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2020, Vol.75, No.75

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  • 1.

    The Grammaticalization and the Meaning of ‘-Damyeonseo’

    Koo Jong Nam | 2020, 75(75) | pp.1~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the processes in which the abbreviated citation connective form ‘-damyeonseo’(-다면서) changes into sentence final ending which means confirmation, sarcasm, through grammaticalization, and clarify some of the semantic functions of these forms and the various characteristics of the sentences in which these meanings appear. Depending on the fact that ‘-damyeonseo1’(confirmaion), ‘-damyeonse2’(sarcasm) grammaticalized diffenently, this paper argued that their meanings must be discriminated and their meanings should be described separately. In addition, this paper argued that ‘-damyeonseo’ grammaticalized as a sentence final ending representing the meaning of awakening, and ‘-damyeonseo’ also grammaticalized as a connective ending. I argued that in what principles sentence final ending ‘-damyeonse1,2,3’ have the different meanings. Furthermore, the terminal contour, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic characteristics of final ending ‘-damyeonseo’ were examined in this paper.
  • 2.

    The Imagination of Disaster Falk Tales and the Otherness of a Sacrifice System: Focusing on the Inju Falk Tale

    Youngmi Kim | 2020, 75(75) | pp.29~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Imagination of Disaster Falk Tales and the Otherness of a Sacrifice System – focusing on the Inju Falk Tale. The Inju falk tale is a story that continuous failing of the builing bells, houses and embarkments causes human sacrifice, and finally succeeds to finish them. This study focuses on ‘the disaster narrative’ in the Inju falk tale and examines its imagination and the meaning of the sacrifice. The Inju falk tale includes the narrative about building embarkments, house and bell. Disaster elements are arranged in the each narrative: clearly in the embarkments narrative, changeably in the house narrative and connotatively in the bell narrative. Viewed in the disaster light, the narrative of building embarkments is about a imaginative disaster caused by natural disasters such as flood and its solution, the narrative of building houses is about the violence made by humans and the narrative of building bells is a imaginary story about overcoming a national disaster through religions in the era of unity of the church and state. The Inju falk tale is a series of stories or tales mixed natural, human, and social disasters together. Followings are typical imaginative strategies.: continuing collapsing structures was thought to be the inexplicable force actions such as gods or dragons, sacrifices is needed to prevent them, and a prophetic being appears and advises to use a sacrifice. These are means to understand the cause and solution of a disaster in relationship between gods and humans. The stereotypes of sacrifice are hidden in the imaginary falk tales. All people sacrificed in the Inju falk tale are not insiders in the community but others such a monk, a virgin or children who have no the right of self-decision and any social relationship. ‘Sacrifice system’ makes it possible for people in the community for their benefits and the maintenance of the system. They praise the sacrifice to conceal their violence and sometimes compel such a sacrifice by the name of gods.
  • 3.

    A Relationship Between Confucian Discussions and Martyrdom

    Suh, Jung-hwa | 2020, 75(75) | pp.65~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the types of suicide martyrdom that existed in the Late Joseon Dynasty and Japanese Colonial Era and its historical origin, and discussed that suicide martyrdom is closely correlated to Confucian discourses. In the Confucian culture, the will of fight was frequently demonstrated through suicide at the change of dynasty or invasion of other countries, and suicide settled as historical traditional and continued on ceaselessly as praised in later generations. There were approximately 120 suicide martyrs in the Late Joseon Dynasty and Japanese Colonial Era, and their suicides may be related to the tradition in the previous times. Suicide martyrdom in the Late Joseon Dynasty and Japanese Colonial Era can be categorized into fast, taking poison, self-injury, leaping to death, and other type. With an exception of suicide by poison, which was not common in the previous times, the examples of figures for suicide type and the cases of suicides that Confucian scholars facing national crisis carried out are as follows. Classic examples of suicide by fast include Baekyi(伯夷) and Sa Bangdeuk(謝枋得), which can be found through the cases of Lee Yangwon(李陽元)·Neungseong Gu clan(綾城具氏) in Imjinwaeran War, and Choi Hyoil(崔孝一) in Byeongjahoran War. Examples of suicide by leaping include Gul Won(屈原) and No Jungryeon(魯仲連), and suicides of Park Jihwa(朴枝華), Kim Cheonil(金千鎰), Ko Jonghu(高從厚), etc. during Imjinwaeran War may be mentioned. Examples of suicide by self-injury include Wang Chok(王蠋) and Jeon Hoeng(田橫), and cases such as Kim Sangyong(金尙容), Song Siyoung(宋時榮) who committed suicide when Qing Dynasty captured Ganghwado, and Mrs. Lee, Mrs. Na, etc. may be presented as evidence. Suicide martyrdom in the Late Joseon Dynasty and Japanese Colonial Era is in the continuum of historical tradition, and comments and actions of suicide martyrs are closely correlated to the following Confucian discourses. First, they are not irrelevant to the cultural consciousness of Joseon that professed itself as the center of Chinese civilization since Qing Dynasty. Second, they were the manifestation of patriotism to sacrifice their lives in the national crisis. Third, they were the result of consciousness to realize loyalty and preserve Tao(道) of Confucianism.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Rule of Conduct in Life of Confucian Scholars during the Turning Point of Modern Ages: Focusing on the Case of Hwang Hyun

