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2016, Vol., No.96

  • 1.

    A Study on Uses of the Colloquial Sentence Final Ending ‘-ta, -nta’ within Spoken Korean Language

    Ahn, Joo-Hoh | 2016, (96) | pp.7~31 | number of Cited : 2
    In order to evaluate the function of final endings within colloquial spoken language, this study analyzed 1,208,409 script lines from four recent major mainstream dramas. Previous studies claim '-ta, -nta' is predominantly used within literary styles, and used in relative and independent scenes within the colloquial language. This study examines the specific functions of '-ta, -nta' within colloquial spoken language. First, '-ta, -nta' is preferred in spoken language in the case of a male speaker, and it is commonly used when a teacher gives an imperative or proposition to a student. Second, it can be seen that '-ta, -nta' is used within the formal polite hashipshiyo-style, familiar polite haeyo-style or the familiar hae-style, in these circumstances '-ta, -nta' has the function of 'admiration, warning, imperative, volition and quotation'. Third, it expresses the manner of the speaker, and has the functions of relaying new information and making declarations. This study evaluates the functions of the sentence final ending '-ta, -nta' in spoken language, and in order to clarify the functional skills of sentence final endings in spoken language, the boundary tone of the sentence also needs to be taken into consideration. Although this study was not able to include this, it will become a future area of research.
  • 2.

    The Narrative Functions and Meanings of the Journey to the Venue of the Civil Service Examinations in Korean Folktales

    Gim Sun-jae | 2016, (96) | pp.33~52 | number of Cited : 4
    With Korean folktales incorporating the narreme(話素) where the male protagonist embarks on a trip to the venue of the civil service examinations (often Seoul, the capital) as the objects, the present study examines the narrative functions that such a journey performs as folktales develop and explores the meanings of the narreme of the travel to the location of the examinations that appears in folktales. In the developmental process of folktales, the journey to take the examinations has narrative functions. These functions can be classified into those of encounters, separations, ordeals, and dramatic changes in the characters. By enabling the hero to meet his beloved, the trip to the venue of the examinations as a function of encounters provides an impetus for folktales’ subsequent development. The travel to the location of the examinations as a function of separations causes, in the development of folktales, a misunderstanding between the romantic couple or a separation between the two figures due to interference by a third party. The journey to take the examinations as a function of ordeals subjects the male protagonist to trials by placing him in fatal crises in folktales’ development. The trip as a function of dramatic transformations elevates the hero’s social status in the development of folktales. In folktales, the narreme of the journey to take the examinations holds two meanings. The first meaning of the narreme is the fear of an unknown world. The narreme of such a trip in folktales represents the contemporary populace’s fear, in an era when material culture was less developed, of an unknown realm and an untrodden path that were difficult to predict. The second meaning of the narreme is the desire to be free from strict social institutions. In folktales, the narreme of the travel to the venue of the examinations reflects the desire to be liberated from strict social institutions by freely forging romantic relationships and transcending the class system in a society under the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), where Confucianism and a class system formed the foundation of the state.
  • 3.

    Mythical character of “Dohwanyeo Bihyeongrang” - review of historical interpretation

    김영호 | 2016, (96) | pp.53~81 | number of Cited : 0
    This article looks at the historical interpretation and the literary and mythological understanding of the narrative of ‘Dohwanyeo(桃花女) Bihyeongrang(鼻荊郞)’ then raised a number of issues. And, on the basis of these questions, discussed the factors to be considered in order to read this text. The first is that Dohwanyeo and Bihyeongrang has appeared as a magical symbol with a meaning of extermination the demons. These settings are closely related to the purpose of the ritual associated with the story itself. The second is the relationship Bihyeongrang and the demons that appear in the text. It is necessary to pay attention to differences rather than similarities. The intention of the narrative is directed to separate the inside and the outside. There is reflected also in the required stability in the reality of the subject that created text. The third is a sense of historical figures King Jinji(眞智王). It was selected as the figures for the text of the narrative meaning and purpose than the transmission of historical facts, this person is shaped into existence because the king is dethroned the sacred dead. This process has the intent and reason are the subject of a tradition than a political context and an important factor. Given the meaning of the text as a myth it can be interpreted as a problem and raised here should not be excluded from the understanding of the narrative elements.
  • 4.

