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2006, Vol., No.59

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    Cognitive Expression In Jeju Dialect -Adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in Adjective Sentence-

    강정희 | 2006, (59) | pp.5~22 | number of Cited : 6
    In Korean Language adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ have to agree with action verb sentence. But these syntactic constraints can be invalid rule in Jeju Dialect. That is, adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ can agree with action verb and degree, changeable, (eg. cold/hot, short/long, etc.) adjective sentences in this dialect. On this point two questions as follow was given: 1. Why do Jeju dialect speakers selected adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in degree, changeable, (eg. cold/hot, short/long, etc.) adjective sentences? 2. What is function and meaning of adverb phrase ‘jal-do’? In this paper I have attempted to explain cognitive function of adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in degree, changeable, (eg. cold/hot, short/long, etc.) adjective sentences in this dialect. The following summarizes what I have discussed about the problems above: 1. Jeju dialect speakers recognize degree, changeable, (eg. cold/hot, short/long, etc.) states in time as movements in space in the same way. This recognition caused to selected adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in adjective sentences. 2. Adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in adjective sentences is a element which performs a kind of cognitive expression in Jeju Dialect. And adverb phrase ‘jal-do’ in adjective sentences has relationship with exclamatory expression. 3. Adverb ‘jal’ has meaning of 'beyond/more then/above of one’s norm or expectation in terms of cognition. 4. Exclamatory expression in this dialect can be possible when adverb ‘jal’ combined with a particle ‘do’ as one unit.
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    Opacity in Korean Tensification based on OT-CC

    서정민 | 조학행 | 2006, (59) | pp.41~62 | number of Cited : 7
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the opacity in post-liquid tensification of Korean verbal inflection. For this, after classifying the tensification phenomena in Korean, we will present the opacity problem. Following that, we will analyze the opacity in post-liquid tensification of Korean verbal inflection within the framework of McCarthy(2006a)’s recent proposal, Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (OT-CC, henceforth), which incorporates inter-candidate derivational information with PREC (edence) constraints(A, B). This paper is organized as follows. Section Ⅰ provides introductory remark about this paper. Section Ⅱ provides an introduction of OT-CC. In Section Ⅲ, we will analyze the opacity in post-liquid tensification of Korean verbal inflection resulting from rule overapplication within the framework of OT-CC. Section Ⅳ is a concluding summary.
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    A Study of the Spelling Methods of Mantras in Modern Korean

    안주호 | 2006, (59) | pp.63~84 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates the transcription system of mantra pronunciation characterized of Buddhist transcription language in modern Korean period, It is also concerned with discussing the changes in mantra transcription focusing on the literatures of the 17th~19th centuries which had mostly been excluded from studies. In the Modern Korean literatures dealt in the present study, mostly published for reciting purpose by minor temples, there are many spellings with strong individual dialects. In all of them the Siddhamātṛkā transcription is hardly found, with some presence of Chinese transcription, but with mostly Korean transcription. Also, as these mantras were used for ceremonial reciting purpose at temples, various phonemic phenomena are naturally observed such as palatalization, nasal sound assimilation, consonant assimilation, and wrong separate liaison spellings, which are observed in pure Korean.
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    A Study on the Function and the Category of the Third Person Pronoun in the Middle Korean

    양영희 | 2006, (59) | pp.85~110 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study is to research the function and the category of the third person pronoun in the Middle Korean. The third person pronouns such as ‘Jagya, Janae, Jagi, Jeo, Dangshin’ and ‘Yi, Gue, Dyu’ are found in the Middle Korean, the former is named as ‘the first category’ and the latter is named as ‘the second category’. These two categories are same that they indicate the third person. At the other point, however, they have certain difference. That is to say, the first category is used to reindicate the subject in sentence or to narrate case/action at the view of the subject as pronoun, and the one pronoun is chosen among ‘Jagya>Janae>Jeo’ in accordance with the subject’s position. The second category is used to narrate case/action related with the third person at the point of objective view, the one pronoun is chosen among ‘Yi, Gue, Dyu’ independent of the subject’s position. Until now, however, the third person pronoun in the first category is regulated as the reflexive pronoun, and the third person pronoun in the second category is understood as the demonstrative pronoun, not as the personal pronoun, so it needs to make clear the conception about them. In the case of the reflexive pronoun and the third person pronoun, thereupon, the former has the lower function on the latter, it means that the main function of the first category indicate the third person and it can perform as the reflexive pronoun according to some cases. In the relation between ‘the third person pronoun’ and ‘the demonstrative pronoun’, it is clear that they indicate ‘person’, not ‘thing or place’, so they should be understood as the personal pronoun, simply not the demonstrative pronoun.
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    A Study on the Syntactic Principle of Verbale Fixation and Combination Relation in Korean