    Baek Jinwoo | 2020, 75(75) | pp.101~132 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a study on the rule of conduct in life(出處觀) of Confucian scholars during the turning point of modern ages. For this purpose, I analyzed 3 historical essays of Hwang Hyun(黃玹). He was a representive figure of patriotic sentiment during the late 19th century. And it can be said that the source and the situation were important issues that Confucian scholars as intellectuals had to worry about their enture lives. Hwang Hyun showed a certain level of his view of source and customs through writing historiographical essays. Borrowing the method of evaluation historucal figures, he presented the values that should be maintained as an intellectual living in a period when the nation is about to fall. Through this analysis, I tried to confirm what kind of concerns the Confucian scholars had and what position they took in a situation where the traditional values sustained by Confucianism were threatened and diluted. Hwang Hyun tried to suggest a direction for the attitude of intellectuals who lived in modern transition period borrowing an evaluation of historical figures. Even if they went into retirement, they saw that in a crisis situation in the country, they should try to solve the real problems. And to this end, he saw that it was necessary to avoid the appearance of false Confucian scholar. This view is a criticism of the false appearance of intellectuals of the day, and one can guess that it was a value that he himself sought to keep for his life.
  • 5.

    The Study of ‘Kowledge’ and ‘Knowledgeization’ in the Post-human Era

    Lee Yong Wook | 2020, 75(75) | pp.133~162 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper considers the question of what changes the emergence of non-human subjects will bring to knowledge and knowledgeization in the post-human era in terms of “change of knowledge algorithm” and “restructure of the academic ecosystem,” and examines what role human subjects should play if collaboration with non-human subjects is an unavoidable new way of knowledgeization. As a master of knowledge that is clearly distinguished from technology, it was written with the aim of finding out the relevance of human subjects. For thousands of years, memories and records have made dialectical progress in the conflict between subject/object, human/tool, consciousness/unconsciousness, and fluid/fixedness. The emergence of non-human entities (AI), which use non-human tools called computers as a means, is an opportunity for knowledge restructuring and at the same time a crisis. Digital memory reminds us of knowledge, not of it. Whether one indulges only in the appearance of wisdom, as Socrates fears, or can reach the essence of wisdom depends entirely on the way the human subject deals with digital memory. “Save” and “Search” should be left to non-human subjects and the methods of “imagination” and “creative” that humans can do best should be used in four stages of intellectualization. Efforts to set a clear purpose and direction in the entire process of collection, editing, diffusion and utilization are what makes it clear that human beings are not means but purposes. The modern knowledge space is being dismantled and the professorstudent-college academic community is collapsing amid the crisis facing the university, including the commercialization of universities, privatization of knowledge, weakening of humanities traditions and the emergence of alternative spaces. Modern times created a dinosaur called University, and in the post-human era we are now witnessing the end of the dinosaur era. There has been a singularity in both knowledge and knowledge, and there is growing empathy among intellectuals that the existing paradigm cannot understand, interpret and solve newly discovered phenomena. The start of the new academic ecosystem would have been from the restructuring of the existing academic community, which has already begun in the SNE. Education was necessary for any age, and intellectuals survived the development of technology. What should be kept in mind, however, is the premise that changes in intellectualization technology and knowledge algorithms should be “understood,” “interpreted” and “advanced.” This is where the fate of the academic ecosystem consists of the collaboration of intellectuals and academic communities, as well as human and nonhuman entities.
  • 6.