    A study on aesthetic elements and literary meaning of narratives in Seongsanbeulgok

    Kim, Hyun-Hwa | 2016, (96) | pp.83~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Seongsanbeulgok is a work containing its poet's lifelong experiences that came upon him in intense manner. It sang the beautiful nature of Seongsan and an hermit's life among mountains were and further, it unfolded, in profound way, its author's belief, the most humane attributes like credibility, insight into the perfect order of the world, pain felt in life and etc. This thesis based upon the foregoing studies on <Seongsanbeulgok> have compact access to the aesthetic elements of its narratives to recompose its literary meaning. The narratives its poet paid attention to was the very emotional works carving out a universal, idealistic world that anyone may have dreamed of at least once. What especially caught the current researcher's eyes was that the process, where real life and idealistic life conflict each other gives us something to ponder upon beyond ages. The narrative aesthetics of this work is shown in the following two elements. First, it show comparison and harmony between movement and stillness. In a literary work, things and space are a never-to-miss-out subject, by focusing on which, we can peep into the inner world of a poet. For instance, let's take a look at the narrative on autumn using the calmest space as its subject. It rather makes the most of mobile expressions to dynamically revive seasonal atmosphere or an hermit's life in the mountain that may ooze out depression, brokenheartedness, being locked in and estrangement. Mobile expressions such as "a crescent moon looms", "I float on a boat in the current", "fussing sound of pipes played by cowboys", "the moon gracefully rises above pine trees," are compared with an atmosphere as in Gwanghanjeon on Manhakcheonbong, an imaginary world where a dragon meet with cranes and Taoist hermit's figures like Lee Taebaek diving in to catch the moon so that realness may be added as it one saw a panoramic view. Second, it has an intentional remoteness of space. To Songgang, Seongsan was not merely a place where he led a Taoist life but space of real life full of agonies and frictions. His intentional reference of himself as a guest was because he know the guest who was a passer-by and must pass away someday was himself. The spatial remoteness he intentionally composed maximizes remoteness between real world and idealistic world through the expressions of "Humans' six months is autumn's three months here", "autumn's boats as if they sat on Gwanghanjeon, having jumped over the Milky Way", "winter views as if they were like Gyeongyogul, Eunsegye" and etc. Real views of Seongsan maximizes remoteness between real world and idealistic world. This was thoroughly intended by him. It's an idealistic life that happened to be realized as Doyeonmyeong did but a guest can't be a host. Spatial remoteness expanded from the earthly globe unto a Taoist world was a result of composing his internal agonies and sadness as they were. The literary meaning of this thought's aesthetic elements is pretty metaphorical. What could have been the genuine state of Songgang "engulfing wine due to agonies in his heart"? He was so close to wine throughout his life that he was called a crazy guest or drunken guest. Even in his <Seongsanbeulgok>, he did not hide himself engulfing wine. Since he was put aside from the political circle when he wrote this poem, there must have been quite a remoteness between himself and the world. Engulfing wine was a means to fill up the remoteness, which we can understand as his candid, hard-hitting response to the world. Though he left the political circle because he got sick of it, he did not sever himself from a Confucian scholar's life. He was looking forward to re-entering the circle someday. <Seongsanbeulgok> is a work implicitly pleading the then king to call him up again to the political circle. For him to come back to the circle which he voluntarily left needed certain cause. For this reason, he took drinking all the time as a literary means of his on one hand and he composed a narrative poem showing how much agony he had for the politics and real world on the other. This paradoxical pleading shines in the aesthetics of his creating an intentional remoteness of space, comparing how things were and harmonizing them.
  • 5.

