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2008, Vol., No.65

  • 1.

    Synchronic morphology of endings of Pyeonganbuk-do cheolsan dialect -Focused on underlying representation of endings

    정의향 | 2008, (65) | pp.27~54 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In this paper we discussed with synchronic morphology of endings of Pyeonganbuk-do cheolsan dialect, focused on underlying representation of endings. The underlying of endings is divided into the underlying of declension endings and the underlying of conjugation endings. The underlying of declension endings is subdivided into unique underlying and complex underlying, and the underlying of conjugation endings also can be subdivided in the same way. In Pyeonganbuk-do cheolsan, unique underlyings of declension endings , beginning by consonant, include /-마나/, /-꺼증/, /-토롬/, /-허구/, /-보담/, /-두/, /-과/etc. unique underlyings, beginning by vowel, include /-으루/, /-아/etc. Complex underlying of declension endings include /-{이, -에}/, /-{이, -에}서/, /-{이, -에}다/, /-이, -레/, /-{Ø, -ㄹ} etc. Unique underlying of conjugation endings, beginning by consonant, include /-간/, /-갓-/, /-구/, /-게/, /-네/, /-노/, /-나/, /-디/, /-다가/, /-더라/, /-두룩/etc. Unique underlyings, beginning by vowel, include /-으느꺼니/, /-으레/, /-으문/, /-으멘서/, /-을까/, /-을라구/, /-을수룩/, /-어두/, /-어서/etc. Complex underlying of declension endings include /-{{은, -는}-Ø}다/, /-{Ø, -ㅅ}우다레/, /-{Ø, -ㅅ}읍두다/, /-{으, 어}라/, /-{으, 어}야/ etc. Keyword: cheolsan dialect, ending, underlying, declension endings, conjugation endings, alternant, unique underlying, complex underlying
  • 2.

    Changes of /?G/ in the Jeju dialect in apparent time

    고동호 | 2008, (65) | pp.55~74 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to report changes of /ɔ/ in the Jeju dialect according to the generation. For this purpose, I selected three subjects one of whom is in his twenties, the other in his fifties, and the rest in his seventies. The result of fieldwork and analyses is as follows: (1) /ɔ/ in word-initial syllables is preserved in data of the subject in his seventies. /*ɔ/ in non-initial syllables, in principle, was changed into /ɯ/ (this change applies to data of subjects belong to the below generations.). If vowel in the first syllable is /ɔ/, /*ɔ/ in non-initial syllabes is preserved, or changed into /ə/ or /o/. (2) In data of the subject in his fifties, /*ɔ/ is changed into /o/ in word-initial syllables, and /ə/ in non-initial syllables. (3) In data of the subject in his twenties, traces of /*ɔ/ are discovered in /o/ in word-initial syllables.
  • 3.

    A Study of Syntactic Features of Idiomatic Expression in the New-Style Novel[Sinsoseol]

    주경미 | 2008, (65) | pp.75~110 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The aim of this paper is to investigate what the syntactic features of idiomatic expression are in the new-style novel[Sinsoseol]. These novels called 'Sinsoseol' have a very important value. Because these novels had published in the early 20th century when was the beginning of the Modern Korean. So We could see what the features of the beginning Modern Korean was in these novels. The idiomatic expression can be defined as multiple word unit that contain the formal fixedness and the semantic conventionality. I investigated the syntactic features of idiomatic expression appeared in Sinsoseol, in this point : Aspects of the restrictions of inflection, Aspects of the realization of modifiers, The realization of Case Makers [postpositions], The alternation with Case Makers.
  • 4.

    The Word-initial tensification of Jeollanamdo dialect

    위 진 | 2008, (65) | pp.111~136 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to prove the beginning, cause, phonetic environment of Word-initial tensification. Word-initial tensification originated gradually from the beginning of tension sounds to modernconsonant system. And there is possibility that Jeonnam is the birthplace of the word-initial tensification. The first evidence that suggests this can be found in that the Jeonnam tensification stage was 16C, the stage of tension sound was 14C. Secondly, there were three types of variation consisting of: the pre-existing record of tensification form, the transient form, and the hyper-correction form. These three types show that tensification already progressed to notice by speakers in Jeonnam dialect. Finally, the current Jeonnam dialect tensification appears with a high frequency. Meanwhile, the word-initial tensification environment connects with distant of place articulation. Tension sound outs with tension of larynx. If there is long distance between larynx and place articulation, that means low-economical efficiency. Back simple vowel, vowel connected with [g] as word-initial consonant, is closed by larynx therefore there were high frequent word-initial tensification.
  • 5.