    Place Creation and Local Literature

    Song, Ki-seob | 2020, 75(75) | pp.163~189 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Local literature identifies, produces, and sustains the emotions and consciousness of the community. Place is deeply involved in these action. This study explores how local literature expresses such places. Place becomes the object of expression and becomes the most prominent sign of the identity of local literature. Place and local literature are so closely linked. To explore this topic in detail, I would like to trace the sign of the place of Yuseong and Sintanjin. Yuseong and Sintanjin are the most prominent places in Daejeon’s local literature. They are constantly signed in writing, demonstrating that they are local literature. This sign does not only have a simple descriptive relationship to place, but also implies ambiguity as a literary symbol. It is possible when this sign is not just a reproduction of a place but its expression. Yuseong and Sintanjin as a place clearly show that it is an expressed place, not a reproduced place. At this time, placeness is generated. In that sense, the place belongs to the realm of expression to be unfolded infinitely and also folded. Place is expressed and constitutes local identity, further creating the specificity of local literature. Place is expressed and serialized into a metaphorical structure. Yuseong and Sintanjin, which formed a material presence as a series, become a nonmaterial sign, a nonmaterial sign that creates a mental meaning. Yuseong or Sintanjin, as an indication of a place, takes off materiality and be molecularized into images. Thus, Yuseong and Sintanjin are largely divided in the literature of Daejeon into symbols representing four categories: landscapes, events, relationships, and non-places. Events in places create a sense of place and become citizens’ lives. Relationships with people there are also memories of finding truth. The emergence of non-placeness implies the loss of sense of place damaged by development and the willingness to restore it. Local literature restores place in the crisis of non-placeness. The literary place of Yuseong and Sintanjin is an indication of such possibility. They introduce the unique structure of human marking into the local literature of Daejeon.
  • 7.

    ‘Twilight’ as Heterotopie in Kwang-gyun Kim’s Poetry

    PARK JI HAK | 2020, 75(75) | pp.191~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study understood ‘twilight’ in Kwang-gyun Kim’s poetry as ‘heterochronie’ suggested by Michel Foucault and defined the space reproduced here as ‘heterotopie’ to begin the discussion. Heterochronie refers to a uchronia that actually exists in reality, which is a time that cannot exist while heterotopie refers to a utopia that actually exists, which is a place that cannot exist. Foucault partitioned heterotopie into six categories. In particular, this study judged that ‘twilight’ serves as two significant actions and set forth them. Kwang-gyun Kim’s poetry, ‘twilight’ served as ‘the mirror.’ At this time, the narrator recalls his own memory in the space at ‘twilight.’ Since the space he recalled from ‘twilight’ is the space-time of the past, it becomes a place without any place to the narrator. But, at this time, in everyday space, since the narrator exists actually, ‘twilight’ serves as heterotopie existing in reality. At the same time, ‘twilight’ also serves as heterochronie. The time at ‘twilight’ is the time of the present in which the narrator abides. At the same time, the time is uchronia of the past. In other words, the narrator experiences the uchronia of the past simultaneously in the present time. Chapter 3 understood the narrator’s memory as heterotopie having eternity. But ‘twilight’ revealing this memory has temporariness in that the narrator temporarily passes that in everyday space. In the narrator’s memories related to ‘Twilight,’ the memory is usually revealed as something solitary or sad. The existing study understood it as trauma. And yet, this study characterized the fact that the narrator considers this memory as heterotopie, for it is a space of recovery that recovers the consciousness of loss. Chapter 4 discussed ‘twilight’ as an irony that is open and close at the same time. That becomes heterotopie at which the narrator aims in natural objects and artifacts coexist. At this time, the narrator may freely enter heterotopie. But this leads to the closed isolation. The narrator pursues natural objects from the beginning. And yet, since the closing of artifacts is strong, the narrator’s frustration or isolation is maximized. Like this, the heterotopie of opening and closing is used as a device that emphasizes isolation that cannot be harmonized with the world of chaos in his poetry.
  • 8.

