong-Hee , Kwon,Pyong-Ro | 2009, 47(47) | pp.37~62 | number of Cited : 4
    Vowel system in Middle Korean was interfaced with the features [口蹙] and [口張] on the based of [舌縮] as being directly interpreted in ‘訓民正音’. Accordingly it was essentialy needed to understand the phonetic and phonological meanings of these terms correctly. Moreover the meaning of a basic term [舌縮] was important to establish the vowel system in Middle Korean. In this paper I suggested that this term had to be understood as a advanced tongue root. The tongue body was diagnally advanced and heightened when the tongue root was advanced. This property could be featuralized as [ATR] like a Proto-Siberian languages and a west african languages. The underlying vowel system of Middle Korean was composed of 4 vowels which was represented as I, U, A, ɨ. These 4 underlying vowels was surfaced as ㅣ1, ㅣ2, ㅡ, ㆍ, ㅜ, ㅗ, ㅓ, ㅏ by being supplied a default value and a floating value [ATR]. Among these ㅣ1 ,ㅡ, ㅜ, ㅓ were classified as [+ATR], while ㅣ2 ㆍ, ㅗ, ㅏ were classified as [-ATR] and so they were made up a natural class. On the basis of this vowel system, The [ATR] vowel harmony system was activated in Old Korean. After that time, ㅣ1 andㅣ2 were neutralized to ㅣ because a [ATR] contrast was disappeared at that position of this vowel system. Following this event ㅓ and ㅏ, ㆍ and ㅡ were neutralized again. I also suggested that the reason of this neutralization was a antagonistic relation of the composal features [+ATR] and [-high]. Therefore the direction of neutralization ㆍ>ㅡ was determined by this featural relation.
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    The effiency and change of language and style used in pitgaunderogeoreogamyeon written by Yun heung-gil

    Lee Tae Yeong | 2009, 47(47) | pp.63~82 | number of Cited : 0
    The thesis is intended to find out an author’s view on language, characteristics of his language and the style he try to express in pitgaunderogeoreogamyeon by looking into the characteristics of the oral language used in this work. Yun Heung-gil tends to use such oral language as dialect, fad words, expletives and idioms over all in this novel. It’s because he regards the standard language as an artificial language while he thinks of oral language as a natural and free language. He tries to recur to oral language throughout this novel and Soradanganeungil. dialect enables us to speak out our feeling and obtain a mental peace and gain the identity through an feeling of belongings. we can see that function of oral language and dialects used in literature is a expression of free minds and acts
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    Young Children’s Acquisition of Epistemic Modality in Korean: A Longitudinal Approach.

    Chang, Kyung hee , Kim Tae-kyung , 박샛별 | 2009, 47(47) | pp.83~110 | number of Cited : 3
    The use of modality markers is concerned with cognitive processes such as knowing and thinking. This study investigate the developmental sequence of Korean epistemic modality markers and the contextual properties of them in the utterances of young children. 4 children aged 2 years were observed in interaction with their mothers for one year. Results show that even though children may master the modality markers at different ages, the order of their acquisition is very similar. In general, children learn modality markers in such order; ‘-지’, ‘-네’ > ‘-구나’ > ‘-겠-’ > ‘-더-’. The order of morpheme acquisition seems to depend on syntactic and semantic complexity as well as frequency of exposure. And learning modality has stages from a simple expression in certain contexts to more complex expression in the contexts including perception of an event or inference.
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    The Problems of Landsape, Gaze, and its Representation in Jeong Jiyong’s later Poems - A Genealogy of Colonial Modernity and Gaze (4)