    A study on selecting contents of phonological rules of Korean for foreign learners

    장향실 | 2008, (65) | pp.137~158 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract
    This thesis aims to select contents which taught and learned phonological rules in teaching pronunciation of Korean for foreign learners. For these purposes, I divided the whole phonological rules of Korean into two groups. The one should be taught and learned, and the other do not need to be taught and learned. There are two types of phonological rules of Korean which taught and learned for foreign learners. First type are rules which can predict the surface form by phonological informations. Second type are the rules needed the morphological informations. But informations are already learned in grammar, and these are applicable to all cases in a specific circumstances. There are four kinds of phonological rules do not need to be taught and learned. First, it is the rule the result of the phonetic change is reflected to spelling and spellings coincide with the pronunciations. The second is the optional rule. The third is the rule needed the morphological information. And the last one is phenomenons could not explain by the synchronic phonological rules for the impossibility with predicting the occurring conditions of phonological rule.
  • 6.

    A Study on Character of Group Literature in Early Pansori

    김수중 | 2008, (65) | pp.159~177 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Early Pansori off with Group Literature. Latter Pansori depends on capability and artistry of singers but it's a product of consequence that individual artistic conversion progressed rapidly. However Pansori itself came to a crisis quickly by such a rapid change. This Study aims at the point we should recognize the literary character when the genre itself originated and find a plan of recovery from it, as a plan that Present Pansori gets over the crisis and becomes a future oriented art. The word, Group Literature isn't used as a universal literary term but group and literature are related concepts they have been maintained coherence mutually from the formative period of the original literature. Even though Pansori was a literature originated at the dawning of modern times, it had a character of primitive collectivity. Its character can be understood by unrefined stories and songs, participation of performers and the people, a gambling place they direct together etc. Pansori started off with tale and the stories were at the crude level from the first. In the midst of the plays of wandering group which have repertory of such stories, songs and talents, Pansori, 'Story Song' appeared in the list. But Pansori reorganized to hit the noblemen's fancy passing through the process of artistic refining rapidly and making individual great singers. It's a phenomenon that group literary nature changed into individual artistic nature rapidly. The typical record that shows such a form is <Gwanwooheui>, created by Song Man-jae in the early 19th century. This Chinese poem comprised of 50 pieces makes us analogize process of specialization of performers group to be possible and is very valuable as a work that helps the research of this field. After the group disappeared, singers separated from it changed Pansori into artistic skill-centered art catering to the wealthy's tastes and a great part of audience turned away Pansori. To break through this phenomenon, we should change group literary nature of Early Pansori into modern style and induce sympathy and participation of numbers of groups through media with the re-creation of story that can arouse joint interests. The attitude of culture comprehension and the effort of re-creation through the understanding of group will not only vitalize basic mind of Pansori but light up the future of Pansori and make a nation and the world have cultural life forces.
  • 7.

    A Study on The Lineage and Construction of Bosimrok

    김진영 | 2008, (65) | pp.179~211 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    This thesis is studied about lineage and construction of Bosimrok(報心錄). First it is examined literature aspect of Bosimrok typically, and then studied about structural characteristic. Finally it is generalized constructual method of Bosimrok, and after valued literature merit. This can be summarized as follows. First it is studied about typically literature aspect of Bosimrok. The origin of Bosimrok is Chunchu(春秋), but specially revealing of biography literature is Cosega(趙世家) in Sagi(史記). On the ground of this story Orphan Cho(趙氏孤兒) is made by Gigunsang in Yuan china, and the original story is included in Dongjuyeolkukgi(東周列國志) in Ming china. Internationally it is transmitted Europe in 18c, and in Japanese it would be a repertory of Gabukki(歌舞伎). In korea it is transmitted a novel as Jomujeon(趙武傳) and Bosimrok, Keumnangisan(錦囊二山), Myeongsasipri(明沙十里). In upper transmission, Chunchu and Sagi is a first type text as having historical events, and Seodongjiran, Rehabilitation cho in Dongjuyeolkukgi and drama work in china, and Jjomujeon in korea is a second type text as increase literary embellishment. Bosimrok, Keumnangisan, Myeongsasipri is third type text as turn sharp change. Second it is studied about structural characteristic of Bosimrok. The work in China has no important person Chosak, the plot is so simple and cause and effect of event is missed. But Bosimrok has that subject person’s good deed is worked as a cause, then he took a good deed. So the plot is like that in beginning and expansion good deed is presented variously, so it is worked ground and cause of event transmission. And in crisis and climax good cause is worked, so subject person could be overcome that crisis. Like this, this work has a structure of cause and effect. Third it is studied about formation method and literary value of Bosimrok. In Bosimrok Yangsechung as Josak didn't die, and revenged, so whole story making method should be changed. First dislike in china story, with remaking person it is classified good man and bad man clearly. And stressing the causality, every event are ended cause and effect. And with laying stress on meeting, separating family should be meet again in last part altogether. Finally add a soldier story, story making method of hero novel in the last period of cohseon is used.
  • 8.

