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2008, Vol., No.66

  • 1.

    A study on two characters(將來) in Hyangchal and Idu - a demonstration of the decoding grounded in the meaning and the sound of two characters(將來) -

    HeeCheol Yang | 2008, (66) | pp.5~28 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study, in four aspects, demonstrated the preceding decoding to two character(將來) using the meaning and the sound of two characters(將來) in Hyangchal and Idu. First is the aspect of the meaning and the sound of two characters(將來), second is grammatical aspect, third is the aspect of the context, fourth is the comparative aspect of poetic word to translated poetic word. The result of this study is as follow; 1. The conjunctive ending and the stem(-어/아/여 오-), in the decoding of the Hyangchal/Idu(-將來-), are grounded in the meanings of two characters[將(=而)來]. 2. The linking of the morphemes, in the words involving the Hyangchal/Idu(-將來-), is grammatical, in that the conjunctive ending(-어/아/여) is located at the back of the stems(造-, 爲-, 修-, 煎-) and stem+prefinal-endings(數+於-), in that the long sound mark or the mark confirming the preceding vowel(-어) is located at the back of adverb(只:그저), in that the stem(오-) is located at the forepart of the latter stem(-出-) in a compound stem, prefinal-endings(-臥-, -賜-), and engings(-尸, -呑隱). 3. The conjunctive ending and the stem(-어/아/여 오-), in the decoding of the Hyangchal/Idu(-將來-), are coincident with the contexts of the poems and the article involving the Hyangchal/Idu(-將來-). 4. The conjunctive ending and the stem(-어/아/여 오-), in the decoding of the Hyangchal/Idu[-將(=而)來-) involved in the two characters[造 將(=而)來- and 修將(=而)來-], are coincident with the conjunctive ending and the stem(-어/아/여 오-), in the decoding of the words[(= 而)來-) involved in two phrases[成(而)來- and 修(而)來] of the translated poems Putting the above accounts together, it seems incorrect the decoding[-려 (-) or (-)오려(-)], that is decoded or followed by many decoders by now, and it seems correct the decoding(-어/아/여 오-), that was decoded or followed by a few decoders in past, and now is given but scant attention.
  • 2.

    The Composition of Teaching Materials of Compound Noun

    Shin,Hee-Sam | 2008, (66) | pp.29~53 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In the language instruction, grammar teaching provides important basic knowledges and itself be a basis for a productive language use. The goal of language instruction is the growth of the language use ability. according to, The instruction of compound word is very important. The writing and pronunciation of compound word has many problems in the provision of words and in the process of instruction. Therefore, the composition of materials for instruction about compound word has six significances. First, the composition of materials for instruction about compound noun has significance in grammar teaching. Second, the composition of materials for instruction about compound noun should consider the form and meaning of compound noun. Third, the composition of materials for instruction about compound noun should present the formation rule of compound noun. Forth, the formation rule of compound noun should be simple. Fifth, the formation rule of compound noun should be applied productively. Sixth, the composition of materials for instruction about compound noun should make the demands of leaners be in the first place. Also, the composition of materials for instruction should be spiral syllabus. The composition of materials for instruction need to show the result. Consequently, through the instruction of compound word, It have to be used well in real lives.
  • 3.