    Nam Ki-Hyeog | 2009, 47(47) | pp.111~148 | number of Cited : 26
    This paper examined the problems of Landscape, Gaze, and its linguistic representation, through Jeong Jiyong’s later poems, especially the religious poetry, the travel poetry created during the last stage of Japanese imperialism. In the religious poetry, Jeong Jiyong adopted the transcendent gaze of the God. The God in his poetry is represented as the image of heavenly body such as sun, moon, Venus, or as the image of flame of the Lamp. These imagery always has the image of Eye. The poetic subject negating his own eyes draws the God’s Eye into his soul. Jeong Jiyong’s self-reflection deepened the internality of Korean modern poetry by adopting the God’s eye instead of the modern gaze which gives privilege on human eyes. In the travel poetry, Jeong Jiyong represented the total image of Mountains only by way of representing small natural objects and combining its imagery. Especially, he identified his haggard soul with the natural objects which he had met by chance on his way of climbing mountains. On the other hand, he adopted the gaze of butterfly’s compound 【Abstracts】 148 제47집(2009. 8. 30) eyes to criticize the violence of modern subject’s gaze. Through the butterfly’s compound eyes, Jeong Jiyong could showed the transcendent imagination crossing the border between life and death, the border between existing and non-existing. In addition, Jeong Jiyong protected the purity of his soul and the dignity of modern poetry by declaring the symbolic death of himself. The fantasy of death which Jeong Jiyong saw through the butterfly was the representation of poet’s destiny in the colonial modern society. And, it was the self declaration of giving up writing in order not to cooperate with Japanese Imperialism, too.
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    Poetic Space in Kim Hye-Soon’s Poems

    PARK YOUNG WOO | 2009, 47(47) | pp.149~167 | number of Cited : 5
    Poetic space can be said to be a form of order given by the power of imagination. When poetic space is formed by imagination, imagination will act on it between a poet and an object. After putting an outer world into a poet’s consciousness, he or she expresses it by the symbolic form through poetic space. Therefore, composing and organizing poetic space means not only providing it with certain function but also projecting life, material and breath into it. This study searched for poetic space, Seoul which appears dominantly in Kim Hye-Soon’s collection of poems, “My Upanishad, Seoul” and investigated how it is formed poetically by her poetic consciousness. The body in Kim’s poems, which has been discussed much in the preceeding studies, is not only a means to show negative reality negatively but also a way to internalize such negative reality and paradoxically open her to the world. In her poems, ‘Seoul’ is the very space where her expression through bodies is embodied. ‘Seoul’ in her poems is the embodied space that inner space, space linked to the world, and the inner and outer world are incarnated. It is specially noticed that ‘Seoul’ in her poems does not confide only critical opinion to the daily life of the modern city and the tyrannies and problems of capitalism, but enlarges the poetic messages that are 【Abstracts】 김혜순 시의 시적 공간 167 internalized in her self. Therefore, the poetic space in her poems is an abstracted place that people living normally in this era acknowledge awkwardly as well as the place where she herself actually lives.
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    Rhetoric Strategy for the Poems of Shin Seog-jeong

    최명표 | 2009, 47(47) | pp.169~189 | number of Cited : 2
    This writing is a survey on Shin Seog-jeong’s rhetoric strategies presented in his before Liberation poetic works. In his early poems, he stuck to the honorific formation appropriate for praising Western pastures. Grounded on the past regressive view of time, he tried to think the conditions of reality into conceptual factors. However, the ever-worsening conditions of his times extended the distance him and his ideal world. Hence, he abolished the honorific and epistle writing styles and chose one proper to describing the objective conditions. Following, he realized the truth that nature of colony was warped by foreign forceful occupation and returned to a specific reality after leaving ‘the distant land’. On its shadow, the map discovered while he appreciated an oriental drawing called ‘SanSooDo(「山水圖」)’ was seated. After discovering the map, he was able to confirm the invasive desires of the imperialists when the experience of reading during the age of literary youth drew to feature a poetic figure who will destroy the colonial reality. In the background of his excluding the abstractive factors while holding onto the dream toward a ‘distant land’, various rhetoric strategies are being worked upon. Therefore, for Shin Suk-Jung’s poems, it is important to complexly inspect the rhetoric devises set between the lines of the work while shunning monolinear research.
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    A study on the Canon’s value and meaning in a Digital time