    A Study on chinese writing novel <Byeolgye chaetam(別界採探)> published in Imperial CapitalNews(「皇城新聞」)

    조상우 | 2008, (65) | pp.213~237 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The present paper examines a short story titled <Byeolgye chaetam(Exploring the Strange World, 別界採探)> focused on three aspects: the social backdrop of its creation, types of its characters and its significance in the history of Korean novels. First, the social backdrop of the story's creation is considered by examining the theaters at that time as well as articles about Yeonheungsa Theater(演興社) appearing in the Imperial Capital News(「皇城新聞」) and the Korean Daily News(「大韓每日申報」). Second, the story's character patterns are discussed focused on three protagonists--Yi Si-jong(李侍從), Major Bak(朴參領) and the mistress(別室). Finally, it's significance in the history of Korean novels is explored by comparing its characters with those appearing in both the previous and contemporary novels, in the process of which <Byeolgye chaetam> is evaluated to have been a story that attempted to disclose the evil influences of the new waves of thought and things from the perspective of Confucian scholars' ways of thinking. <Byeolgye chaetam> was so titled because the world described in the novel was largely different, in a quite negative way, from that of the contemporary people, especially Confucian scholars. In addition, it is possible to presume a connection between the male protagonist Yi Si-jong and the real-world Yi Jun-yong, the infamous pro-Japanese politician of the time. The author may have created this work as an indirect way to voice his negative opinion of the person when a direct criticism was not possible. The present study concludes that the author of <Byeolgye chaetam> wrote this work to show its reader, especially Confucian scholars, the evil influences of the new waves of thought and things that held sway over Korea during the period of Patriotic Enlightenment Movement. Another significance of this work is that the author attempted to create a new work of literature that reflected the social conditions of his time.
  • 9.

    A Study on Six-Stanza Sijo of the 17th Century - Jang Gyeongse's <Ganghoyeongun-ga> and Lee Junggyeong's <Eobu-byeolgok>

    이상원 | 2008, (65) | pp.239~265 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract
    This study examined the basic features of Jang, gyeong-se(장경세)'s <Ganghoyeongun-ga(강호연군가)> and Lee, jung-gyeong(이중경)'s <Eobu-byeolgok(어부별곡)> and then looked into their status in six-stanza Sijo(육가형 시조) based on them. Jang, gyeong-se(장경세)'s <Ganghoyeongun-ga(강호연군가)> is a song that expresses love for the ruler, concern over the nation, respect toward Zhu Xi(주희), and opposition to Lu Jiuyuan(육구연). The work is historically important in that it reflects social conditions of the early 17th century. The first six parts of the work express the sense of loss felt by the Seoin(서인) who were denied political power and the second six parts concern over Neo-Confucianism that was withering due to the growing influence of the study of mind(심학, the Wang yang-ming school). It is more appropriate to regard Lee, jung-gyeong(이중경)'s <Eobu-byeolgok(어부별곡)> as a six-stanza Sijo(육가형 시조) rather than as a song of fisherman. His mother's death led Lee, jung-gyeong(이중경) to frankly confess his inward feelings in <Eobu-byeolgok(어부별곡)>, which shows the simple life of a person who enjoys nature without engaging in complicated matters of the world. Six-stanza Sijo(육가형 시조) can be largely divided into the following three parts: <Jangyukdang-yukga(장육당육가)> series, <Dosan-sibigok(도산십이곡)> series, and <Sok-munsanyukga(속문산육가)> series. Jang, gyeong-se(장경세)'s <Ganghoyeongun-ga(강호연군가)> and Lee, jung-gyeong(이중경)'s <Eobu-byeolgok(어부별곡)> seem to belong to <Dosan-sibigok(도산십이곡)> series and <Sok-munsanyukga(속문산육가)> series respectively.
  • 10.