    유승섭 | 2006, (59) | pp.111~142 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper discusses that a pre-final ending and a final ending, which are regrouped as a sub-group of verbale fixation, have played various grammatic functions with a syntactic hierarchy respectively. Based on this point, this research has focused a step that the final endings have a syntactic principle as a moving with a separate hierarchy. In addition, the paper concludes that an Agr has a subject role after reviewing the pre-final endings if which one of the elements has the role in a noun phrase. The reason is that even though the noun phrase is regarded to honorification subject case by consenting with honorification in Korean, it is an abstract viewpoint, which tense admits subjective case. In final, the paper discusses the combination trend of final endings through the C-selection feature and a way of how the combination trends are reviewed. Each final ending consists syntactic head and C-selection. Among the final ending, the C-selection has a voluntary relation or inevitable relation. Each information of C-selection feature is categorized by attaching special restrictions or conditions.
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    The Formation and Transformation of Place Names related to ‘Bamgogae(밤고개)’

    조항범 | 2006, (59) | pp.143~160 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper has a purpose to look into its generation principle and morphological structure, and furthermore the relationship between its variations and the morphological implications for the place name, referring to ‘a pass with a lot of chestnut trees’. There are two series in the place names referring to ‘a pass with a lot of chestnut trees’;one using ‘bamnamu(a chestnut tree)’ and the other using ‘bam(a chestnut)’. The former is accompanied with ‘gogae, jae(a pass)’, and the latter, with ‘gogae, jae, ti(a pass)’. Those place names such as ‘bamgogae, bamjae, bamti(a pass or highland)’, though originally standing for a pass name, refer to villages below the pass as well. These, if diverted into names of village, are in turn combined with ‘gogae’ or ‘jae’, finally becoming as such new names as ‘bamgogae-jae, bamtigogae, bamtijae’. The place name ‘bamgogae’, referring to ‘a pass with thick forest of chestnut trees’, show itself as slightly varied shapes as ‘ban-goage, banggogae, baemgogae, baenggogae’ according to regions. The first ‘ban-gogae’ was generated from a sound change of the coda of the first syllable /m/ into /n/. And the second ‘banggogae’ could be thought as the result of some consonant assimilation of articulatory point. The third ‘baemgogae’ could be explained as the vowel addition of /i/ at the first syllable of ‘bamgogae’. The fourth and last ‘baenggogae’ was made with the consonant assimilation of articulatory point from ‘baemgogae’.
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    Writer’s Intention and Literary Examination of <Hwangsanbyeolgok>

    구사회 | 2006, (59) | pp.161~182 | number of Cited : 7
    This study examined <Hwangsanbyeolgok>, a Korean verse which I recently discovered. The background of this piece is the history of the Southern Party which the Father of King Gojong sponsored in the late 19th century, because <Hwangsanbyeolgok> seems to come from this historical process. <Hwangsanbyeolgok> is a long Korean verse with 151 phrases and is a typical noble verse that follows the 3․4 and 4․4 formats. In linguistic perspective, it reflects the Korean language of the 19th century. In literary perspective, <Hwangsanbyeolgok> is mutually cross-related with Lee, Gwan Bin’s <Hwangnambyeolgok>. <Hwangsanbyeolgok> used the existing <Hwangnambyeolgok> as its reference text and observed and altered it. In conclusion, <Hwangsanbyeolgok> is the Korean verse of Gugok-Style considering that it is singing the origin of truth using the mountains and waters of <Hwangsangugok>. Its characteristic is that it specifically clarifies the truth and philosophies of China and the Orient to sing about the landscapes of <Hwangsangugok>. Thus, this study understood <Hwang- sanbyeolgok> as a Taoist verse that combined Dotong Style of Taoist background and Gugok Style which was popular after the mid-Joseon Dynasty.
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    The Extension and Augmentation of Pahanjip in Bohanjip