    Spatial aspect of <Simsaengjeon> and sense of the author

    Eunkyung Seo | 2016, (96) | pp.105~122 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper investigates the spatial property & sense of the author drawn in <Simsaengjeon>. <Simsaengjeon>is a tragic love story describing the process in which Simsaeng, a noble man parted a middle-class woman after meeting her. The story is divided into street space where they met, room space based on the woman's room where their love was consummated & space of temple after farewell. The street space, the first stage is the place where the protagonist Simsaeng met her in their fate. This is the space where the real amour of man & woman was manifested, excluding the confucian frame. Lee Ok, the author's desire for modernization is indicated here as the author detected birth of new sense of value. The space based on the woman's room as the 2nd space is described as conflict of status and deviation space on the premise of love. The shape of active woman expressed the resistance and challenging sense against hierarchical society. Casting question on irrational social system through conflict between 2 lovers & woman's behavior, Lee Ok expressed the recovery of ego and challenge against the old age. The space of temple, the 3rd space is the actual world experienced by Simsaeng. After he received the written will of the woman, however, this place is changed into challenging space toward new awakening and confucian order. This includes the author Lee Ok's message of challenge and hope toward accusation of the age and new age. Finally, the author Lee Ok's satire toward old order and intelligent through paradox flows under the delivery of perverted theme through the criticism of Maehwoesa. As stated above, <Simsaengjeon> describes the tragic love of man and woman in the continuance of street, room and temple space. Then, the base is penetrated by author's sense of self-awareness of the public in the late period of Joseon, the accusation of the contradictory society and resistance against feudal order.
  • 6.

    Rhetoric for careful concern and meaning in two text of Ouga

    HeeCheol Yang | 2016, (96) | pp.123~152 | number of Cited : 1
    This study interpreted the linked Si-Jo Ouga written by Yun Seon-do toward the center of rhetoric for careful concern and meaning and significance in two text. The result of this study is as follow ; 1. There are generalizing synecdoches that are able to help us understanding ungrammaticl syntax literally as grammaticl syntax metaphorically in the linked Si-Jo Ouga. 2. Those generalizing synecdoches are rhetoric for careful concern of poetic hearer's feeling 3. There are ellipsis, familiar speech and litotes that are rhetoric for careful concern of poetic speaker's modest attitude in the linked Si-Jo Ouga. 4. Those litotes are able to help us understanding why negative sentences are many in the linked Si-Jo Ouga. 5. In the sixth Si-Jo(or stanza), seeing the wrong men and no speaking is meaningful in Confucian society to pursuit men's moral way(人道) in the 27th chapter of Jungyong(中庸). 6. The praise to the five friend(that mean to like other) is the meaning of surface text in the linked Si-Jo Ouga. 7. The praise to the unyielding spirit of the five friend(that mean comrade) is the meaning of deep text in the linked Si-Jo Ouga. 8. Also, the unyielding spirit of the five friend(that mean comrade) is poetic speaker's the unyielding spirit, because poetic speaker and five friend are comrade.
  • 7.

    A study on literary features Of <SOSWAEWON 48 Verses> by Kim Inhu

    Okhee Lee | 2016, (96) | pp.153~177 | number of Cited : 2
    Kim Inhu tried to introspect and keep a noble spirit when looking nature and embodying his thinking in the poem. Kim Inhu tastefully refined new literary form called 48 verses that were created by Prince Anpyeong and made SOSWAEWON 48 verses on his own term. Kim Inhu implied the change of the universe and the sense of coexistence in the number of 48. The structure of <SOSWAEWON 48 Verses> is not clear. But first verse means the beginning and last verse means the end. Verses from 1 to 35 are composed by the space and verses from 36 to 48 are composed by the time. <SOSWAEWON 48 Verses> is the work in which Kim Inhu exhibit his writing skills most satisfactorily. The sensibility of the poet appear even when he thought its title. Also, emotion and landscape form a natural harmony. This indicates a novel metaphor.(ex. comparing valley water to silk, waterwheel to loom weaving silk). Having a good command of the contrast between visual elements and auditory elements contrast, the top and bottom, hot and cold, emotion and activity, nature and artificiality, a color and other color and linguistic contrast, this also completed the excellent literary rhetoric. <SOSWAEWON 48 Verses> not only effectively clarified the meaning of Yang Sanbo who constructed SOSWAEWON but also artistically expressed beautiful landscape of SOSWAEWON with individual literary style.
  • 8.