    The lifestyle and it's meaning of the Middle Class in <Song of Man>

    박연호 | 2008, (65) | pp.267~286 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The aim of this paper is to examine the lifestyle and it's meaning of the <Song of Man(男子歌)>. The <Song of Man> was written by Middle Class in the late Chosŏn dynasty(19C). It contains the lifestyle which wishes and popular desire of the middle Class. The remarkable point in this work is it's form and substance. In this work, the brilliant career of man (birth → infancy → going into government service → quick promotion → retirement → blissful old age) is described in consecutive order. Like this form is appeared in the <Lifelong picture(平生圖)> and <Enjoy the intention(樂志篇)>. The former is picture and the latter is poetry(歌辭) Because we can recognize that like this form is very conventional in varies genre. Especially the <Song of Man> and <Lifelong picture> are almost same in form and substance. Like this lifestyle is too described in <Song of the capital(漢陽歌)> and <Persuade immoral man(게우사)>. And the common feature of those works are to contain the actual viewpoint and amusement culture of Middle Class in the capital of Chosŏn dynasty(Han-yang). It means that like this lifestyle in this work is a type which was the life of males popular desire in the 19C. But <Enjoy the intention> is different from the <Song of Man> in respect of the lifestyle and actual viewpoint. It was written by the country ruling class in 19C and intend to simple life in the country. Because by compare two works, we can ascertain the different intention and actual viewpoint between the ruling and middle class in 19C.
  • 11.

    Interrelationship of poetic conversion and movie experience at Korean modern poetry

    문혜원 | 2008, (65) | pp.287~307 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In Chosun, Movie was imported in early 1900s. As the theater was founded successively in the country as well as Seoul in the 1920s, movie was settled by new entertainment art. Therefore, movie experience was essential thing for a literary man at that time. Attempts to connect movie with literary works were achieved in the 1930s. For example, montage was realized by method for enlightening effect by left-wing film critics. It was used by technique of film-making both left-wing and right-wing in movie. Literary men also used montage by literary technique. For example, they arranged different scenes side by side and bounded scenes that arouse equal emotion. The most important impact of movie is change of sight in poem. Owing to camera eye, the poets recognized another gaze between subject and object. As the result, it can be defended that the subject assimilates the object one-sidedly. ‘Camera eye' is grasped most clearly in imagism poems. Lee Jang-Hee took a close-up a cat's body in "Spring Is A Cat". Jung Ji-Yong expressed camera eye as moving a sight from a far scenery to a near scenery in "The Sad Impressionist Picture ". The window of the train acts as lens of camera in "The Gaslamp" of Kim Gwang-gyun. Each described sceneries can be compared scenes of movie. The effect of movie appears in poems that are both real and fantastic. The fantastic image of "Dream Of A Cat"(Lee Jang-Hee) resembles closely with a scene of the German expressionism movie "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari". Although a direct evidence cannot be found out, the fantastic poems of Lee Jang-Hee must be influenced by movie. And "Ogamdo 11th" of Lee Sang is similar to "The Blood Of A Poet" of Jean Cocteau. Lee Sang left a lot of clues that show movie experience in poem and prose.
  • 12.

    A Study on Closure Method in Modern Korean Poetry

    윤의섭 | 2008, (65) | pp.309~340 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines characteristics and the significance of closure method in poetry. A creator presents closure of poetry. A creator considers when a poem should approach to its readers and to form values as an art as well as understands that deciding the final stage of a poem is very important in creating a poem as a complete aesthetic world. Also, closure of a poem presents completeness, stability, unity and artistry. Poetry has a certain sign to prepare for the closure through perception of a creator, that is, closure preparation phase. Primary function of the closure preparation phase is to notify that a poem is about to end. In addition, at the closure preparation phase, previous time flow and meaning of a poem are converged and closure of the poem is prepared. For readers, closure preparation phase is to refine prosodic reading on a poem's inner rhythm or reading rhythm and to relax and refresh for preparing the closure. This study examines such closure method and its significance by reviewing several representative poems in each era: poems by Kim, So Woel in 1920s; Jeong, Ji Yong in 1930s; and Park, Mok Woel in 1940s. Closure method in Kim, So Woel's poems sought stability and completeness. Closure method in Jeong, Ji Yong's poems emphasizes layering and expansion of meanings. Mokwoel Park's early poems in『Cheonglokjib[靑鹿集]』show closure method in which meanings and intentions of a poem create and maintain suggestiveness, which is other-oriented closure method. Closure method in modern Korean poetry should be studied further in terms with a reference intentions, significance and world view of a creator. This study hopefully brings the importance of aesthetic significance of closure method in modern Korean poetry to light.
  • 13.

