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2007, Vol., No.60

  • 1.

    Pragmatic Assumption and Negative Polarity Items

    구종남 | 2007, (60) | pp.5~26 | number of Cited : 9
    Pragmatic negative polarity items(PNPIs) can be NPIs not by the inherent lexical meaning but by the pragmatic assumption. This thesis aims to explore the principles and the conditions of PNPIs. Expressions assumed as endpoints in pragmatic scales come to have upward entailments if used in negative sentences, and bear universal negative inferences. Therefore the endpoints cannot be used in positive context. If the expressions were used in positive contexts, the meaning of the sentences are contradictory to the universal negative inferences. In this reason these expression cannot occur in positive context, so they come to gain [+negative] features. By way of these features these expressions can be NPIs which can occur only in negative contexts. But these endpoint expressions can be used in positive contexts in literal meaning. So we may doubt whether these are real NPIs. But generally the usage of literal meaning of pragmatic NPIs is ignored in discussion, because these used in positive sentences as literal meanings are different from those of NPIs in nature. This thesis proposed two conditions which qualifies pragmatic endpoints as NPIs. Firstly, the exclusive usage in negative context must be conventionalized. Secondly, the usage of literal meaning should be extremely limited.
  • 2.

    Efficient Methods of Teaching Korean in China

    박영환 | 2007, (60) | pp.27~52 | number of Cited : 7
    This paper deals with the effective ways for teaching Korean to the students in China. These efficient methods can be found in the five fields connected with teaching Korean. They are building the teachers, reforming the curricula, publishing the textbooks, developing the teaching skills and changing the evaluating systems. In the every field I suggest many successful ways concretely in order to satisfy the goal that the Chinese students can learn Korean easily, satisfactorily and effectively. For example, in the part of the development and publication of the textbooks seven ideas are suggested as follows. ① We should study deeply for publishing the useful textbooks. ② Group researches can be more effective than the personal ones. ③ Motivation and equivalence are very important. ④Many sorts of books should be published according to the user’s levels or needs. ⑤ Korean textbooks must have the connection with the Korean culture. ⑥ Handouts or guide books are needed to the teachers or the learners. ⑦ We have to make sufficient programs for the learners to use multimedia. By way of experiencing these elementary methods, I hope that most of students in China can learn Korean efficiently.
  • 3.

    Grammatical Forms and Grammatical Expressions

    이규호 | 2007, (60) | pp.53~82 | number of Cited : 4
    Korean sentence is usually made up of the form that the function word such as particle or ending is added to the content word such as noun or verbal stem. The function word is not defined just in grammatical forms such as particle and ending. Syntactic construction that particle and ending is added to noun or verb can also be the function word. In addition, noun+particle construction or verbal conjugation can be the function word. Linguistic unit that has the function corresponding to grammatical form in the form with particle and ending is called grammatical expressions. Grammatical expressions usually consists of particle+X or ending+X. The former is particle expression owing to the function of particle, the latter ending expression owing to the function of ending. Grammatical expressions can also be classified as particle is classified with case particle, delimiter and conjunctive particle and ending is classified with final ending, conjunctive ending and pre-final ending. The restricted development found when grammatical forms are joined is not only found in the join of grammatical form and grammatical expression, but also in the join of grammatical expressions. That is to say, the join of particle+ending expression or particle expression+ending cannot be allowed and the join of particle expression+ending expression cannot be allowed either as particle and ending cannot be joined.
  • 4.

    Modification of Accepting Non-standard Norms and Its Social Meanings

    이길재 | 2007, (60) | pp.83~112 | number of Cited : 5
    His paper aims at the description of (1) the receipt of non-standard norms in Jeonbuk linguistic communities and (2) its social meaning. Through the research it can be concluded that the rank of linguistic importance is pragmatic dimension > grammatical dimension > phonological dimension. And though being the pressure of standard norms and the discontinuation of generation, the cause of the receipt of non-standard norms is that the non-standard norms, the one, function as identity marker, and the other, are used as strengthen marker of efficient communication.
  • 5.