    A study on Jeju April 3rd tragic incident in North Korean contemporery(1948-1950) poetry

    Park, Tae-il | 2016, (96) | pp.179~216 | number of Cited : 2
    Jeju April 3rd tragic incident that happened at Jeju Island in 1948 is a tragedy continued over 7 years. This writing aims to investigate the characteristics of 8 poems(including 2 different version) of Jeju April 3rd tragic inciden. First, Park Se Young’ 「Jeju Island」 and An Yong Man’s 「Camellia Postage stamps」 are the works published in 1948. They are characterized by realistic expression. From the early stage, Jeju April 3rd tragic incident was the peolple’s struggle against American imperialism, single handed election and single government Second, Park San Un’s 「A Song」 and Kim Dong Ik’s 「Jeju Island」 were published in 1949. They are formulaic in an aspect of the content. Park San Un’ work is standardized by temporal structure while Kim Dong Ik’s works is standardized by defining spatial meaning. Third, Cho Byuck Am’s 「Fighting Jeju Island」 and Baek Tae San’s 「 Struggling Islande」 are the works published in 1950. They are characterized by three part reiteration and foregrounding of abstract political declaration. The poems of 1948 show the effort for formalization, while poems of 1949 show abstract formalization. Political ideology is represented in the works of 1950. They have multiple subject and three part reiteration structure. As a conclusion, Jeju April 3rd tragic incident is rooted in Kim Il Seung’s anti-Japan struggle and the core of it is political realization as a catalyst for armed struggle on South Korea. Studies including other genre of literature and argument of fact such as a newspaper article should be conducted. Compare and contrast on Jeju April 3rd tragic incident arguments based on such researches are also required.
  • 9.

    A case study of “step-by-step writing lessons” for korean learner

    YOUNGJO LEE | 2016, (96) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this research is to improve writing ability for korean learner. To validate the effect of step-by-step writing lessons, it applied to real case. The data used in this study was collected from 'Korean writing 1' course, which is course of the liberal arts in university. This research started from investigation of awareness on writing and examined the process writing of students. Lastly we analyzed the final output submitted by students to validate this research. The advantage of the process of writing class we propose lies in its ability to induce the learner’s internal motivation and to encourage their spontaneous participation. In addition, it reduces the burden of writing due to the continuous cooperation and feedback between learner and teacher. The contributions of this research is two-fold. first, we add the step of 'warming-up step before writing' to general writing process and redefined the previous 'pre-writing step' as 'pre-writing step before writing the body text '. Second, we focused on the writing instruction rather than integrated process expending into other functions. Research was conducted based on the real class and compared the works done by who have not experienced writing education with the writing done after writing education. As a result, the overall performance is improved such as objective subject and well-constructed sentences. learners show higher satisfaction in learning. They state that they can know more vocabularies before they start writing because of the Step–by-step Writing Education. In addition, one other significant satisfactory point is that learners can receive feedbacks from company and instructor more frequently.
  • 10.

    A Study on Educational Content for Academic Presentations in Korean - In Comparison with Content for Native Korean Undergraduate -

    CHAE SOOK HEE | 2016, (96) | pp.243~272 | number of Cited : 6
    This study examines present educational content for academic presentations by analyzing Korean speaking textbooks for academic purposes in comparison with textbooks on speeches and debates for native Korean undergraduates. The textbooks are analyzed in aspects of syllabi and unit structure, learning contents and activities, and evaluation and feedback. The results show that most Korean speaking textbooks for academic purposes do not offer contents for understanding notion, types, and elements of academic presentation. In aspects of topics, they lack topics on education, ethics and philosophy, and personal concerns. As for learning activities, they prefer activities carried out by using given data to activities asking learners to create contents of presentations by themselves. Evaluation and feedback of them emphasize the structure of presentations and neglect creativity of presentation themes. The educational implication of these results are more contents for understanding presentation, more topics on education, ethics and philosophy, more chances to practice the whole process of presentations, and inclusion of creativity of presentation themes as a prime criteria to evaluate presentations.