    Jang Changyoung | 2009, 47(47) | pp.191~211 | number of Cited : 1
    In this paper, I researched that the aspect of canon and the other idea in Digital. It must have the literary textuality, and it examined with the internet situation. The concept of canon changes according to the times, incoming Digital. This time is no more important of a concept of original text and canon. We were confronted with a difficult question, faces significant challenges. The new technology of commuter and internet was disseminated throughout world. These works are all included in the genre of writing and art. and then it is revolution in idea and reaction type. Original text and canon is closed, while that of internet is open. A netizen try to get out of the boundary original text and canon. They needs no more useful and practical value than the value of information. Because of a netizen use often the type of ‘pum’ in internet. and they make full use of it, wanted to the information sharing and communication with the other people. As a result, original text or canon concept and post is processing a radical change. But in spite of this radical change, canon is more valuable and more important in this time. The canon is full of suggestions. Our greatest 【Abstracts】 디지털 시대의 정전 위상과 의미 211 concern is how to reaction over the present revolution in Digital.
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    A Study on Recognizing Multi-Culture in Korean Culture - Focusing on Human Right Movies

    Seo, Yeon Ju | 2009, 47(47) | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 17
    This dissertation examines multi-culture recognition in our society and direction for multi-culture education that our society needs to pursue after, focusing on the human right movies, produced by National Human Rights Commission of Korea under the theme of ‘human right’ for the social weak. Mechanisms in which minority or the weak are ignored and looked down usually include a ‘view point’ that does not accept ‘them’ as one of ‘us’, human beings with the same individuality. This view point of a ‘Cloned orientalism’, which is embedded in us unconsciously, ‘differentiates’ ‘differences’ and is exposed in violent language and action. Also, a gesture of exaggerated ‘kindness’ for multi-culture family can bring out an outcome that will cause other exclusions. The end of human right movies show the mother country of alienated multi-culture families miss. This also needs to be examined, as it could be some imaginary Asia that we imagine. What we, as people who live in multi-cultural society, need to examine is the numerous differences, confrontations and disparity that exists in Asia, as well as where the polyphony can be displayed at its best. Ultimately, the cultural task we all face now is the positive integration, ‘Culture that communicates’. This needs to begin with having sensitive ‘sensibility’ which will endlessly cross-question the awe and respect for human beings. Therefore, a sensitivity training is required in order to induce recognition on responsibility and action, which will help accepting issues that we are numb to or not interested in, as our own problems. Until now, multi-culture education started with a purpose of making sure minority adapt themselves to Korean society as soon as possible. However, now is the time we need to examine whether such a process fails to notice the importance of their cultural identity or inter-cultural communication.
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    A study of Romance on Modern Reason that explored of Modernity - on Yeomma(艶魔) written by Chae man sig

    Kim Eun Ha | 2009, 47(47) | pp.235~262 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The pleasure in reading detective fiction is beginning from that a rationally superior detective revives the society in chaos to the normal society finding a criminal through scientific inference at the city where is the field of screams and slaughter. The detective is a modern wise retainer who can pass by the forest surrounded with enemies. The detective competes against to terror that is begun by modernity. In fact, the city is full of dangerous even if it is seen attractively, so then it is full of the possibility of evil that are criminals or alley in being dark and dump and the people of the lower classes who are potential crime. The detective explores modernity based on excellent intellectual ability that is not only coolness but also precise, and fights against to terror that is begun by modernity. Detective fiction is the story that overcomes it as a rational subject finds and investigates subjects what incurring terror. This story is presented that detective fiction is a bildungsroman been the common crowd in which establishes male identity in emotion divided with fascination and terror to modernity. It is the evidence of modern science masculinized that is coolness, cruel, intellect, observation and experiment, inference and colligation, dissection and analysis. Detective fiction is comprehended a cruel journey that is to be a hero, namely a superior individual with blocking up to be pass into his spirit world which is balanced delicately due to grind logical reasoning power by terror, frailty or hot feelings. Yeomma(艶魔) written by Chae man sig presents passionate aspiration that detective fiction is to make a rational and reasonable subject based on scientific literacy, and try to over decadent individualism. However, emotion is considered as an obstacle in a prologue of planing such a rational subject. If it will be remained the rational state, it regards to have to control emotion. It suggests that female has to be excluded and exiled in a prologue of planning a rational subject. It is because a gender of emotion is female. The reason is related with that female has been prescribed as the body why female is emotion.
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    The Circulation and Transmission of the Folk Tales of Chosunjok

