The aim of this paper is to investigate when metaphorical meaning occurs in compound nouns. In compound words, transferred meaning may occur during or before the process of compounding. We treat this matter in the term of psychological processes which operate in production and inter- pretation of compounding words. We argue ‘conventionalization’ of the transferred meaning offers the key of solution. In metaphoric expressions, if the transferred meanings have been conventionalized to the lexical meaning of source nouns, meaning-transfer occurs before compounding. In the rest metaphoric expressions, meaning-transfer occurs during compounding. Conventionalizations of the transferred meaning take place in two domains, one of which is individual word level, and the other is schema level. The consistency of transferred meanings and the frequencies of source nouns play a critical roles in conventionalization. In conventionalization of transferred meanings of individual word level, token frequency of those words is important factor. The conventionalization of transferred meanings in schema level depends on type frequency of members of the schema. (Kunsan University)
The purpose of this article is to investigate the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of body-related idiomatic expression in the New-Style Novel[Sinsoseol].
The idiomatic expression can be defined as multiple word unit that contain the formal fixedness and the semantic idiomaticity.
The contents of the study can be summarized as below :
The greatest number of syntactic patterns is the descriptive idiomatic phrase and clause in idiomatic expression which body-related words(hand, eye, mouth, nose, ear) consist of. This is caused by the psychological desire of speakers which will express their minds differently.
The semantic patterns in idiomatic expression which body-related words(hand, eye, mouth, nose, ear) consist of is not large different from that of modern korean. The idiomatic expressions which contains 'hand' are often represent the action, judgement and attitude of speaker. This is caused that the ‘hand’ contains the semantic feature [+mobility]. The idiomatic expressions which contains ‘eye’ and ‘mouth’ are often represent the psychological expression of speakers. The sensitive expression appears a few idiomatic expression. This is caused that the ‘hand, eye, mouth, nose, ear’ are sense organs.
This paper investigates the collocation change of Sinsoseol and modern novel by using statistical method. This study discusses 1.06 million words in Sinsoseol and 1.03 million words in modern novel.
The structure of the discussion is as follows:
In the second chapter, measuring method is suggested after the existing methods on the collocation structure are discussed. The existing methods just covers the frequencies but this paper suggests statistical value to show more objective evidence.
In the third chapter, the collocation structure on tobacco, water, and alcohol is investigated by using statistical methods such as Tscore, Zscore and MI but Tscore is mainly used because it can be a good standard to discern the collocation of Sinsoseol and modern novel.
In the forth chapter, the causes of collocation change is examined. They are investigated by language contact, frequency effect and cognitive approach. Among the three main causes, In conclusion, collocation change by cognitive approach is proved more useful than by language contact in explaining the causes of change.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the significance of Sijo research by Choi yeong-neon(최영년) through analyzing his two articles, 「History of Gogeum-gayo(고금가요의 연혁)」 and 「Gogeum-gayo(고금의 가요)」, which were published by Joseon-munye(조선문예) in the late 1910's.
「History of Gogeum-gayo(고금가요의 연혁)」 is a research about the origin of Sijo. He presumed that the origin of Sijo was ancient Chinese songs insisting Chinese poem origin theory. It is significant because it is a pioneering discussion preceding other research which started in the 1930's. However, titles of Gagoks(가곡) illustrated in the article is almost identical to current Gagok sung by men(현행 남창 가곡). The importance of the above is that it verified the assumption regarding the timing of completion of current Gagok(현행 가곡). In addition, he led us to recognize ‘Sijo-samjang(시조삼장)’ in a new way through mentioning important things about it and illustrating works reflecting actual chorus.
「Gogeum-gayo(고금의 가요)」 is composed of seventy(70) pieces of works written by twenty one(21) writers. The characteristic of the above is that it only includes the works of Sadaebu writers(사대부 작가). That is because Choi yeong-neon(최영년) tried to select works about inmost thoughts and mettle of Heonin-gunja(현인군자) and Meongsin-ilsa(명신일사). However, it could be confirmed that the piece in his research referred to Haedong-gayo(해동가요) the most. The uniqueness of the illustration in his research is that it entitled every piece of work from Yeonsijo(연시조) to Dansijo(단시조). The reason for such are considered to be the influence of new Sijo of the early twentieth century.
Hamwol Hae-won (1691-1770) is a representative poet of Buddhist poetry. He is a disciple of Hwanseong Ji-an (1664-1729) and a Buddhist priest of the sect of Cheong-heo Hyujeon (1520-1604). Hamwol studied Buddhism during 6 years as Hwanseong's disciple from the time he was 14 years old. Specifically, he deeply read the Avatamska Sutra (Hwa-eom) and Seon. He taught Buddhist priests for 40 years, and became the 11th of 13 representative teachers.