    A Comparative Study on the Wangochonchukkukchon by Hyecho

    Eunkyung Shin | 2008, (66) | pp.55~86 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    This article intends to illuminate the characteristics and significance of the Wangochonchukkukchon, the records of experiences of travel to Chonchuk --the old name of India-- by Hyecho(704-780), a Buddhist monk of Silla. As Hyecho's travel to India and its records go, there are two notable points which will be focused on in this article. One is that Hyecho's travel was done at the age of twenty which was young age compared to other monks' cases, and the other is that the Wangochonchukkukchon is differentiated from other travel literatures by Buddhists monks in including some poems within the text. Unlike other studies on the Wangochonchukkukchon which have mainly been established around bibliographical approach, this article is distinctive in employing a comparative method which covers other similar texts by Buddhist monks such as the Pulgukki by Peophyun, the Taedang seoyuk kubeop koseungchon and the Namhaegigwinae peopchon by Uijeong, the Taedang seoyukki by Hyunjang, and the Iptang kubeop sunnye hanggi by Japanese monk Yennin. When we classify travel literature, according to the purpose of the travel such as pilgrimage, sightseeing, and business trip, the Wangochonchukkukchon falls into the category of pilgrimage travel literature. Since Chonchuk was conceived of to be the sacred place by Buddhists which Buddha had been born, achieved Enlightenment, and preached on the four holy truth--birth, aging, illness, death--, it can be characterized by a form of pilgrimage to visit holy places and worship the Buddhist relics in India, It, however, was a risky attempt fraught with a quantity of difficulties and dangers to make a trip to India in the 8th century. The experience of pilgrimage to India, which signified an accomplishment of a holy mission, brought a tremendous changes to Hyecho both in inner and in outer life. On one hand he became to form his self identity as a real Buddhist monk, and on the other hand he could consolidate his religious standing in the Tang period. In other words, it can be said that the pilgrimage to India functioned the rite of passage to him. As for the writing style of the Wangochonchukkukchon, it can be categorized as ‘poem-inserted type’ among various types of the mixed-style texts: those which prose and verse are mixed in a text. This article considers this characteristic of the Wangochonchukkukchon to be one influenced by Uijeong's travel literature.
  • 4.

    <Cheong San Byeol Gog> Bird and Crane Dance of 3 stanza

    Chan Min | 2008, (66) | pp.87~110 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The parts to be difficult to catch the meaning in <Cheong San Byeol Gog> are the stanza 3 and 7. There have been a lot of arguments about ‘deer’ of the stanza 7. As a result, The opinion that ‘deer’ is an actor disguised as a deer is supported very much, because this opinion interprets ‘deer’ by the realistic context. Japhi performed at that time was based on. To analyze the stanza 3 in the same way is this paper. Two views to consider ‘sae’ to be sae/bird or sarae/plow has been suggested until now. But this paper suggested to consider ‘sae’ to be the actor disguised as a bird. This is the result to catch in the realistic context. I based this on the crane dance performed at that time. The stanza 3 presupposes the stage that the crane dance is played. By this view, this following fact can be. ① mul of ‘mularae/under water’ means a property, a board ‘Jee Dang Pan’. ② ‘Jangulan’ means Jamgae/an weapon or ‘Jangue’ means a drum(Jang Go). ③ the poetic speaker is looking at the stage. ④ The crane is going over the ‘Jee Dang Pan’n on the stage. The words of literary works has to be examined in the realistic context. A metaphor or symbolizing is a next step. This paper suggests a new point of view about <Cheong San Byeol Gog>. This is meaningful in such a point.
  • 5.

    The formation of “Sijoeumyul(時調音律)" and Gagok(歌曲)'s characteristics

    Kwon Soonhoi | 2008, (66) | pp.111~125 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    In this thesis, I introduced Sijoeumyul, the anthology of gagok-chang(歌 曲唱) and researched the characteristics of gagok in this anthology. Sijoeumyul is a relatively small because it collects just 99 poems. However the hanbatang(篇歌) of Sijoeumyul shows various aspects of gagok’s performances in the early 20th century. The hanbatang of Sijoeumyul excluded Jungdaeyeop(中大葉) and possessed the formation of man’s song, woman’s song and Ujo(羽調) and Gyemyeonjo(界面調) which are well organized. Especially it prominently shows form-oriented traits because it tried to balance Ujo and Gyemyeonjo. This is very important aspect of gagok hanbatnag in the early 20th century. We grasped the concrete condition through the existence of ‘Gyesoyong(계소용)’ which is located between man’s song, ‘Yuldangsakdaeyeop(율당삭대엽)’, ugyemyeon(羽界面) and sogagok(小歌 曲). Man’s song, ‘Gyesoyong’ had not been used in most of anthologies like “Gagokwonryu(歌曲源流)”. It is related to gagok’s form-oriented traits that ‘Gyesoyong’ appeared in hanbatang since the 20th century. ‘Yuldangsakdaeyeop’ was arranged between ugyemyeon and sogagok is for such reasons as I mentioned. Therefore we need to pay attention to the location of ‘Joeunjajeunhanip (조은자즌한입)-duggeo(두거)’ in Sijoeumyul. In hanbatang of Sijoeumyul, ‘Joeunjajeunhanip(duggeo)’ is arranged after ‘Samsakdaeyeop(三數大葉)’. And alos ‘Jungeo(中擧)’ and ‘Pyeonggeo(平擧)’ are omitted in the appendix. It is impled that the original text of Sijoeumyul hanbatang might be existed before ‘Pyeongeo’ and ‘Junggeo’ were derived. After all, I assumed that it could be recompiled the anthology which showed the musical characteristics prior to “Gagokwonryu”. And it was reflected that the characteristics of gagok's performance like 'Whangyerak(環界樂' in the early 20th century. As above, it is certain that Sijoeumyul was compiled for textbook or script of performance. It is reflected in this book that the actual condition in the early 20th century. We can confirm this through the collected saseol(lylic). It was collected in the hanbatang of Sijoeumyul that 64 pieces of man’s song, 24 pieces of woman’s song, for a total 88 pieces of saseol. Sijoeumyul recorded the representative saseol about 1~4 pieces unlike the collection of saseol which arranged dozens of saseols. These have been recognized as the representative saseol of those tunes since then.
  • 6.

