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2016, Vol., No.97

  • 1.

    Abbreviation of Korean language and variation aspect

    Gang, Yeon Im | 2016, (97) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis is studied about formation aspects and influence of abbreviation in modern languages. And it is searched improvement method from an educational standpoint. If time and generation were changed, language culture was changed naturally. And new words are reflected Sensitively language culture. New words are blending and acronym in modern languages, and these are so frequent. So analysis of blending and acronym is neared by ordinary languages. A summary of this research as follows. First, new words by abbreviation are divided into blending and acronym. The blending are native blending, loanword blending and hybrid blending. The acronym are native acronym, loanword acronym and hybrid acronym. The blending has a great ripple effect according to flow in foreign language. The acronym can infer meaning how to know context. Second, new words’s problem by abbreviation is as in the following. First category of word formation is so ambiguous. A combination of apocryphal word and Hybrid–blending word, Hybrid–acronym make so ambiguous to treat its category. Second, it makes problem of vocabulary selection to write a sentence. It takes no notice of grammatical response, postposition usage, honorific speech, using the standard language, Abuse of the slang etc. So there makes a lot of ill-formed sentence. Third, It brings about the imbalance in the communication. Blending and acronym by abbreviation can understand to know utterance context or utterance information. If someone has no information about this, he can not accept with its meaning. Therefore It is a major stumbling block of communication. So making of new words and its improvement method are needed to come close in the view of educational standpoint. First of all, for a minimal filtering of smooth communication, it is ensured internal stability of grammar education. A good method of making word is studied for smooth communication.
  • 2.

    Three analysis in Hunminjeongeum Haireibon

    섭보매 | 2016, (97) | pp.33~66 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, we analyze the deep meaning of ‘喉舌爲主', '淸濁' and '闔闢' term, the four tones in Hunminjeongeum Haireibon from I-Ching and phonetical view. As we all known that throat(喉) and tone(舌) are the most important articulator, not only because they are applicable to water(水) and fire(火) of the five elements, but only because they are also important than tooth and lip as phonetics articulator. In Hunminjeongeum the meaning of Chinese character '喉' includes the epiglottis(會厭) deeply. '淸濁' and '闔闢' can be used as I-Ching and phonetical term. Considering the effectiveness and briefness of depiction in Hunminjeongeum, the '闔闢' of hangeul consonants was skipped by Haireibon compiler. To the four tones of Hangeul, phonetics nature and I-Ching nature are two sides of the same coin. The four tones was assigned at the four seasons. It referred to harmony principle of spirit(氣) in Taijitushuo(太極圖說). The examples of four tones, ‘弓, 石, 刀' symbolize the military service examination,(武 科) '筆’ symbolize Civil Service Examination(文科). Hunminjeongeum was made for subjects whoever want take the state examination.
  • 3.

    A study on the historical change of ‘sip-’ Sentence Structure appeared in Hangeul letters in the Joseon Period

    Shin Seongcheol | 2016, (97) | pp.67~108 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examined the social character of the senders involved in the historical changes of ‘sip-’, exploring the morphological and syntactic changes of ‘sip-’ sentence structure appeared in Hangeul letters in the Joseon period. The ‘sikbeu-’ in the literature data of the 15th century corresponds to ‘sip-’ in the modern Korean. The possibility of ‘sikbeu-’ in the 15th century was raised based on the results of analyzing the characteristics of the senders of Hanguel letter contained ‘sikbeu-’ in the Joseon period. In other words, ‘sikbeu-∽sibeu-’ tended to be used together in Medieval Korean Language, which continued until the 17th century. Though ‘sipeu-’ appeared in the some Hangeul letters of the 17th century in Joseon period, the analysis of the characteristics of the senders showed that it was used even in the 16th century. The ‘sikbeu-∽sibeu-’ were used together in the 15th century and the ‘sikbeu-∽sibeu-∽sipeu-’ were used together in the 16th century. And the mixed usage can not be described in the sequential and historical changes, as in ‘sikbeu- > sibeu- > sipeu' but described as a product of language contact among the social groups preferring each different form. Regarding the syntactic changes of ‘sip-’ sentence structure, the following three types among the integration forms of the controversial ‘sip-’ sentence structure were examined. Firstly, the occurrence process of ‘-gojyeo sibeu-’ and ‘-go sibeu-’. Secondly, the period and occurrence process of ‘-myeon sibeu-’. Thirdly, the period and occurrence process of ‘-r(n) deus sibeu-’. The ‘-gojyeo sibeu-’ was changed into ‘-go sibeu-’, which traced back to the 17th century. And ‘-myeon sibeu-’ was not related to ‘-gwadyeo sibeu-', which was widely used in the 19th century. The integration form of ‘-r(n) deut sibeu-’ emerged in the 17th century and ‘r(n)’ of the interrogative concluding ending is understood to emerge in order to supplement ‘-r(n)ga, -r(n)go'
  • 4.