    Lim,Chul-Ho | 2009, 47(47) | pp.263~290 | number of Cited : 4
    It is usually thought that the folk tales of Chosunjok have no alteration in the process of transmission. The reason is that the folk tales have been handed down in the form of books. But in reality, there exist so many versions of the same tale. The alteration of the folk tales of Chosunjok is different from that of the oral folk tales of Chosunjok in the fact that the alteration of the folk tales is sometimes intentionally made by some specific authors. This phenomenon happens in the wrong concept that the folk tales of Chosunjok are not the stories written by individual authors but a part of the oral folk tales of Chosunjok people. As the folk tales of Chosunjok are the results of individual authors, not only the names of the reporters and the person who arranged the stories but also the bibliographical information of the books which the folk tales are contained should be published, too. The alteration of the folk tales of Chosunjok happens by many reasons: for example, the intentional intervention of the government, the publisher and the editor, such publishing circumstances as the limited pages, the change of social ideology and the recognition of the importance of the folk 【Abstracts】 290 제47집(2009. 8. 30) tales, and intentional alteration of the authors themselves. In the circulation and transmission of the folk tales of Chosunjok, great care should be taken not to change the names of the reporters and the persons who arranged the folk tales. Great attention should be paid not to change the names of the authors, too. That is the reason when a scholar determined to study the folk tales of Chosunjok, he should keep in mind the fact that there exist many variations of the same folk tale.
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    Meaning in Seasonal Songs from an Agricultural Perspective

    Kim Wolduk | 2009, 47(47) | pp.291~317 | number of Cited : 4
    Korean seasonal songs are constructed with a twelve part framework corresponding to the twelve months of the year and based on the seasonal customs for each month. Times and seasons are important elements of the songs. Researchers have been concerned mostly with structural characteristics, differences in origins and types, and main ideas. This article has written on the assumption that the creation and spread of seasonal songs is primarily based on agricultural culture. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the directions and meanings from an agricultural perspective. What the purpose and direction of the songs are and when the important season and time are in the songs depends on the writers and singers’ class background and their experiences. The songs written by the learned are aimed at expanding knowledge and reproducing the national ideology of physiocracy (which means a doctrine in which farmers are regarded as essential parts of the country's wealth) under the influence of Confucian teachings from China. On the other hand, the songs that were sung by the people were created out of a need to express themselves and pray related to their daily agricultural life experiences. The two purposes and ideas 【Abstracts】 歲時歌謠의 지향성과 농경문화적 의미 317 have been developed over the course of generations based on literacy in the case of the scholars’ songs or orality in the case of the peasants’ songs. The twenty-four solar terms and festive days are related to the most important time in the seasonal songs because they are the materials that produce the meaning and demonstrate the circular conception of time based on the agriculture cycle. Seasonal songs written by the learned express a sense of physiocracy by focusing on the twenty-four solar terms that play a role in the farming calendar. Seasonal songs sung by the people express the people’s popular consciousness in pursuit of the harmony of work and rest by focusing on festive days.
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    The of Lighting-on of mimeographed version Gok-eo-Dok-Bon(Korean reader) written in 1946 and its’meaning

    JunHyung Kim | 2009, 47(47) | pp.319~339 | number of Cited : 0
    This study purposes to introduce Gok-eo-Dok-Bon(Korean reader) , which collected some parts of the text-book used for middle schedule in 1946, and to research significance. Based on today’s research result, Gok-eo-Dok-Bon(Korean reader) contents two of explanatory literatures as (<Hama[Hippo]>, <Bakmulgan[Museum]>), two of editorial literatures as (<Birds and beasts education>, <Korean students spirit>), two of literary literatures as (<Sijo three piece>, <Spring>), and some of biographical literatures as (<A great scholar LeeHwang>, <NamYi general>, <A saint LeeSunSin>, <Lincoln>), the others(<Adjective>). Based on these 3 literatures, at least, Gok-eo-Dok-Bon(Korean reader) purposes to show the educational goal by ; first, it intends to future instead of the past; second, it recognizes our identity; third, it indicates th realistic social participation. This research material has 3 major educational significance. Frist, it attaches importance to the educational worth by the emphasis of social message. Second, it leads the well recognition of various genres of Korean 【Abstracts】 1946년 謄寫本 ꡔ國語讀本ꡕ의 출현과 교육적 의미 339 literatures by presenting various literatures. Third, This research material has various different texts except the presented texts by central office. Moreover the education composed of the texts that is positively verified. Specially it is worthy of notice that the research material is the middle schedule text book before distribution of official text-book.
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    A Study of Kora’s Chinese character Instruction for a forigner