    Descriptive intention of the Dream motive which appears in Sijo

    손앵화 | 2008, (66) | pp.127~148 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The Dream motive manages the various problems of actuality from the literary works. It has been accepted as method of fictitious pretext. The aim of this paper is to examine the function of the Dream motive which appears in Sijo of Joseon Dynasty era and the meaning intention that the writer intends to embody through the Dream motive. Also It considers how the genre inclination of Sijo is changed according to the psychology of writer that is embodied in the Dream motive In this work, the conclusion is that : First, The Dream motive which appears in Sijo was closely related with the actual recognition which writer had. Second, the Dream motive as the means to overcome the unsatisfactory condition of actuality was classified with 'Sangsamong' and 'somangmong' in Sijo. The genre inclination of Sijo was lyricism above all things because the focus of description was put in maximization of the inner sentiment of writer. Thrid, the Dream motive as the means to realize subject effectively was classified with 'Gyubeommong', 'Musangmong' and 'Gaehwamong' in Sijo. These types concentrated on the delivery of specific message in order to instruct and awake people. Thus the focus of description was put in persuading readers[Gyosulseong]. Fourth, There was the type of Sijo that emphasize on embodying the experience itself in a dream. Here the length of Sijo came to be long and the focus of description was to strengthen fiction in the dream world with background. This type was named 'Mongyusijo' The Dream motive appears in the various form of Siga including Sijo. The research which relates with the Dream motive must be continued from field such as Gasa or Hansi in future.
  • 7.

    The Position and Stratification of Korean Classic Poetry in the Korean Language Art

    Ryu Su-yeol | 2008, (66) | pp.149~171 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper aims to confirm that Korean classic poetry is the cultural heritage to contribute to culture transmission, and the teaching material and content coincide with the internal logic of Korean language education. I tried to clarify the educational position and stratification of classic poetry in Korean language art. For this I constructed the organic relation between the goal, model and content category of language education. The conclusion is as follows ; Goal of Language Education Model of Language Education Content Category of Language Education personal growth personal growth experience cross-curricula literacy skill performance adults needs cultural heritage cultural heritage knowledge culture analysis personal growth attitude The classic poetry is the container with valuable experience in the light of personal growth, and is the model including rich rhetorical feature in that of cross-curricula or adults needs. The kowledge about it matters in that of culture transmission, and from the viewpoint of culture analysis. I explained and demonstrated this organic stratification with 'the song of oriole' in this paper.
  • 8.

