Korean | English

pISSN : 1229-1730 / eISSN : 2733-8738

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 0.38
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2015, Vol., No.94

  • 1.

    About the Methods of the Reading Literature in the evaluating situation

    Kyoung-Joo Kim | 2015, (94) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study explored how to read literature text in the evaluation situation. Reading the literature text is the reading the character, the event and the meaning of the story with diffusion of the readers’ thought and the knowledge to the human and the world. But in the evaluation situation, the reading the literature is not the divergent reading, but the convergent reading. To fine the meaning of the item developer is more important than to find the meaning of the text or writer. And the evaluation situation requests the reading without the background knowledge that the reading literatures is requested with general. In the Korean Education, the reading literature and the reading non-literature are distinguished strictly and are not interfering each other. In real reading situation, the students are reading the literature text and the non-literature text, side be side. The researchers of reading education is demanded to fine the totality of the reading. That is to realize the essence of the reading education.
  • 2.

    Scientific Research of Hunminjeongeum focus on the Phonemic Separation of the Prime Number

    Kang-Chun So | Park Sang-up | 2015, (94) | pp.31~67 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    We will build series of papers the science of Hunminjeongeum on the physics. This first paper will focus on the science of using the prime number. We will start from modelling the mutual communication in a formal form and build the artificial language well known in the computer science. The artificial language permit the product operation on the space of the core concepts. The prime number of core concepts is undividable concepts under the product operation, so we can estimate separation into the prime number of sub-concepts of the core concept is unbreakable under the mutual communication. Also we can expect Since Hunminjeongeum to the toy example for analysing the natural language using the artificial language for future.
  • 3.

    The Meaning Transparency in Korean Vocabulary

    Shin,Hee-Sam | 2015, (94) | pp.69~91 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The meaning transparency is a concept that elements’ original meaning is maintained after a compound word is made. Also, it is a concept that the elements’ flexibility between the straightforward meaning and the idiomatic meaning. This paper is researching the influence of the meaning transparency on Korean Vocabulary. Compound words can be classified by the level of the meaning transparency. Equal compound words are classified into transparent words, fluid compound words are classified into transparent and translucent words, combination compound words are classified into opaque words. Surplus phenomenon is the output of the meaning transparency. It is a pursuit of efficiency of communication. Most of the surplus phenomenon came from the mentality of curing weakened meanings. Blend can be explained by meaning transparency. There are many neologisms which are made from the strong meaning transparency. Remaining task is bringing the connection of Korean vocabulary and the meaning transparency to the center of the research.
  • 4.

    The Cultural Icons of Jeonju Reflected in Sijo Poetry in the Late Joseon Dynasty

    Kim, Seung-u | 2015, (94) | pp.93~122 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This article aims to look into the cultural icons of Jeonju reflected in sijo poetry in the late Joseon Dynasty. The most frequently referred place of Jeonju in sijo poetry is Hanbyeokdang, but how to describe the daintiness of the bower are different from one another. A saseolsijo poem from Cheongguyeongeon(Jinbon) exceedingly expresses the pleasure at having a delightful party on Hanbyeokdang in a spring evening while the works of Kim Duseong and Sin Huimun concisely present the tranquil view of Hanbyeokdang and its neighborhood in an autumn day. Besides, An Minyeong links the clear landscape of Hanbyeokdang with the meditative sound of the bell from Namgo Temple that is just south of Hanbyeokdang. Mangyeongdae is a famous place not only for a spot which commands a panoramic view of Jeonju but also for the site where Jeong Mongju, a faithful retainer of Goryeo Dynasty, composed a patriotic poem. However, another saseolsijo poem from Cheongguyeongeon(Jinbon) only describes in the excess of mirth a splendid banquet on Mangyeongdae, regardless of the image of loyalty that Mangyeongdae has. In his two sijo poems, Yi Sebo, a royal family member, designated Deokjinji rather than Hanbyeokdang and Mangyeongdae as a representative spot of Jeonju with the praise for its most fascinating scene in Korea. In fact, he enjoyed boating through Deokjinji covered with full-blown lotus flowers in a summer evening. The reason why Yi Sebo got so much fond of Deokjinji can be found in his diary in exile, Sindoilrok. Several sijo poems portray gisaeng maids from Jeonju. For example, in a sijo poem, An Minyeong heartedly missed Myeongwol who was once in love with him, and in another, he was deeply moved when he unexpectedly met his lover Yang Daeun again in Seoul. In this manner, gisaeng maids were one of the main features of Jeonju to a man of taste like An Minyeong.
  • 5.