    A Study on Jamgok Kim Yuk’s elegy

    HaYun Kim | 2016, (97) | pp.109~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Joseon’s representative reformer Jamgok Kim Yuk who only suggested economy activation policy for people. This policy for people became the reason of in the late Joseon period’s Silhak. Japgoak Mansi’s characteristics for remembrance of the deadman is like this. First of all, it hopes to go to the transcendental world by reconfiguration the memory. Jamgok made 28 short poems for the deadmen. The fives are for women, also fives are do not know the exact time of creation. Jamgok usually remember from royal family to administer of the region, none of them is for his family. Jamgok made his poems for his will, not for the request of others. Therefore, he left few poems compare to other poets at that time. Second of all, he expresses his sorrow calmly. Instead of express one’s sorrow directly, refraining is more effective way. It is because indirect expressing emotions is better than direct expressing emotions.
  • 5.

    A Lack of Ethics Shown in the Onggogipjeon and Solutions to Overcome

    Shin hyo kyung | 2016, (97) | pp.131~155 | number of Cited : 0
    Economic development in the late Joseon Dynasty served as a stepping stone for moving from the Middle Ages to modern times along with the growing commoners consciousness. But what lay behind the scene was inappropriate conducts of the class that chased after economic interests only, just ignoring the traditional ethics. Accordingly, this study was committed to reviewing a lack of ethics shown in the Onggogipjeon as well as its solutions, which was followed by a study on the meaning of it with respect to the history of literature. First of all, in the late Joseon Dynasty, the low classes with wealth amassed in the fields of agriculture and commerce jumped up to the low-ranking yangban class by means of the policies so called Napsok, Wonnap, etc. As illegalities and corruption grew rampant in the process, the subjugated class came to express complaints about the ruling class and foster self-consciousness. Such consciousness boiled down to a work like Onggogipjeon. Onggogipjeon is a work describing the aspect of collision between the ideology of Neo-Confucianism and economic interests. In the process of colliding, the low classes strengthened critical consciousness and fostered self-consciousness, in which a sign of modern consciousness can be glanced. Secondly, with the rise of the bourgeoisie in the late Joseon Dynasty, it happened that people, just like Onggojip, obsessed by wealth, denied traditional ethics and communal culture. As the lack of ethics was deepening, the awareness to correct and discipline about it became intensified. The selected way of making correction was to live a switched life. The low classes, through the reversed life, dragged a group of wealthy people down to proper recognition of the reality. This was a reflection of hope for bringing a desirable society by ethically rearming the wealthy. Third, the limitation of ethical discourse and the significance with respect to the history of literature were taken into account. In Onggogipjeon, the disciplining method of Onggojip was not realistic, and in the end the existing system was followed. This aspect can be pointed out as a limitation making it unable to get away from the past while chasing after the modern times. However, it is worthwhile to acknowledge that this work represented the transition period in the history of literature as it well grasped an aspect around the contact point between the Middle Ages and modern times.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Modifications to the Biography of Nogye(노계) Park In-Ro(박인로)