    김선기 | 2006, (59) | pp.183~212 | number of Cited : 1
    This study aims to examine the relationship between Pahanjip, the first Korean book about poems and their related stories and Bohanjip, which was published 40 years later. The main focus of this study is the extensive and augmentative relationship between two books. There were two main reasons to publish Bohanjip. One was the insufficiency of Pahanjip itself, and the other was the demand which the writer of Bohanjip and people around him realized to supplement Pahanjip. As a result of the study, Pahanjip was excessively oriented toward Lee Inro’s personal achievements and his view points about literature. Those were recognized as negative factors by other writers. The leading figure who criticized Lee Inro was Choi Wu, who was the ruler of the times. The writer of Bohanjip was Choi Ja. In comparison to Pahanjip, there existed a will to extend and develop the contents of Pahanjip in Bohanjip. In extension parts, the quantity and areas of data were expanded. In addition, criticism became more various, and objectivity increased. Bohanjip contains contents which were compiled and evaluated more carefully than Pahanjip. Lee Inro’s rhetorical device which quoted famous old writers’ writing was replaced by Originality Theory. Lee Inro’s place as the head of literary circles was replaced by Lee Gyubo. The efforts to extend the old book and develop it into the new one made a significant contribution to early Korean poetry books.
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    An Inquiry of ‘Keumkang Yooramga’ of Sukho Keum Sangki

    김기영 | 2006, (59) | pp.213~232 | number of Cited : 1
    Now, I am introducing another volume of Korean travel verse to Keumkang Mountain called <Keumkang Yooramga> to circle. Hereby, it is a great fruit reward to have an opportunity to expand the data and information about Keumkang travel verse, or even further to Korean Kwanyoo verse or overall travel verse. Besides, this piece is a completed travel verse of ‘departure→itinerary→ destination→return’ which is highly creditable for the fact that it attempted to continue traditional literature in modern literature period of journalism atmosphere or unceasing tradition of Keumkang travel verse through interactions with the readers while enhancing the quality and reflecting the time. Especially, the fact that the writer, who is calligrapher, provides much information on carved writings compared to other Keumkang travel verse is considered as a character and trait of its own. It is also valuable that the verse states that a noted scenery named Koosungdong was found in 1930. Furthermore, it catches the reader’s attention by informing the readers that it was the trend in 1920s’ and 1930s’ to go back to Seoul and go to one’s hometown after going sightseeing in the inner, outer Haekeumkang and Sambangyaksoo in Keumkang trip. This is the result of convenience in trip provided by the opening of Kyungwon line. <Keumkang Yooramga> by Keum Sangki is not only abundant in its value as literature research data but it is also valuable enough to be read by those who are interested in Keumkang Mountains.
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    An Literary Analysis on the Heroine’s Consecutive Actions Written in Narrative Myths of Jeju-Island

    심치열 | 2006, (59) | pp.233~262 | number of Cited : 21
    Narrative myths were performed publicly in Korea as dramatic performance which called Goot. Narrative myths of Jeju-Island have been passed down from generation to generation kept their original texts, owing to geographical advantages, that is to say an isolated island from the Korean Peninsula. This paper is an analysis on the narrative styles and rhetorics about SamseungHalmang-Bonpuri, Samgong-Bonpuri, Segyong-Bonpuri which are narrative myths of Jeju-Island. These texts are written a series of female characters' life story. Their stories and themes have some similarities. Such narrative factors can be founded in the other narrative myths called Goot, and their structures have something in common with each other. The three texts which were referred previously differentiate from other narrative myths in the points of having heroines, being narrated their expel stories, ordeal stories and successful execution ones. The heroines find their own desire and indomitable will after expelling, show their powerful ability in the course of trying to overcome their ordeals, and reach the way of deification as goddesses. Such stories are typical factors of myths. Such analytic results are obtained by literary analytic research on the narrative myths of Jeju-Island which have heroines, and can be sure they are goddesses.
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    A Study on <Hungnyong-ilgi>⑶-The Meanings and Variations of Separate Stories-

    임철호 | 2006, (59) | pp.263~288 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper aims to analyze the underlying meanings of individual and separate stories appearing in <Hungnyong-ilgi>. <Hungnyong-ilgi> foretells war through unusual stories, which appeared as the hints of breaking war, and blames the politicians who could not catch the hints for being incompetent. In <Hungnyong-ilgi>, the narrator is exposed overtly and directly tells us the story in many cases. Although this kind of setting could have merits of conveying themes clearly, it reveals that <Hungnyong-ilgi> has not overcome factors of narratives(sulwha), so it could not be said to be a “novel”(sosul). Although <Hungnyong-ilgi> contains a different story from five branches, it includes a partly same content as the variants of <Imjinrok>. So it is absurd to classify <Hungnyong-ilgi> as a totally different and irrelevant work from <Imjinrok>. So I suggest <Hungnyong-ilgi> should be classified not as a variant of <Imjinrok> but as a variant of “<Imjinrok>-Junsung”.
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    Man’s Relief Shown in Korean Narratives