    Misfortune, anguish, and immediate departure-based on <Hamyanggunhaksarugi> of Park Ji-won

    Sunhee Jeong | 2015, (94) | pp.123~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Haksaru was built in Hamyang, Gyeongbuk when Choi Chi-won of the Silla Dynasty worked as a governor there. ‘Haksa’ is the name of Choi Chi-won when he was in government service after returning to his country. <Hamyanggunhaksarugi> of Park Ji-won is a writing on a high structure that citizens in Hamyang call as ‘Haksa’. Choi Chi-won went to Tang Dynasty at the age of 12, and passed the state examination at the age of 18, and returned to the Silla Dynasty at the age of 28. Choi Chi-won lived alone in a foreign country during his childhood and adolescence, however he came back after his success. At that time, the Silla Dynasty had been perishing, and intellects were not appreciated when they returned after their success. The dynasty did not give an opportunity to them. Finally, Choi Chi-won works a variety of occupations for the local government. One day, he disappeared while going to Mount Gaya, and people believed that he became a ‘Shinsun’. However, Park Ji-won said that Choi Chi-won did not disappear suddenly and become a Shinsun. Park Ji-won thought that Choi Chi-won would ponder for a long time on the high structure constructed by him, and would spend a sleepless night deciding to go out into the world beyond his base. Furthermore, Citizens in Hamyang remember such Choi Chi-won, and called the high structure as ‘Haksaru’. The structure’s name is not ‘Munchanghu’ which is a name called after Choi Chi-won’s death and ‘Goun’ which is a name made by himself after deciding on his departure. Calling the high structure to ‘Haksa’ means that people remember Choi Chi-won who thought alone for a long time to decide to go out into the world. Park Ji-won interpreted about the name of ‘Haksaru’, and deeply understood sympathized with Choi Chi-won. According to the Park Ji-won, ‘Haksa’ exists anywhere at any time. Therefore, it means that Choi Chi-won is ‘Haksa’ a thousand years ago, Park Ji-won is ‘Haksa’ a thousand years later, and there is ‘Haksa’ everywhere.
  • 6.

    Developmental Acceptance and Task of Classical Literature Understanding in DPRK

    Choi, Hongwon | 2015, (94) | pp.143~170 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study begins from the view to criticize that so far our realization and attitude about literature in DPRK have been highly influenced by our prejudice due to resistance to the political system of DPRK or appropriateness of unification and we are not free from the external object of restoration of national homogeneity. I would like to look into the classical literature research in DPRK as one of the ways to make sure of varieties and creativity of classical literature research beyond clarifying the similarity or highlighting the difference between South and North. As for the phase of the literary perspective and use, they tend to emphasize the continuity of classical literature and modern literature, setting a limit on works which need to be critically succeeded to meet the demand of the day. Also, there seems to put stress on excellent national culture. From the viewpoint of readers and acceptance, it is likely to depict the contents minutely in order that readers can understand and share the works widely. For the dimension of materials and literary history, they seem to focus on works in Goguryeo such as <Yeonggoseok(詠孤石)>. Lastly, for the view of genre and transformation, they have a tendency to stress oral literature and pursue endless transformation. The ultimate meaning in relation with this study provides us with reflective chances to take a look at the classical literature from a new perspective beyond the level to analyze literature works of DPRK or compare them with those of South simply.
  • 7.