    Choicheokjeon(崔陟傳) that appears in the Chinese element and the Writers intention

    민영대 | 2008, (66) | pp.173~203 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Jo Wihan(趙緯韓) is the author of a Choicheokjeon(崔陟傳) which creative as a Chinese writing novel. When we talk about our descriptive literature, from narrative literature until being early in Korea the influence about Chinese literature will be matter of great intention. When we judged from our history of novel, it is quite early built in 1621(Gwanghaegun 13 years) it could be ahead of other novels(Kim Siseup’s short novel or Sin Kwanghan’s short story, Heo Gyun’s Honggildongjeon etc.) differently with effect of Chinese literature it is unrelated. Choicheokjeon was novelized during the Japanese invasion period and it based on the real person whose name was Choicheok who lives in Namwon(南原) and it novelized. Event at the time of the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592 Namwon, also geographic background is center of Namwon. However, the heroes are leaves their home land because of warfare from the latter half. And the talk is developed China and Japan with background but finally the talk ties and end at Namwon. In other words, The work which tries to say again at that time Koreans is actual most with subject matter comes to life is Korean and boils, is a talk which is originative. Despite of that, from talk development process people or consideration etc it will be able to confirm a numerous Chinese element. This is rather than the effect of the Chinese literature, it includes Jo Wihan’s higher interest about China. Writer was improve his knowledge from childhood through Chinese literature. At the time of the Japanese invasion of Korea, only a short period, he was associated with troops of Ming dynasty when he participated in troop. Also he was admire about China when he was young. It reached to the middle-aged age had actually traveled to China several month. This is reveal from his other work, Chagwigeoraesa(次歸去來辭) and Jemangjayimoon(祭亡子倚文). Especially, the Chinese element which comes from Choicheokjeon. It meant to amuse to raise some awareness, and it can take measure of heroes that are different between ordinary people. Appears it follow the quotation of ancient history, it represent hero’s word and action and it refers to speaks and the circumstance where the heroes are difficult it will be able to maintain the life which pastes to develop a talk. The Chinese element show the work technique of writer excelling, the namely author sees a talk effectively to deliver, character of the people angle of depression at the time of height should have been boiled is not the effect of the thing intellectual Chinese literature which it uses intentionally.
  • 9.

    A study on the being aspects of the Ahnyongbok culturecontents and the historical meaning corresponding with the trouble involved in Dokdo dominium Kwon

    DO KYUNG KWON | 2008, (66) | pp.205~233 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study on the historical meaning corresponding with the trouble involved in Dokdo dominium and the defense consciousness in the Ahnyongbok culturecontents. Summarizing the results of this paper, it is like followings. The first is the inquiry the being aspects and the characteristics of the Ahnyongbok culturecontents. In the lower genre of the Ahnyongbok culturecontents, there are a novel, a poem, a drama, a Korean classical opera , a musical, ethnic customs for the sacrifice. The narrative, going through the lower genre of the Ahnyongbok culturecontents, is storytelling on a popular hero. In other words, Ahnyongbok exsists as a popular hero in the Ahnyongbok culturecontents. The second is the consciousness possessing the Ahnyongbok culturecontents. The Ahnyongbok culturecontents exsists as the inventional discussion. It seems that the populace find identity as a Dokdo guardian in the Ahnyongbok culturecontents. In this point, the populace's consciousness possessing the Ahnyongbok culturecontents, can be drawn out. It is defense consciousness that the populace are willing to protect Dokdo dominium.
  • 10.

    The Study of Religious features in Poetic language -In the case of Oh Jang Whan, Han Yong Woon and Kim So Weol

    김윤정 | 2008, (66) | pp.235~258 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper studies the religious features in poetry. As poetry results from rite at first, poetic language has many similarities to religion. The most representative feature is ‘symbol’ and ‘paradox’. ‘Symbol’ and ‘paradox’ are not only rhetoric. They are aimed to the world above. Poem can seek after transcendental world by ‘symbol’ and ‘paradox’. In that point, ‘symbol’ and ‘paradox’ are resemblant to religion structurally. To study the feature of ‘symbol’, this paper analyzed the poem of Oh Jang Whan. Oh Jang Whan emphasized the importance of ‘symbol’ and orthodoxy ‘symbolism’ in Jo-sun. This paper confirmed transcendental and religious feature in Oh Jang Whan’s poem. Especially Oh Jang Whan wanted to find symbol in woman image and mother’s world. And to study the feature of ‘paradox’, this paper analyzed the poem of Han Yong Woon. In poem of Han Yong Woon, the paradoxical language is the most remarkable feature. Especially, the atitude to ‘Nim’ can compare with the atitude to God in religion. Han Yong Woon showed transcendant feature by ‘paradox’. The last religious feature in poetry is related to the fact that poem involves ritual feature. That is from the fact that poem is pointed to spiritual world. The various emotion like sadness, sobbness and grief in Kim So Weol’s poem express the state of spirit. Kim So Weol is remarkable poet in the point that he seeks after opening the spiritual world.
  • 11.