    정소영 | 2006, (59) | pp.289~318 | number of Cited : 7
    This study speculates relief of man shown in Korean narratives, specifically, in ones of Shilla period. In respect with the aspect of relief, the Gwangju-duk and Umjang narrative, the Nohilbudeuk and Daldalbakbak narrative and the Josin narrative present suffering of man as a basic condition based on the Buddhist Elysium Idea to solve archetypal problems of human beings. The pains appearing from actual life in these three narratives are poor living, transience of life, begging, sexual desire, suffering and death from poverty, diseases and ageing. Desire how man can be relieved is realized in desperate belief. The aspects of relief are outlined as follows: first, ascetic practice and Buddhist invocation;second, practice of Buddhism, relief of the people and good service. The Gwangju-duk and Umjang narrative deals with Amitabha idea. The Nohilbudeuk and Daldalbakbak narrative deals with the Maitreya paradise idea and the Amitabha paradise idea with weak touch of the Avalokitesvara paradise idea. And Josin narrative is based on the Avalokitesvara paradise idea. The aspect of man’s relief shown in the three narratives is characterized by practice for man’s relief and good service and Buddhist invocation are based on equality without discrimination. The types of relief are changed as follows:from relief after death for an easy passage into eternity to actual life pursuing real paradise of the present age. That is, man’s relief in these three narratives focuses on respect for man’s life and dignity and reality-centered idea.
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    A Study on Modern Korean Polyphonic Novel, 'Sam Dae(삼대)'

    김종구 | 2006, (59) | pp.341~364 | number of Cited : 2
    Yeom Samg Sup(廉想涉) was Novelist, essayist, journalist, social and literary critic. From 1926 to 1931, Yeom Sang Sup had written four novels, Sarang and J oi(사랑과 죄), Ree Sim(이심), Kwang Pun(광분), Sam Dae continually. This period, his novels showed us a strong strain of social comment, based on intense observation of korean middle class citizen life. By this point of view, his novel Sam Dae was became generally known best fiction in Korea. Korean words ‘Sam Dae’ means ‘three generation’. So some modern korean novel theorists were understood this Yeom Sang Sup’s novel is family fiction or family history novel. Clearly Sam Dae takes seriously some generation gap among the grandfather, father and his son. In Sam Dae, There are many character’s appearance. They conflict with each other. And also they roll as focalizers. Accordingly they are subject person and object person in same discourse time. By the Reason, Yeom Sang Sup's novel Sam Daeseems to me ‘polyphonic novel’. Polyphony is very famous Bakhtin’s term. In Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics, he argued that the primary criteria of the polyphonic text is the independence of characters from their narrator. I think, many character of Sam Dae are fully independent from narrator of other characters ideologically. So Yeom Sang Sup’s novel Sam Dae is recocognized to me very polyphonic novel.
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    A Study on the Baekseok’s Literature

    이희춘 | 2006, (59) | pp.365~390 | number of Cited : 0
    A poet named Baekseok wanted to be a pure ‘deer’. But he was a misfortunate poet because darkness of disintegrative times did not allow it. He was a soul that was pure rather than resistant. To sum up what I have discussed so far, it is as follows. The first, the hometown which is symbolized as ‘the old grandmother’ reminds us of ‘traces of a matrilineal society’, and this is caused by the absent father who was driven to Manchuria by the great father called the Japanese Empire. On the other hand, danger of the great father is not revealed in front of literature because it is concealed in unconsciousness. The second, the symbolism of a collection of poems ‘deer’ covers the desire of return in paradise, and a white donkey, a Dahurian buckthorn, a white birch, Natasha, etc. come under image of deformation. The literature of smelling and tastes which appeared through the local motive of taste and food. is not the intention of hidden resistance against Japanese imperialism, but the result of the original image restoring the passage of the lost paradise. Therefore, Baekseok is a poet more pure than resistant. Accordingly, his wandering is nostalgia toward the lost paradise and the longing searching for smelling and tastes. ‘Jaya’ whom Baekseok had met in the course of wandering was 'woman of a true relief. She appeared as transformed image of Natasha, a white donkey, etc., which is a mediator joining the sacred world. The fifth, the desire of womb return lurked in washing hands, that is, the depths of mysophobia. The sixth, Manchuria, children’s literature and cooperation farm symbolize the castrated space, which has the ambivalence of threat from castration of the poet who is wandering between ideology and purity.
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