    A Case Study on a Discipline of Genealogy told by a Storyteller

    Hwang,In-Deok | 2015, (94) | pp.171~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A traditional storyteller in Korea has consistently interested me and this study, a case study, is a continuation of it. Roughly speaking, discipline of genealogy (譜學譚) can be defined as a story of genealogy. Also, storyteller of it is who has great interest in the story of genealogy and narrate at a professional level. ‘Genealogy’ can exist any place in the world; however, 'discipline of genealogy', a study of genealogy, exists only in Korea. Likewise, while the story of genealogy can exist any where in the world, the discipline of genealogy can be said to exist only in Korea. The story of genealogy is mostly limited to individual family's story of its ancestors. In contrast, the discipline of genealogy means a comprehensive knowledge of several families in Korea. As the term, genealogy, has come out of Korean culture, the term, storyteller of genealogy, has been derived from unique tradition of Korea, which might be possible due to tradition of Yangban culture for a long time. In specific, this study focuses on one case which can show the features of telling 'a discipline of genealogy' among other types of storytellers in Korea. Storyteller of this case study is Sangmuk Kim (1924~ ) whose uniqueness and aptitude were investigated on three perspectives. First, his family background and tradition-oriented background in his journey of life experience are discovered. Next, after considering his ability of telling as a storyteller and his way of making a discipline of genealogy telling a habit, the nature of topics and the way of telling are investigated. The last part of this study is devoted for the significance of Sangmuk Kim and his discipline of genealogy of the times. Regarding his family background and tradition-oriented background in his journey of life experience, three different perspectives are considered: formation of tradition-oriented consciousness and family background; his life course and confucian values-oriented view; and experiencing 'GuelSaRang Chamber' in his boyhood. In addition, regarding the nature of topics and the way of telling, two different views are used such as classification and types of topics; and features of telling topics. In conclusion, the culture of genealogy and storytellers of it turns to be possible only within Korean culture, whose tradition will not be likely to be continued and maintained anymore in the future.
  • 8.

    Study on Maternal Instinct -Focusing on 『Mother』 and 『The Soul of Innocence』 written by Yoon Heung-gil

    Kwark Yun-kyeong | 2015, (94) | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this study, all the novels of Yoon Heung-Gil, was classified by subjects of maternal instinct. This study discusses the world of maternal instinct in 『Mother』 and 『The Soul of Innocence』. Maternal instinct originates from women's physical conditions, that is, pregnancy, delivery and bringing-up. However, the prototype of maternal instinct shows itself not by delivery but by bringing-up as well. Women's pregnancy and delivery could be blessed within the system while otherwise getting poor treatment. The pressure of the community, a family ideology influences the process of the way maternal instinct is formed and negated. But maternal instinct is neither the innate value nor the indispensable value in women. Maternal instinct can be socially developed in the forms of social dedication, care and responsibilities.
  • 9.

    The Representation of Home in Lee Gyun-young's novels

    박장례 | 2015, (94) | pp.235~255 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is concerned on the representation of home in Lee Gyun-young's novels. Home in Lee Gyun-young's novels is represented in the form of the space that a family, a tradition, and a history is overlapped. Home in Lee's novels is the origin of a family and the space of a return. And home is represented for the ground that the tradition of region and the people's vitality is located. Also home is represented for a living foundation of people who fought to guard a humanity in rapid changes of modern history. Home is represented for where people keep as a secret and go pioneered a new life in the city in silence through the period of industrialization. Home in his novels is represented by father's world or the world of paternal tradition. Father's world in Lee's novels has portrayed the broken world. Father's world is often compromised due to the collapse of the rural in the industrial era, the political ambitions of the house is represented as frustrated as long decline since the once irradiate. Home in Lee's novels is represented as the living space of the traditional culture and language in Gwangyang. And home is represented as where life is filled with people who have committed to the growth in historical upheaval in the modern history. As the nomination of Gwangyang symbolizes, Lee Gyun-young's novel world was built as a passion for light. And Lee Gyun-young exposed the light of nature as a source of life, and the light of history that reflects a community.
  • 10.