    Study on Process of Decategorization in Women’s Poems in 1990’s Korea: Focusing on poems of Kim Eon-Hee and Na Hee-Deok

    Sin Yong-Mok | 2020, 75(75) | pp.217~240 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Poetic opportunities include elements which are not clearly interpreted as sociological process. Although the criticism that delving into self-identity as woman rather strengthens their gender categories is appropriate at some aspect, aesthetic investigation to certain categories often breaks through them. The exaggerated images from Kim’s poems have been understood as away of driving sexuality to the extreme. The speaker of Kim’s poems exposes vanity of a world that is not sensibly materialized, by objectifying its own body. Nevertheless, her poetry does not lose clarity of confrontation because it transforms the object against it into material properties, or the concreteness of objects, which is a strategy of the struggle but also a process of separating itself from the world. Na’s poems have been understood as a signifier of revealing the earth’s imagination and transcendence based on motherhood, but the relationships in the poems should be regarded as revelation of the sense of fundamental solidarity that resists violence rather than revelation of the inclusion relation. If the “root,” which also appears in the title of her first collection of poems, has an osmotic personality, its mix exchanges concentrations of each other, not only you and I, but also life and death. It is breaking down the definition of existence in that it exists only through the process of endlessly exchanging each other.
  • 9.

    Experience in Hometown for Writing Novel

    Song,Jun-Ho | 2020, 75(75) | pp.241~261 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study is the characters and spaces shown in Novelist Park Bum Sin’s early novels. Especially Park Bum Sin depicted his hometown Kang-Kyung’s mountains, rivers, streets, bridges, buildings in his early novels. Every novelist write his direct or indirect experience. So depicted space background and characters in the novels is power of interpretation. And this is very important to study on method of writing novel.
  • 10.

    Current Status and Challenges of Traditional Education in Literature

    Yongjae Kim | Jeong Hangi | 2020, 75(75) | pp.263~291 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the present state of education on the traditions and characteristics of Korean literature and to present the problems and solutions. The main research contents are raising questions linked to the current status of traditional education in Korean literature and finding academic tasks for the application of literary education. The <Literature> curriculum 2015 and 10 authorized textbooks were analyzed. This paper examined the composition of traditional education methods, learning elements, developmental method of learning activities and the problems of selection on literary materials. Also, it presented the selection of learning elements and literary materials. Ten textbooks were analyzed, and in nine textbooks, the traditions and characteristics of Korean literature education offered various approaches to learning activities. The explanatory approach and the development of learning activities are more effective when constructing an exploratory learning model that utilizes comparison, reasoning, and textual interplay. If the traditional explanations are presented in a deductive way, and the study activities are organized linearly as a way of responding to literary theme, tradition or characteristic, it could end up with cramming of literary knowledge. The selection of learning elements on tradition needs to be made to find the educational elements of tradition rather than focus on transferring literary knowledge accumulated in academic discourse. Some specific examples include paying attention to the characteristics of ideological aspects, emphasizing traditional rule through Sijo poem or folk music education in the character education of lyric genre, and educational activities that are focusing on oral culture. For the selection of educational product, academia should present both the necessary theme and the optional theme of educational canon on tradition and characteristic education. Moreover, in order to emphasize the spiritual and historical trends, people should also pay attention to those alienated Korean literature genre such as the explanation, the argument, the description and the motto prose. Furthermore, they should focus on the choice of literary products considering the linkages of traditional culture. In other words, it is necessary to presuppose the linkage of music, art, crafts and daily culture, and find products that take into account the developmental aspects of national cultures.
  • 11.

    Garam(嘉藍) Lee Byeongki(李秉岐)’s Educational Thought: Centering on the Influence of Liang Qichao