    The Method leading to Lyrical Identity in Hyun-seung Kim's Poems

    최승호 | 2008, (65) | pp.341~368 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    In this treatise, I studied the method leading to lyrical identity in Hyun-seung Kim's poems. I studied the method in relation with lyrical subject and object, the absolute God. According to relationship between the lyrical subject and the absolute God, the identity poetics and non-identity poetics can be divided. In the primary period, he did not show disbelief in the absolute God. In this period, the lyrical subject showed harmonious relationship with the absolute God. The absolute God gave grace to the lyrical subject, and the lyrical subject gave trust to the absolute God. In the middle period, the lyrical subject showed disbelief in the absolute God. He lost the model to mimic, and he fell in the absolute solitary. The severance between the lyrical subject and the absolute God brought non-identity among things. And it brought non-vitality among things. In the last period, Hyun-seng Kim recovered his belief in the absolute God. The relationship between the lyrical subject and the absolute God was recovered. In this period, the absolute God in Hyun-seung Kim's poems showed personality. The lyrical identity was sure and clear. The things in his poems were full of vitality.
  • 14.

    The Imagination of Foreshore Connected to Roads and Shadow - Centering on mallang mallang han him of Ham Minbok

    노용무 | 2008, (65) | pp.369~394 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper considers how capitalism, the poet's main theme, continues and transforms in mallang mallang han, Ham Min-Bok's fifth collection of poems. Thus, the imagination of foreshore is stressed in this paper. Foreshore is not only the imaginary signifiant in which the poet cogitates modernism and modernity, also the signified which means a kind of aesthetic alternative modernism or antimodernism. Therefore the motif of roads and shadow is outstanding in the middle of the poet's thought. The image of roads is related to both unconsciousness and nature. In other words, the road as a medium of unconsciousness which forms the movement of sight from human beings' consciousness to the natural world, also the road of nature represented by clouds, trees, water, etc. The image of shadow functions as a medium which transmits a pity for peripheral subjects by considering the poetic device of darkness in which the poet distribute the emotion of longing effectively. The transmission toward roads and shadow should accompanies the emotion of longing for ultimate intension by necessity. The spacial movement from cities to roads and Kanghwa island is not only a kind of opportunity which could embrace the essence of shadow and natural roads, but also the place where the imagination of foreshore sets down.
  • 15.

    'Story telling' as a way of catharsis - The similarity and difference in 「A wish」and 「My latest possession」-

    신영미 | 2008, (65) | pp.395~417 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Through this essay, the characteristic of 'story telling' is examined with the works Chae Mansik's 「A wish」and Park Wansuh's 「My latest possession」. As a result, it was found that there were similarity and difference between two works, in terms of solution of oppression, accomplishment of desire, structure of communication, catharsis process. 'Story telling' gives the speaker some solution for psychological oppression, and that is related to desire for achievement, and there are some treatment effect by the forming of sympathy to the hearer. Furthermore, social aspect that no person can contact with surroundings makes readers more intimate with the work. And the confession style for dramatic effect played an important role for intimacy. This 'story telling' is a creative reappearance through the talk of the speaker, which composed of one way talking. And it's a kind of communication structure, in which 'I' in 「A wish」speaks for her husband's will and feeling to her supporting sister. In 「My latest possession」, there are sender and receiver who are sisters in law, the writer describes the grief of 'I' who lost her son, and the process of her gaining sympathy of her sister in law. Here, 'wife' the speaker 'I' is a spokesman for her husband, who wants to recover ordinary life, at the same time, ‘I' becomes a character that get to obtain positive life through straightforward of the grief. The catharsis which is attained in the process of story telling is a share of the speaker. 'I' in 「A wish」speaks for her husband who felt catharsis through insanity or mental excretion, there are some weak points that his insanity bears another psychological oppression. But considering the last stage of Japanese imperialism, it can surely be apprehended; it is not simple madness but appearance of oppressed self-conscious of a colonial intellectual. In「My latest possession」, 'made-up I' who couldn't face the sadness and indulged in nihilistic falsehood, through the sorrowful tears, found out real feeling and can get sense of freedom. Here, it is certain that the tear is the same cause of catharsis, but there must be placed jealousy and envy on the basis of that.
  • 16.