    A study on the Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry in cognitive poetics

    Yang byungho | 2015, (94) | pp.257~280 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This thesis examines the cognitive system and imaginative structure of Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry by quoting the methodology of cognitive system. Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry reflects the period and the age, thus the Poet materialize the agony and frustration of the world and the future hope positively. The world that the Poet recognizes is not directly expressed but indirectly represented through the metaphors and symbols. Also the world of time and space has negative feature. However, Yi Yuk-Sa no more stay in the age of negative space time than expresses the desire to overcome. Likewise, the desire of the Poet crystallizes through the 'out-schema' and 'structural metaphor'. Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry takes some time for introspection but, the Poet searching by himself through tragic fate of his life, in other words, not the human being but the self of the period and the age. For Yi Yuksa, the self is agony and frustration result from the negative world. The Poet examines the self is wander and frustrate due to the world trouble, for example, Likewise, take time for introspection crystallize through the 'life is journey schema' and 'paths-schema'. Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry carries out both introspection of the world and him and the future. This future examines the positive and optimistic feature and this can be achieved in the positive cognition of space and time. In other words, Lee Yuk-Sa's poetry crystallizes that the present space time is negative, but the future space time will positive. This desire of a poetic narrator aroused followed by the 'in- schema' and cohere the cognitive signatures focusing on the narrator.
  • 11.

    Study on the meaning of time in Jeong, hanmo's poem

    Yang So Young | 2015, (94) | pp.281~303 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This research aimed at examining the meaning of time in Jeong, hanmo's poem. The existing researches on Jeong, hanmo's poem have understood the overall world of his poem as 'humanism' or concentrated on the baby in his poem or the analysis of the image related to the baby. This is the case which merely investigating Jeong, hanmo's poem world by limiting it. In his poem, various aspects of life were expressed with various images besides the image of a baby. However, meanwhile the researchers have not proceeded systematic and thoughtful discussion on this. In Jeong, hanmo's poem, the expressions of time appear frequently. In his poem, there are lots of expressions of time, e.g. "in the depth of the night where the darkness is piling up, in the arm of the night where the darkness is piling up"(「In the depth of the night where the darkness is piling up」), "Inside of the night which we lived today, which used be the darkness of you and me”(「Binghwa」), “In the dark night far from the starlight”(「With the wind」), in his early poem, “In the dawn when your voice wet in each layer”(「Waterway of the night」), “The dawn is a white wall today also”(「Gladiolus」) “Subdued silence becomes a warm temperature on this awakened dawn”(「Song of a stone」) in his medium-dated poem, “The snow piled up during the night covers the river of time. That side over the bridge of 60 years”(「four or five-year old child」), “In the time spent over the 60 years of the river of history flown windingly”(「Fields of hometown」) “In the middle of the open sea covered with the darkness over the 50 years”(「My solitude is」) in his late-dated poem, etc. This way, Jeong, hanmo's poem treated the part related to time importantly, there's no research on time until now, since the meanwhile researches have focused on the baby or the image analysis related to the baby. Time in Jeong, hanmo's poem can be considered by being connected with the process of self-recognition of the main agent, related to the clarification of self. This is meeting the inside of true self, which is the introspection within the existence. The night in Jeong, hanmo's early poem shows the state of solitude, however the poet makes the reader look back on the self through the night. The night functions for the poet as the medium between the main agent and the self-awareness. For him, the night makes more inner sense. In this inner secrecy, the poet introspect the existence. Here, furthermore, the time, 'the dawn', opened deeper sense of the poet in his medium-dated poems, 『Baby's room』 and 『The dawn』. As the result, this sense made the pot grow insight into the world and made open thought. Through the expression of “The dawn is open eye tomorrow also”(「Gladiolus」), the dawn makes open thought to cope with the pain of life by dissolving the poet's own lethargy. This enables one to overcome the negative reality and recover the positive self. In the medium-dated poem, the poet gets the open thought thanks to 'the dawn', and in his late-dated poem, this open thought is sublimated to reach the transcendent territory which has no division between the self and the world. This point appears in his poem as the reminiscence of hometown. In his late-dated poem, 『Baby's room messenger』 and 『Standing at the starting point』, the poet reminisces the past centered with the present through the expressions of “Now I return to the starting point. At the starting point to return after sixty years”(「Seojang」), “Hometown 50 years ago”(「Jeomgyeong」). This is to remember the pure time, the poet wants to maintain the identity of self by replaying the past in the present. This is to transcend the boundary of all territories, where the negative real world is overcome, and to establish a positive and volitional identity, rather by suggesting the real world as a new possibility.
  • 12.