    An Analysis on ‘NP-e(seo)/reul’ Substitution Sentence Structure

    최재희 | 2007, (60) | pp.113~138 | number of Cited : 4
    So far, this study examined structural property of sentences that substitutes accusative form of ‘NP-reul’ for locative form of ‘NP-e(seo)’. The results of the study are presented as follows: First, verbs that substitute the ‘NP-e(seo)/reul’ were roughly classified into locomotion and non-locomotion. The former was classified into three types according to sub-semantic feature as follows:direction point locomotion verbs, simple motion locomotion verbs and deviative locomotion verbs. The latter was classified into dependent non-locomotion verbs and physical-effect non-locomotion verbs. Second, the verbs were classified into one place predicates and two place predicates according to selection of argument Third, for the one place predicates, selection of locative case and accusative case is not syntactically necessary. Therefore, the ‘NP-e(seo)/ reul’ in the one place predicates is an adjunct governed by V', not a complement governed by V. Fourth, two place predicates select ‘NP-e(seo)/reul’ as complement. The two place predicates include all the locomotion verbs including part of non-directive locomotion verbs, non-locomotion dependent verbs and physical-effect verbs. Fifth, the ‘NP-e(seo)/reul’ in two place predicates is parallel in that it is governed by V. However, a locative(e(seo)) is inherent case, it is assigned to D-structure and as accusative(reul) is a structural case, it is assigned to S-structure.
  • 6.

    The Transmission Pattern of the Background Folktale of Eunsanbyeolsinje

    강현모 | 2007, (60) | pp.139~160 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The present study examined the transmission pattern of the background folktale of Eunsanbyeolsinje(은산별신제), Important Intangible Cultural Asset No. 9. There have been many writings on the cultural heritage since Osaka’s(大坂六村) report in 1935 but no research has been made on the transmission pattern of the background folktale. Eunsanbyeolsinje was originally held as an annual village ritual offered to the god of mountains, but as it was merged with Byeolsinje it was held once in every three years for financial reasons and developed into a ritual related to Baekje. The transmission of the background folktale is largely divided into four stages:embracing the Baekje ritual in the mid 1930s, inserting the Baekje ritual in the early 1950s, exposing the Baekje ritual in the mid 1960s, and spreading the Baekje ritual in the mid 1970s and afterward. In this way, the background folktale has been transmitted in a way of reinforcing the Baekje ritual according to change in the ritual pattern of Eunsanbyeolsinje. Research on the transmission pattern of the background folktale is a preparatory work for studying the narrative structure and meanings of the folktale, and it needs to be executed together with research on the literary aspect of Eunsanbyeolsinje as well as on the background folktale, prayers (Sansinje and Janggun) and shaman songs.
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  • 8.

    A Study of Woljeodoan’s Sangeo-Poetry(山居詩)

    김석태 | 2007, (60) | pp.185~206 | number of Cited : 7
    Woljeodoan was a representative person of Buddhism in the seventeenth century. He succeeded Cheongheohyujeong as an ascetic who disciplined Seon and the discourse of the Budda. He published some books of the Mahayana Buddhism such as the Hua-yen sutra and the Lotus sutra, and devoted his life to educate the public. Woljeodoan was so interested in writing a poem that he made many forms of poem including a through-composed song and a cantos like Sanjungsasisa, Gyeongseeonji, Yugeojabyeong. He created poems imitating the rhymes of Sodongpa who was a famous poet in China and Chacheonno who was a representative poet of Chosun. Though he was a Buddhist, he also studied Confucianism hard and kept company with many intelligences from that religion. It made him able to express the harmony of Buddhism and Confucianism. This treatise studied a realm of Woljeodoan’s poetry focused on a through-composed song. One of his poem’s characteristics is that he express a great morale which shows his living style freely through the time and the space. Another is that it described human’s peaceful inside regardless of any adhesions. His mental realm was based on the Hua-yen and Seon. These thought that all things in universe harmonized together is the most ideal state. Likewise, his poems persued the harmony of universe, peace, the free spirit of human and the life without any greed.
  • 9.

    A Study on Yeoheon Jang Hyeongwang’s Funeral orations

    정시열 | 2007, (60) | pp.207~232 | number of Cited : 3
    Since this study aims at a literary investigation on the works of Yeoheon, Jang Hyeongwang, 43 works of funeral orations were chosen as the text so as to examine how the state of the writer in terms of emotions is reflected on funeral orations, formal and practical writings, and the writing style as well. Chapter 2 focuses on analyzing the double-sideness of funeral orations to investigate how the state of the writer in terms of emotions is reflected. Recollection of the things in the past is a joy and agony bringing sadness at the same time. Facing the death of a fellow, you might feel that refusal and acceptance to the principles from the heavens coexist. Consequently, the double-sideness, that is, contradictory emotions and responses become the elements creating literary nature in the practical funeral orations. Chapter 3 investigates on the style of the funeral orations centering on the functions of arrangement and comfort. Arrangement, in this respect, means arrangement for the death of the dead ones making the living and the dead accept the state of death. In the writings of Yeoheon, these arrangement and comfort proceed in two directions, that is, by mentioning the signs of death has already shown, the death is rationalized, or by expressing the agony of the living regarding ‘guilty conscience of the survivor’, who saw the death of a fellow in person, the sadness is overcome. Therefore, it is clarified by examining Yeoheon’s funeral orations that even such practical writings as his works can bear artistic and literary nature, and that a funeral oration have their own unique writing styles as it is.
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    Change in Visual Aspects of Modernism -Focused on Poetry by Kim Choon-su-