    A Study on the 'Animal consciousness' in Shin Sukjung's Poetry

    박태건 | 2008, (65) | pp.419~438 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The purpose of this article is to investigate the meaning of ‘animal consciousness’ in the Shin Suk-Jung's poetry. Nature is the best value in the utopia poetics. Animal is the member of utopia with human. Therefore, the change of consciousness for animal is seem to be antagonism with period. The theme is 'Flying image' in the first and last poetry and 'Animal image' in the second and third poetry. Utopia is the common point in the first and last poetry. 'Bird' is existence the symbol of Utopia. Especially, it is very interesting ‘a crow’ has a positive meaning in the early days but a negative meaning in the latter days. 'Animal' is the main theme of the second and third poetry. It was the rapid changes of society this period from Japanese colonization to 4.19 revolution. It is noticeable the meaning of animal have 'Cute' in the early days, more and more getting the meaning of 'blind beast' in the latter days. Shin Suk-Jung makes a progress 'a world of actual feeling' break from 'a world of looking'. From thin point of view, 'animal consciousness' is seem to be appeared the change of self-conscious in Shin Suk-Jung poetry.
  • 17.

    A Study on Changes in Writing Methods According to Media

    Zhang, Eujeong | 2008, (65) | pp.439~466 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    This paper examined the changes in writing methods according to media. To this end, an incident that occurred in the 1930s was discussed, and then the changes that this event underwent after contact with the contemporary media and the meaning of these changes were examined. There was a difference in the way this event was handled and in the writing styles employed by the representative forms of media at the time, newspapers and phonographic records. The newspaper media basically maintained an objective stance, yet the way in which the event was handled differed depending on the newspaper and the reporter. The Dong-A Ilbo interpreted Kim Bong-ja's suicide on a political level, while the Maeil Sinbo used a somewhat sentimental vocabulary, judging No Byeong-un's suicide to be an example of wrong behavior. Yet when this event became the subject of popular art, only the genuine love story was highlighted, with emotional writing styles making up the mainstream. In particular, these accounts used a blunt vocabulary that directly expressed emotions, transforming Kim Bong-ja and No Byeong-un's suicide into "a tragic yet romantic myth of love." In this way, Kim Bong-ja was praised in popular art as an "angel" or "incarnation of true love" that defended love through her death.
  • 18.

    The Genre Characteristics and Literary Status of Kim Eok's Popular Song Lyrics - Focusingon the Femininity with Exoteric Sentiment

    김진희 | 2008, (65) | pp.467~491 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Arguing that the lyrics of Eok Kim's popular songs in the 1930s are based on the emotion and format that he pursued from the outset of his poems, this research examines whether these characteristics were further developed in the lyrics of popular songs. In addition, it investigates how the femininity excited by these sentiments functions in popular culture, and how significant these characteristics are in the history of modern poetry. Kim considered "Gyeokjosi" (swing verse) to be the most appropriate for showing the sentiment of the Korean race, viz., Joseon sentiment. He thus writes popular songs based on this format. "Gyeokjosi" is the form fit into reciting and singing. It is one of the regular rules of versification which can effectively realize the ideal of poems that Kim thought of as songs. By dint of this, Kim hoped that the modern poems could be created which the whole nation could enjoy. This paper approaches the lyrics of popular songs, i.e., ballad poems as a branch of popular literature. It can be conjectured that the lyrics of popular songs served as popular poems when popular novels, particularly lowbrow novels, were in vogue in the mid- and late-1930s. Therefore, the lyrics of popular songs in the 1930s showed the origin of the genre of popular poems, in which sense they can be evaluated to have expanded the field of modern poetry. What calls for attention, among others, is that Kim focuses on sadness, rather than gladness, and he gives elegiac feeling which awakens the femininity. These sensitivity and femininity are apt for the fundamental sentiment of popular songs, which can get supported by the populace. Kim's lyrics of popular songs in the 1930s plays a role of popular poems well enough in that they effectively reveal the public sentiment in those days, grounded upon the feelings of sorrows and pathos which Kim himself sought after. Furthermore, the femininity suggested by sorrow and grief plays an important part in appealingly expressing the sense of loss and helplessness felt by the general public who were living in the critical reality of colonial modern times. These facts confirms that the role of contemporary poets was crucial in the process in which the femininity, sentimentalism, and elegiac sense were incorporated into the popular ballad poems of the literary circles where they had been estranged while the elite being in the main. In this light, Eok Kim and his works of popular song lyrics can called a significant trailblazer for the history of modern poetry.