    A study on the meaning of love reflected in Go Jung Hee's 『A Beautiful person』

    Lee Eun Young | 2015, (94) | pp.305~328 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Go Jung Hee started her literary career in 1970 and leaved 11 books of poetry until 1991. Recently, A variety of critical approaches have been tried for her poetry. While Go Jung Hee's poetry dominantly covers feminist approach, christian world-view, and discursion for poetic form, but there is also criticism for reality watching the pain of the people. Go Jung Hee's poetry has the love and tolerance for the weak. This paper studies 『The beautiful one person』. The poet names the poetry as the love poetry and highlights the nature of love poetry through remaking. The purpose of this work is to find the climax of poet's love from the last poetry revealing the honest inner feeling of the poet. Especially, we borrow Alain Badiou's discussion for love to understand the meaning of love for poet to tell. In her poetry, the speaker liken the feeling of love to the light and water, and shows the meaning of the only two in depth. Through the appearance that loving people look at each other and experience the world, poetry shows the love that becomes the center of the world. While these intense emotion brings the feelings of loss and sadness which is caused by the loss of love, but the speaker tries to achieve solidarity rather than retreat from love. The speaker make one to expect the value of love through the eye which is toward for the world and others at the peak of loss.
  • 13.

    Subject consciousness and Attitude of writer in 「Bihwamilgyo」

    Joomi Lee | 2015, (94) | pp.329~347 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The Watch Night event in 「Bihwamilgyo」 is to sublimate pathological psychology resulted from suppressive reality in the form of a ritual. This ‘cult’ has been maintained as the order different from the worldly order was formed spontaneously, and its concrete symbol is the ‘embers’. It is noteworthy that in this work, ‘flashlight’ is used as a subject matter that implies that consideration. It is because in the previous works, ‘flashlight’ symbolizes authoritative sight contrastively. The writer prospects the destiny of this cult pessimistically. He admits that all that is hidden takes the need to actualize itself and impulse and sees that it gets to take destructive aspects when the shade order goes into the realistic order. As it is implied in 『Your Heaven』, too, the ‘heaven’ can exist only when it is grounded on autonomous destiny, and this is because revealing a secret assumes collision with another community. The writer reveals the consciousness of his defeatism by showing that sir Jo’s mentalism anticipates defeat from the first place. What the writer pays attention to in this work is a novelist’s roles. Lee Cheong Jun already defined in his 「Let’s write an autobiography」 that ‘an autobiography is a story from the future though it is written in past tense’ and emphasized that the future should be the future for all. In 「Bihwamilgyo」, Lee Cheong Jun emphasizes sir Jo’s defeat is the mission of a novelist showing the tragedy of our time just as it is.
  • 14.

    The Study on CIS Korean Writer Park Mikhail's Novel

    Dukjoon Chung | kim german | 2015, (94) | pp.349~371 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Park Mikhail is not ex-Sakhalin writer and ex-Yeonhaeju writer, and so ex-North Korea writer. He was born Uzbekistan, and studied in Tadzhikistan, and then mostly worked in Kazakhstan, and now is around Russia. He thinks CIS Korean's matter integrated with Soviet regime's contradiction. And in the process he does not erase nationalty and does not hold in bondage, and he seeks rather prospect to overcome CIS Korean's matter and Soviet regime's contradiction through characters that strive high-artistic achievement. The works Sunflower Petal Flutter has two novels as Sunflower Petal Flutter and A pier of Angels. This two novels are very meaningful to writer. The former ferrets out the writer's identitat with reference to CIS Korean's history of migration, the latter is the novel that writer thinks most valuably. This two novels have all painter heros as writer's other self. Park Mikhail redintegrates CIS Korean's history of migration through the novel Sunflower Petal Flutter, and at the same time strives the writer's Identität(identity) as CIS Korean writer. In other words, he seeks prospect to overcome the hard lives of Joseon Persons of migration and for the moment unreasonable reality, and at the same time ferrets out the writer's Identität as CIS Korean. A pier of Angels embodies many contradictions that Joseon Persons of migration have been suffered under Soviet regime, and at the same time ferrets out the writer's Identität as CIS Korean. Especially A pier of Angels does not erase nationalty and does not hold in bondage, and it seeks rather prospect to overcome CIS Korean's matter and Soviet regime's contradiction through the artistic world that does not pander to the contradiction. Ultimately the writer counterbalances between nation and ex-nation. This is the writer Park Mikhail's prominent feature.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Memory in Hyun Ki-young's <Aunt Suni>