    Literary Configuration of the Democratic Movement in Kwangju. - Focused on “The Flag” written by Hong Hee Dam

    Mounkwo Jeong | Lee Nae-kwan | 2008, (66) | pp.259~278 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper was to examine the meaning of the democratic movement in Kwangju through “The Flag” written by Hong, Hee Dam. It is remarkable that the author used the viewpoint of labor in exposing recognition of problems. The democratic movement in Kwangju evaluated by the viewpoint of main characters; Soonbun and Hyungja shows barbarous violence military regime at that time. Through these characters, the author also proves that the main body of the movement was the mass of the people. From unknown little students to the workers of textile companies and Kwangju citizens, the mass of the people are evaluated highly in this work and the author shows brutality of soldiers under the martial law well. On the contrary, the dual attitude of the leaders who could play the key role in the movement also shows the author’s sense of the real. Moreover, “The Flag” written by Hong, Hee Dam is a work which criticizes the behavior of America, our everlasting friendly nation, indirectly. The fact that America was in the same side of Korean Military regime, the main group of violence at that time, was hard to be understood by the mass of the people. Lastly, the process of literary configuration of the democratic movement in Kwangju makes us to understand the world not only with the feelings of resistance against the military authorities but with the viewpoint of developing history. The main party which develops the history is the mass of the people. The actual description of democratic movement in Kwangju with the viewpoint of labor give us to have a new progressive consciousness.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Patterns and Imagination about the Poetic Language of Jo Tae-il

    Lee dong soon | 2008, (66) | pp.279~301 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Jo, Tae Il is the representative poet to achieve agreement of ages, poet, and life as constantly emphasis of ages and historical actuality. Because of abundant implication, the poetic language acquires not the simple statements of the poem but the position as a subjects with the concentration of interest for the essence of poetic language. Therefore, the poem of Jo, Tae Il analyzed to classify the beginning, the middle, and the last. To make a close inquiry the world of poetic imagination the poem of Jo, Tae Il analyzed the poetic language. These examined symbolic the poetic language of ‘ages and discord’ and symbolic the poetic language of ‘death’. The language of guns and swords with the beginning was put down overthrow imagination to try upset of system through the poem as the opposition with the political reality. The language of senses with the middle was confirmed not overthrow imagination of the beginning but the intentional imagination to reinforce of the internal volition. The last in the center with language of natural consisted of the main currents with the seek poem for the identification human and nature. Conclusionally, the author found that the world of his poem was made continuously to achieve the unity for human and nature with the viewpoint ecological world.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Critical Methods of Creative Writing Theories -Focused on Plotting-

    Lee, Mi-ran | 2008, (66) | pp.303~327 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper aims at providing a framework for evaluating plotting from the standpoint of creative writing theory, and at analysing works using this framework. Reading works by a critical method based on creative writing theory is a reading including both synthetic reading as a reader and analytic reading as a writer. The synthetic evaluating standard is ‘Unity.' And the analytic evaluating standards are ‘precision', ‘congruty' and ‘affinity'. In terms of unity, ‘Is there a dramatic tension?,' and ‘Is the theme well exposed?' must be investigated. The analaytic evaluating elements of the former can be ‘Is the plot point appropriate?', ‘Are the stakes rising?', ‘Is the flashback effective?' (precision), ‘Is the lead's objective dominant?’, ‘Are obstacles powerful?', ‘Do the circumstances and situations give feeling of tension?’(congruty), ‘Is the ending logical?’, ‘Does the ending has a fresh impact?', ‘Are the story's important knots unreveled?’(affinity). The analaytic evaluating elements of the latter can be ‘Is there a character arc?’(precision), ‘Is the motive of inner conflict clear?’, ‘Is the opposing character’s temperament considered?’, ‘Are symbols and motifs effectively used?’(congruty), ‘Does a character take a action based on realization?’, ‘Does the ending give a feeling of resonance?’(affinity). With the framework above, the plotting in “Believing Love” written by Kwon Yeo-sun is analysed. This work is plotting with dramatic tension, designed three layers of story structure. There are various plot points and powerful obstacles, tense circumstances and situations, and a impactive and logical ending. Also, this work is plotting with two layers of theme; ‘the triviality of love’ and ‘the value of trivial love’, through good character arc. There are profound journeys, and intensive motivated characters, effective aphoristic sentences, and taking action. “Believing Love” is a good work with effective plotting. This study can be useful for fiction writing lessons. For student-writers it can be a standard for evaluating and revising their own writing. Furthermore this study may be a step toward developing fiction writing theories.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Children's Literary Cultivation of North Korea in the 1950s -focused on Children’s Literature of the Central Committee of Chosun Writers' Association