    Jeong, Hun | 2009, 47(47) | pp.341~359 | number of Cited : 9
    This essay deal with a teaching to read and writing a word written in Chinese characters for Korean as Foreign Language(KFL) learner. As KFL learners rose to high grade from an intermediate grade, they were burdened with a Chinese characters. Toward the solution this problem, Korean teachers make a need to study a Chinese characters and to teach an effective training. An early stage, they choose and taught the elementary Chinese characters. The read guidances were very effective in order to train Korean-Chinese characters for KFL learners. The first, fairy tale, fable and legend are appropriate for a primary grade. An example sentence of fairy tale, fable and legend consist of a native tongue and elementary Chinese characters. Those have a repeated practice, therefore KFL learners have a long-term memory to Korean-Chinese characters. The Second, a current question in Korea are appropriate for an intermediate grade. KFL learners have a schema Chinese’ classical literature in translation and study in the context of contemporary Korea. The third, an example sentence come from the subjects for general education are appropriate for high grade. Mostly a foreign student, they want to entry the Korean university. Due to satisfy 【Abstracts】 외국인을 위한 한국한자 교육 연구 359 their wants, we afford various data with wide latitude to them.
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    A Research on the Issues of the Features and Grammatical System of the Korean Grammar for Foreigners 1

    Lee Raeho | 2009, 47(47) | pp.361~387 | number of Cited : 2
    This thesis aims to examine the relationship between Korean Grammar and Korean Grammar as a Foreign Language, to compare the features of the Korean Grammar for Foreigners 1 as a model of the Korean Grammar, and to clarify the points of adequacy and consistency in its grammatical system. Korean Grammar and Korean Grammar for Foreigners have different teaching targets and aims thus have different descriptive contents and grammatical system. The grammatical category of the Korean Grammar as a Foreigners aims to elevate the communicative ability and because it is concentrated on form and function, it is counted as a unit therefore analyzing its constituents is unnecessary. Moreover, in the adapted grammar for the teaching of Korean Grammar for Foreigners, and in the concrete grammar formation, the grammar education’s effectivity and practicality can be considered and various descriptions and formations are possible. However, excessive narrowing of the communicative function or saying that the relevance of the communicative functions from the Korean 【Abstracts】 한국어 문법의 특징과 체계의 문제점에 대한 연구 387 Grammar System as a Foreign Language is limited to exclude the grammatical units is not advisable. The contents and system of the Korean Grammar for Foreigners 1 does not show any tremendous difference from the contents and system features of the Korean school grammar. Only except the sequence of the macro-construction and microscopic construction compounded syntax – morphology – phonology – pragmatics. Especially featured, as evident at the ending and modal expression, are appropriately harmonized form and function. The Korean Grammar for Foreigners 1 is an attempt to harmonize the form-centered system and the function-meaning-centered system from the grammar description. Therefore, in this book, we can discover the lost issues of the adequacy and consistency from the classification, auxiliary particles, particles, conjunctions and the copula.
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    My Cultural Learning in Korea : The Highs and Lows

    브라이언 | 2009, 47(47) | pp.389~417 | number of Cited : 0
    Life as a foreigner in Korea for almost 20 years has brought its cultural highs and lows. Entering the country with an extremely limited understanding of the language and culture resulted in exhausting periods of struggle as well as rewarding learning opportunities. Before entering Korea, as a university student, I was fortunate to have had prior 390 제47집(2009. 8. 30) worthwhile experiences with Korean students on our American university campus. After arriving in Korea, friends, classmates, and students have shared valuable insights with me for better relating to Koreans within their culture. Although I never intended to stay in Korea more than a few years, the additional years in Korea have given me the opportunity to experience Korean culture firsthand. These cultural experiences gathered through the years will always remain as valuable imprints in my life for better understanding Korean people and living well in Korea. This paper focuses on the author’s last 20 years of his life, as he prepared for departure to Korea in 1988, experienced Korean culture while studying abroad in Daejeon, and during the cultural ups and downs of his life in Jeonju, as a foreign bachelor and later as a married man to his American wife.