    Lee Kyeong ae | 2020, 75(75) | pp.293~331 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the aspects of the acceptance of the Chinese Liang qi-chao(1873-1929)‘s thought during the modern Enlightenment period, which was the basis of the study and thought of Lee Byung-ki(1891-1978) and to examine the characteristics and significance of Garam’s academic and educational activities devoted to lifelong education. Thus, it is in depth to examine the possibility that Garam’s studies and ideas that accepted Liang qi-chao’s thought are viable countermeasures against imperialism and the invasion of Western powers. In addition, the study aims to expand the understanding and insight of Garam’s ideas through exchanges of East Asian intellectuals who were made in historical interests Historical interests of Korea, China and Japan pushing and pulling each other. Garam recognized the importance of education by accepting the ideas of the modern Enlightenment period. Thus, he not only focused on women’s education and children’s education, but also focused on national education centered on Korean education and history education, but also lived as a leading educational practitioner for public education and folk enlightenment education. He is known as a Korean literary scholar who inherited the Confucian tradition of Korea, but he who embraced the thought of Liang qi-chao is also an educator and scholar with modern consciousness and East Asian perspective. Therefore, this study will examine the driving force of the academic and educational ideas of Garam Lee Byung-ki, who led the modern development and made innovation in the modern educational ideas, and enhance the significance and modern status of his educational thought.
  • 12.

    Linkage·Stepwise Writing Class Model Using Debate: Focus on the Cases of Basic Liberal Writing Classes in University

    So Pil Gyun | 2020, 75(75) | pp.333~373 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Classes using debate are effective in improving the ability of argumentative writing. Ability to write arguments becomes the foundation of academic writing, which is the ultimate goal of university writing. System of logical thinking and ability to argue improve in the process of preparing and executing the actual debate. The process of creating pros and cons of a debate topic is the same as the process of constructing a structure of arguments and becomes the basis of academic writing. This study suggests a teaching method using debate that carries out all the basic courses of Korean language education composed of ‘reading·listening·speaking·writing’ as a way to overcome difficulties in teaching writing. This teaching method is a class program that allows students to write arguments, which is the last step of debate class model, systematically and naturally because these four areas are linked together. This study suggests a class model that gets completed through the process of ‘preparing pre-debate materials’→‘cases of actual debate classes’→‘argumentative writing of debate topic’ based on actual class experiences. This class model gets completed step by step in a systematic way through linked interaction and systematic methods in the process of using various activities before and after the debate and writing activities of various elements. The effect of writing classes that applied debate can be summarized as the effect of preparation and execution of debate and the effect of judgement and jury’s opinion. Data investigation constructs the reason of opinion and background of argument, and cross inquiry is effective in strengthening argumentative power and the core of writing by focusing on the radical point. Decision and opinion of juries are specifically reflected in the topic selection and logical development of writing. It was identified that these effects of before and after the debate and efficacy of the process are all significant according to the analysis on the effectiveness verification based on the survey of learners.
  • 13.

    A Study on Non-Face-To-Face(Online) Writing Courses and Learners’ Perceptions

    kim do whan | 2020, 75(75) | pp.375~400 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this article, we introduced the case of online conversion of the first semester D college writing class in 2020 and examined the learners’ reactions. First, in order to support non-face-to-face classes, we revised the lecture plan and actively used the notice. Next, the non-face-to-face classes were conducted in two main ways. First, we attempted to strengthen learners’ self-directed learning capabilities, through selfcorrection and citation of objective data. Second, we supplemented the limitations of self-correction and induced learners to induce learning motivation through case analysis-oriented instruction. Next, we analyzed learners’ responses based on the survey. The learner was relatively satisfied with the quality of the lecture, the appropriateness of the amount of assignment, and motivation. However, there were some differences in learners’ lecture time, effectiveness of practice, and communication problems. We discussed the combination of video recording lectures and real-time video lectures, and the development of new platforms as improvements.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Use of Korean Locomotion Verbs ‘Gada(go)/Oda(come)’ in Indirect Quotation by Chinese Learners of Korean

    Kim Ji Young | See-Gyoon Park | 2020, 75(75) | pp.401~426 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study investigated the use of Korean locomotion verbs ‘Gada/Oda’ in indirect quotation of Chinese-speaking Korean learners after comparing the use of locomotion verbs in native speakers of Korean with native speakers of Chinese in order to establish the fundamental data on the education research of locomotion verbs ‘Gada/Oda’. According to the survey, the establishment of a reference point in indirect quotation in Korean language is different from that in the Chinese language when the agent is the listener and the destination is the speaker, and the sentence is imperative, and the sentence is interrogative. Thus, it is affirmed that Korean native speakers regard ‘the reference point as the location of original speaker’ while Chinese native speakers regard ‘the reference point as the speaker’. This result could be used in developing curriculum and assessments in real educational settings.