    이영미 | 2008, (66) | pp.329~358 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    This study set out to investigate the children’s literary cultivation of North Korea in the 1950s based on Children’s Literature and the typography of “cultivation outside the school system” that played a certain role as education within the regime. It’s noticeable that the signs of social changes were reflected on literary education and cultivation for children in the 1950s from the perspective of literature history of North Korea. It was in 1954 that the status of readers began to rise through reading and creation education on the inside. The year of 1955, however, saw the emergence of authoritative efforts by the existing authors to deter such a movement. As opposed to the political intentions led by the government, they tried to raise the bar for readers to enter the scene by concentrating more on reading education than creation education. As a result, they engaged in considerable conflicts with general readers here and there. In those days, there was a change to the perception of who were the subjects of education and cultivation. In 1957, controversies appeared on the matter as political logic gradually sank in, which caused the existing writers to crack from the inside and accordingly to lose their political power. In 1958, the socialist regime started to infiltrate the political thoughts into the field of literary education and cultivation for children.
  • 15.

    A study on Lee Gangbaek's plays in the late 1990s

    Il-Soo Yoon | 2008, (66) | pp.359~384 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Lee Kangbaek has written some qualified plays which can be put into a group by periods. The plays written in the late 19th picture his idealistic society which he tries to attain by his plays. His ideal society is that an individual can grow even in society, and an individual has an much value as society. This subject is presented through space overlapping time, the story that the first and the end overlap, characters whose former life and next life are overlapped. In case of A diary of Journey to Youngwoel, comparing the appearance of Sejo vs Shin Sukju vs Han Myunghee holding a council in the Royal presence with the appearance of Yeom Munji vs Bu Cheonpil vs Lee Donggi holding a meeting in a study of Cho Dangjun, despite the difference of time and space, Chosun times vs present times, palace vs Cho Dangjun, each role is mixed up. In case of Flesh and Bone, the effort of Munshin's grandfather who stops the killing by his offspring is eventually embodied into the succeeding of the Choi family's lineage, jumping the difference of time and space. In case of Feeling, so Heavenly, Dongyeon seeks for the shape and Seoyeon seeks for the heart are unified into feeling by Ham Yijung. In this work, the life and death are united through the characters who appear after death and even before birth. It functions as a device to picture the unification of shape and content, human and nature. It is pointed out in this work that the compulsory possession oppresses the people. It is represented through the husband of Choi Sihwang, the Choi’s wife who attaches importance to the family, Munshin who stress on thr purity of extraction, and Dongyeon who seeks for a perfect shape. The malady of the collective society can be cured only with the some sacrifices, for example, Shin Sukju’s servant who is killed by his cryout that every man has a right to live with a bright face, Youngja who is blamed for extramarital affairs by her own sympathetic feeling, Ham Yijung who runs away from home.
  • 16.

    Cultural identity of Nan Yongqian’s Totemic Poems and the Imagination of eco-literature

    정봉희 | 2008, (66) | pp.385~403 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Much importance has been attached to the series of totemic poems by Nan Yongqian ever since they were made in 1986.Based on the analysis of these poems, this paper illustrates the cultural identity of Nan Yongqian’s totemic poems and the imagination of eco-literature as followings: first, they re-construct the Korean culture characterized by pursuing open up and development while emphasizing the totems increasingly highlight the cultural signifies with Korean characteristics with reference to the ancient Korean myths and folk belief; second, through the pliable attitude and eco-feminism, these poems aim to establish a harmonious eco-literature in which all the living entities enjoy an organic relation via clearing up the difference between ideologies and cultures.