This study is to examine the diachronic changes of paü(rock) and the distribution of paü's dialect forms. One of the internalized foci of this study is whether the results from the study on the changes and characteristics of a single word, paü can be generalized as a solid consequence. Therefore, to secure universality and generalization of the study, there should be common characteristics found in other words. However, archaic words were found in old books are very helpful to assume the origin of paü', and it can be clues to trace back the procedure of paü's diachronic changes. Since the completion of Hunminjeongeum(The Correct/Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People), because paü appeared very frequently in Eonhae(諺解) literature, dialects, and geographical names, a glimpse and review on the diachronic changes and distribution characteristics of paü can be taken referring to those materials.
In the old native folk song, Heonhwaga, ‘…岩乎’ was read as paho, and assuming the phonological history of /k/, the origin form of rock, pako and pakvy were reconstructed. The physiologically developed form, pakvy was found in the old geographical name' references like Samguksagijirigi. The pakvy meant a 'rock' or 'hill', so it is clear the word had been used as polysemy and homonymy. With the meaning differentiation, the meaning of hill, pakvy was developed as kokƐ(<kokay) and pakvy itself was used only to mean a 'rock'. This form was changed to pahoy in the period of the completion of Hunminjeongeum, and transformed again to pau in modern ages. The phonological phenomena such as /k/ weakening, deletion, and vowel raising were applied in the historical process.
As the forms of pau's dialect, various forms such as paü, pauy, pagu, pau, pao, paŋgu, paŋu, phagu, phaŋgu, phaŋu, pai were realized. Each dialect form shows some kind of distribution characteristics with the monophthongization (the conversion of diphthongs to monophthongs), the first letter's aspiration, the addition of /ŋ/ sound and so on. For example, the monophthongization of uy>u was realized across the country except the dialect in the midland part, and the dialects with an archaic /k/ appeared in the southwestern, southeastern, and northeastern dialects. Furthermore, the southeastern and northeastern dialects wer characterized with the /ŋ/ sound addition. Through a series of the phonological phenomena such as vowel raising, the monophthongization, /k/ sound weakening and deletion, the comparative study between midland dialects and non-midland dialects can be performed and generalized consequence will be drawn.
In conclusion, the diachronic changes of paü(rock) and the distribution characteristics of paü's dialects were involved with Korean phoneme history and phonological phenomena like the /k/ weakening and deletion, the o>u vowel raising, the monophthongization, the aspiration, /ŋ/ sound addition and so on. This study proved characteristic dialect distribution and its results will be applied to classify the existing dialect areas as well.