Cheon-gyeong-jip is a collection of 201 poems and 44 essays. His poetry was composed of simple sequences like Ojeol, Chilheol, Oyul, and Chillyul, though we can find his interests and observations about literature throughout his collection.
His view of literature is based on Shinhae theory. Sinhae theory studies Enlightenment by intuition, not by following the direct meaning of words. In this way Jihae is the opposite of Shinhae. The basis of Jihae is to try to understand about intuition with language and knowledge in their understanding.
Hamwol thinks that 'Poem is the same as Seon', and his thinking is based on Sinhae theory. A reason to write poetry and study Shinhae theory was that he wanted to display his intuition through his poetry as a Buddhist priest.
He successfully wrote Buddhist poetry that has the teachings of Buddha, expressing the beautiful life of a Buddhist priest who lived in a mountain temple.
In a word, Hamwol's poem suggests to “Transcend Jihae and study Sinhae”. He was a important poet who greatly influenced Buddhist literature in the 18th century.
This paper is a study on <Seonoonsa-punggyeongga[禪雲寺風景歌]>. This is a work which is paid attention in an unpublished Gasa. But this paper gave attention to its poetic contents and the value of culture.
And so I concentrated on making brighter who is its author. But I failed it, instead I gave some clues.
Besides I examined together with the value of its culture. Because this work is composed on explanations of the specified place, named Seonoonsa[禪雲寺].
An Approach to mythical criticism on the Shaman song of Baridegi sung in order to lead the spirit of a dead person to the world beyond in Saryeongjeui is as follows.
Considering the dream of forthcoming conception, her birth and her process to be a hermit, we found that Baridegi began to search self-investigation as a woman who has the lineage of pure blood and a heroic disposition. Her undergoing different trials after birth, and her wandering separated from realities can be showed as the course of her self-investigation to seek after intrinsical spiritual self as a potential whole. So her hard ordeal and suffering experienced on the way to find Yagsu(medicinal water) can be explained as the course of the emancipation of self transformed into a great figure to gain superman ability and resurrection by meeting a hermit in the surrealistic space. After marriage, she at last brought her parents into life with yagsu and took office as a goddess of Mudang. It is also accounted for the course of self-fulfillment through getting over a barrier, achieving her aim and being in accord with others. Her way to get yagsu is symbolized as a long tunnel of death. Her long journey to death made her realize that she could come to the existential self-consciousness after doing away with herself. So we can conclude that Baridegi discovered afresh herself as a result of the experience of hard trials and suffering and at last got the perfection of self because of choosing death.
Advances in computer and Internet technologies have significantly changed our lives and culture. However, literature and literary education have not developed at all. This is because people tend to understand literature through the concept of “progress”. However, literature itself is always changing.
Therefore, we need to cultivate a literature and literary education that is adapted to the changing environment of new media and culture. The modern age of electronic culture is the age of the “paradox of creation”, where heterogeneous elements are combined together, for example, literature with science, or arts with science. The power of imagination in the age of electronic culture is diverse and rich.
Shijo is a valuable literary genre that can help to heal the maladies of modern life. First, shijo reflects the principles of our daily life. Second, shijo also reflects the thinking of our people and nation. Third, shijo displays an affinity with nature. Therefore, we need to provide the modern shijo learners of the electronic culture with opportunities to compose shijo making use of diverse letters, diagrams, images and/or emoticons.
This paper focused on the persuasive style as a methodology of approaching classical Chinese prose. Some characteristics like narrative, fictitious, allegoric and so on were just some parts of the persuasive style. Therefore those cannot include whole characteristics of the persuasive style.
The proper function of the persuasive style is located on standing to reason. Since the kernel of standing to reason is located on logicality, propriety and novelty while the kernel of statement is located on concreteness, reality and verisimilitude. A great persuasive style combine the former with the later. Because these two elements contribute each other. Thus these two elements are the essence of such kind of prose.
On the other hand, the persuasive style is more flexible than other classical Chinese prose style. The main purpose of this style are demonstration and persuasion but it also require emotional chemistry with readers through the narrations. The literary inclination of this style arise from here. Furthermore these two elements can combine in various way producing huge literary effectiveness.
In this treatise, I studied the stranger-consciousness in Mok-wol Park's lyrical poems. The stranger in Mok-wol Park's lyrical poems wanders to find eternal native place. The eternal native place is a transcendental native place, namely the world of identity. We can find the universal emotions at the stranger in Mok-wol Park's lyrical poems who wanders to recover the transcendental native place.