    Mounkwo Jeong | Lee, Hee Young | 2015, (94) | pp.373~394 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In this article, I examined how the transcription about memory was made based on Hyun Ki-young's <Aunt Suni>. The memory method used in the first chapter was the gesture aunt Suni who was a victim. Aunt Sun who was directly concerned in the incident was exposed like a sitting duck to the violence of memory that constantly came to her in its present form. Eventually, she had to remember, repeat and experience the incident ceaselessly in the form of nervous breakdown, mysophobia, auditory hallucinations that were the sign of her suffering carved in her body. That was the violence she had to undergo against her will. In other words, aunt Suni was the symbol of victims in 4.3 incident of Jeju-do who have still suffered from the memory about the incident in its present form. In the second chapter, I analyzed the transcription about how attacker's memory was made based on aunt Suni's husband. The attackers tried to evade and keep distance from the incident at first, however, when things were not going very smoothly they plotted a politics of oblivion using potent force. Accordingly, they justified their actions blaming the victims for the incident and attempted to rewrite history demanding they have to forget it and move on. In the last chapter, I analyzed the meaning messenger's memory can have. The messenger who belongs to the next generation of the incident is commissioned to played a major role to expose the delivered memory and demand the truth be told. According to these commitments, "I' who was the messenger in the novel exposed horrors 4.3 incident and narrated this personal memory should be shared to remember the truth. "I" also hoped the consolation to the victims and their reinstatement would be realized and expressed the will to overcome old wounds through sharing of memory. Analyzing the memory of three character layers like this, I can say that <Aunt Suni> is the work showing the sufferings of past violence did not end in the past constantly coming in its present form. That is, this work makes clear that 4.3 incident is not a closed case but a existing one.
  • 16.

    Study on smell image of 1990s poems

    Jeong Jin Kyung | 2015, (94) | pp.395~422 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Olfactory sense can be a code to diagnose not only an individual but also society and culture in Korean poem history responding to history and reality. Consciousness process of respective senses in physical phenomenology is similar but different mental characteristics are shown depending on which part of brain is stimulated by perceived sense. Generally, research from sensible viewpoint and research from olfactory viewpoint can sometimes be interpreted in common context between them but there is an aspect which can be explained from the olfactory viewpoint only. In this respect, smell image of 1990s poems was investigated by using physical perception theory and sociocultural smell theory, and the result shows following characteristics; Characteristic of olfactory sense in 1990's is as follows. First, it signifies criticism and response to civilized society of materialism as a 'fishy smell'. The 'fishy smell' used as poetic metaphor in a poem is mainly used to represent non-healthiness of cultivation. This seems that it signifies poets' crisis awareness of humanity being destroyed by cultivation in 1990' through olfactory sense, in other words, it seems to signify the essence of human existence introspecting the essence of biological existence through olfactory sense. Second, it signifies decadent phenomenon and nihility resulting from indiscreet consumption culture as 'pheromone scent'. 'Pheromone scent' in a poem is represented as a meaning of pleasure with non-life force. This seems that poets signify individual psychopathology, desire and deficiency mass-produced by cultural reality concentrated on commercialism in 90's through sense of smell. Third, poets signify their morality expression and reality purification awareness of materialistic reality in society and overall culture as 'smell of burning'. The 'smell of burning' in a poem is mainly used as meaning of purification. This seems that it is poets' olfactory morality and criticism instinctively ignited in social reality of distorted culture without ideology in 90's. As above, it seems that olfactory image in poems in 90's has many olfactory senses using symbolism and mental value of smell as poetic metaphor. The reason why olfactory senses related to degeneration were much expressed different from other ages is possibly because specific consciousness of spirit and material was not settled in society in 90's even though it got out of logic of group and spirit. We can say that it did not have crisis of life but it expressed mental decadence owing to culturism and capitalism through olfactory senses.