    양인경 | 2007, (60) | pp.315~334 | number of Cited : 1
    Modernist poems have been criticized that its issue of expression hierarchy is just an experimental technique. But in the modern times, the obstacle has been overcome and modernist poems have been reshaped by another meta-discourse. Early modernism promotes development of new historical consciousness by contacting the modern age. This planning of modernity introdueced a new form and technique and suggests image and visual symbol. The sight of a modernist speaker forms a visual system, and then the system is changed by denial and resistance of modernism. Poet Kim Choon-su’s poem of meaninglessness tries to describe things by way of visualization with a strategy of shedding existing image. Description, a type of descriptive image, is none other than the technique of a camera that is the expressing tool of a speaker of modernist text. The text of Kim Choon-su refuses to ‘show’ the reality by the sight of a speaker of a modernist poem. This aims at fragmented juxtaposition of image and shedding existing image, and de-visual vocalization, ‘seeing voice’ by transforming repetition and rhythm of poetic language into a general view. This is shown in the technique of a poem of meaninglessness that refuses the symbol of the world and subjective by image and language, as well as the poetic meta-space. The poetic strategy of Kim Choon-su’s poem of meaninglessness brings about the poetic revolution, and even indicates the possibility of social revolution. The planning of a change in visuality of Kim Choon-su’s modernist poems is an alternative seeking to deny the violent and suppressive history. In addition, the poems of meaninglessness mean desperate efforts of a dynamic modernist to pursue intrinsic idea and reshape the subjective and world by overcoming self-consciousness.
  • 14.

    The Genealogy of the Korean Anti-American Poetry and Postcoloniality

    이형권 | 2007, (60) | pp.335~364 | number of Cited : 5
    The Korean anti-American poetry has its own genealogy in the history of Korean literature. It originates from the anti-imperial poetry in the late nineteenth century, it appears as the anti-American consciousness related to the pro-Japanese activities during the colonial occupation, it is also found as anti-capitalistic writings during Korean war, and it is supported by Shin Dongyup’s and Kim Sooyoung’s revolutionary songs in the sixties and seventies. More importantly, the Korean anti-American poetry culminates in the anti-American protest during the 1980 massacre in Gwangju, and it now shows very different subjects and various representations. The Korean anti-American poetry has significant meanings. First of all, it clings to its own strong and steady theme as political writing. It also opens a new form of poetry that shows the ways of the world. Third, the Korean anti-American poetry contributes to the formation of such a culture that needs the existence of a strong opposition. Next, it does not deny various ways of expression such as cadence, repetition, and metaphor despite its sharp politics. Finally, the Korean anti-American poetry provides imaginative opportunities to criticize the unequal relationship between Korea and the United States. The Korean anti-American poetry, however, has its limitations to understanding reality and presenting artistry. Especially, such an anti- American poetry as political slogans lacks some artistic sense and just tends to boost the sense of anti-America. The Korean anti-American poetry and the study of the poetry need to make a contribution to advancing Korea-U.S. relations by approaching the relationship in a more sincere manner.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Strategy of Problem-Solving Centered Poetic Creation

    차호일 | 2007, (60) | pp.365~388 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis is on the strategy of problem-solving centered on the poetic creation. This strategy is, in short, to see the poetic creation as the problem-solving process. This process consists of five stages: material searching, conceiving an idea, expression, correction, and criticizing. In the poetic creation, we must consider the unique principles of poetry keeping the typical principles of problem-solving in usual writings. In the stage of material searching, we first embody the writing material and then incorporate what we are going to write. In the stage of conceiving an idea, we reshape poetic experiences into poetic contexts, conceive original contents using imagination, and organize the contents in accordance with the subject. In the stage of expression, we select appropriate words, use the right techniques of expression, distinguish lines and verses, and compose poems effectively. In the stage of correction, we reconsider whether the objects and forms are appropriately expressed, and verify whether the expressions of poetic devices are appropriate and whether the expressions difficult to understand are used. The criticizing stage includes sharing one another's thoughts and opinions about their own writings. In order to write good poems, it is good to refer to other people’s thoughts. This strategy is strategy in integrated viewpoint of writing and creation, and the purpose is to develop learner’s emotion through nurturing interests in poetic creation.