There is a strong romantic vision in Mok-wol Park's early natural lyrical poems. This strong romantic vision is related with the stranger- consciousness. In the middle of his life of a poet, he traveled to Kyungsang-do, his native place. At that time Kyungsang-do appears to him a paradise. Mol-wol Park recovered his identity, the continuity and totality of life through Kyungsang-do. In this period, he wrote many poems that are related with his mother. In his poems, mother is equal to his native place. We can find Christian stranger in his later poems. After he met his god, he felt himself a stranger or pilgrim in this hopeless world. He is walking to Heaven, essential world, homeland enduring the painful life in this corrupt world.
The poetic theory of Yun, Gon-Gang is divided into three stages. At the first stage of his theory (1933-1936), he was a member of KAPF. He emphasized ‘Reality’ and ‘Life’, his thinking was based on Socialistic Realism. He insisted that reality was the most important. But he thought that poetry was not the same as an agitation. Because the characteristics of poetry were poetic elements like as rhythm, tone etc. He criticized an optimism without foundation. He thought that it was self-absorption of a poet and distorted a fact.
At the second stage(1937-1939), He insisted that modern poetry had to overcome sentimentalism. It was similar to Kim, Ki-Rim's poetic theory. Gon-Gang considered that poetry needed a methodology of composing. But it was distinctive from technicialism of Kim, Ki-Rim. Gon-Gang started from a question “What is poetry?”. He thought that surrealism had a new methodology of composing. The methodology was separating meaning from poetry.
But he denied his previous theory at the third stage(1940). He emphasized ‘physiology’ on composing poetry. The ‘physiology’ or ‘intuition’ could not be theorized. So his poetic theory resulted in subjective and unreasonable theory.
Nevertheless, Gon-Gang's theory is very important. He intended to overcome realism poetic theory and modernism poetic theory, and tried to synthesize both sides. It is an very important attempt.
The narrative space is not directly correspondent to the places of actual world. Espacially the symbolically projected space refers to the space described by the inverse perspective entirely. So to speak, it is applied to the narratives with the wholly different shapes to the objective ones. We can experience the virtual narrative freedom in the spacious space contrary to the closed place realtive to daily routine, ideologically distorted history, supressing counsiousness and so on.
The time process defines the key feature of narrative. Therefore, the deconstruction of the linearity is the pivot device of the narrative space. So-called the liminal space laid between actual world and fictional universe shows remarkable spatial features found in Lee, Sungwoo's recent some novels. And the fantasy projecting the repressed human desire can constitute the narrative space that may liberate human from supressive historical mechanisms. Chon, Myunggwan's Whale is an example. In addition, indeterminate space can be constituted proper to dissociation of consciousness. In the case of Ahn, Seongho's novels, most of characters are eager for the virtual narrative space.
In these ways, the narrative space is at work as the reflexive(not reflective) device on the daily life, history, or consciousness may cause misfortunes. It is the virtual device of narrative freedom.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the position of Son Chang-seob who was called the center of the new generation after Korea War again, focusing on character's using of the letter, the narrative function of the card with written on it, and the consciousness contained short-stories in 1950s.
In using the language, main character can the several languages like Manchu, Japanese, Chinese, the old generation write in Chinese character, and the young generation envy the English. The protagonists mainly locate at a boundary between the old generation which have the belief about the development of the ‘nation and human being’ and the new generation which pursue ‘the success and riches.’ It supposed that the transitional generation could not have acted as a boundary person after 1950's war.
In Son Chang-seob's short-stories, various cards with written on it charge the important function in process of narrative instead of the tense polt and the interest. The peculiar point is that the letter and the card with written on it play role as a divergence in narrative.
In conclusion, the transitional figure of language which Son Chang-seob presented through the boundary generation is the stream of desire in 1950s. He captures contexts of 1950s and war microscopically in saying ‘language’ by itself. Therefore, we can name Son Chang-seob as ‘ideologue’ and the transitional author who descripted the mixing space of the ruins and the becoming in 1950s.
-It centered on <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf>:written by cho se hui-Until now, the research and assesment about <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf>are divided two dimension. One is literal-social approch that concerned the life and pressive structure of out side status and contrastive universial recognition. Two is structure or using method of <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf>. This paper emphasizes that diversity as a structure method of <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf> is actually dening contrast and division of universial recognition and recognising diversity through ‘difference’ and ‘disliking’. Such a diversity is constitued new society through the communication. this is the thought of autonomia. the thought of autonomia identified the diversity
This paper try to approve the identity thought of autonomia and the catagory of recognition that present this <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf>. As a result, the concept of ‘difference’ and ‘disliking’, ‘potential’, diversity ‘change -over recognition’ is discovered. As a same concept, the possibility of new constitution society is discovered.
So, <small-sized ball shot by a dwarf> is not a contrastive and divisional universial recognition that represented labor demonstration but a new active method as a preparing proposal that contain new recognition. As a result, that is the thought of autonomia that suggested by anthonio negry. As a same word, this paper try to approve that the thought of autonomia identified the diversity