    Jong-Mun Lee | 2016, (97) | pp.157~184 | number of Cited : 3
    The first record of the life of Nogye Park In-ro was made by Jeong Gyu-yang(정규양) in 1704, and the text is also found in the manuscript and woodblock versions of Nogyejip(노계집). A comparison of the three texts, however, unexpectedly reveals small and big differences at 85 places. Some of them derive from the correction of Jeong's errors in the manuscript or woodblock version, and others are due to the errors made in the publication process of manuscript or woodblock version based on Jeong's text. Those errors were not intended, but there were as many as 13 intentional modifications of Jeong's text in the publication process of manuscript or woodblock version. There were very diverse reasons for those modifications, but they were usually made to sublimate Nogye as a holier figure or more thorough Confucian scholar and take the positions of his family into consideration. The parts depicting his literature intensively, in particular, show a serious degree of modifications including the rearrangement of sentence orders and the skillful distortion of content. Those modifications were also part of the intentional groundwork to highlight the Confucian utility of his poetry and prose and his aspects as a member of solemn nobility. There is no need to say, however, that those modifications ended up distorting the overall image of his literature considerably and presenting it even farther from its actual truth. When those findings were put together, Nogyebakgongyusa(노계박공유사) is undoubtedly the legitimate sample of the three texts on his life, which means that the practice should now stop which has discussed his life based on his acts described in the woodblock version. Nogyebakgongyusa also contains some errors regarding factual relations, though. The investigator thus attached the original version with the errors corrected to the appendix.
  • 7.

    Study on the tragedy in Sung - Han Kim’s short stories: focused on the stories in the 1950s

    PARK, HAE-RANG | 2016, (97) | pp.185~217 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims at inquiring the tragedy in Sung-Han Kim’s short stories. The major emotion in his 1950’s novel is tragedy. I explore the tragic reality suffered by main characters in the stories and the courses to overcome it, and then give great significance in understanding the true meaning which the writer tried to tell in his stories. The individual life was skewed, and the relationship between the individual and society was disharmonious in Korea in the 1950s. Sung-Han Kim was one among the writers who had a strong sense of social awareness. He wanted to make new ethical and social values which would be different from other writers. He tried to disclose and criticize the absurd reality and corrupted human beings at that time, and then correct and improve them. Despite the various descriptions and creative organization of content, Kim’s stories have been underestimated because they were thought not to propose a proper alternative to gloomy postwar period. I studied the main characters’ tragic situations and world view, and then analyzed the courses of their overcoming them. As a result, I look forward to contributing to promote the value of Kim’s stories. Sung-Han Kim expresses and criticizes the crisis of Korea’s postwar society as a tragic reality where god is incapable in “Oboongan” and “Gaeguri.” In “Geukhan” Dastuko, who has lived a life denying her existence, feels pity for herself and recognizes her existence. She distrusts human beings and curses the world by killing Chinese who tried to rape her, and then stands against the tragic reality. In “Guihwan” Gyeong-Seok Kim dies form a bullet wound, but Hye-Ran, his wife, never submits to the tragic reality, such as hunger and contempt, and goes to see her husband with a strong will to resolve her deep sorrow. Babido, sewing factory worker, is represented as conscientious man of the period who stands against the corrupted religious circles and carries through his convictions in “Babido.” He chooses death to win true freedom. His death is the beginning of a new life. The death which main characters in Kim’s stories meet is not the end but the new start as well as an another world, that is, the way to God’s realm. It is the willingness to overcome a tragic world what Kim tries to express. All five novels deny God’s realmbut tell the tragic world view of humans who would know that there is no other world to live a new life denying God. Humans do not yield to and hesitate over the realty, and live a life against a tragic reality. This is the tragic human who live in a tragic world and everyone’s life. Sung-Han Kim puts a catastrophe to tragic reality which main characters suffer from in his stories, but he does not wish them to stay in the world. He wants them to struggle against the tragic reality. The death that the characters choose is the expression of true will against the tragic world. I hope this study to pave the way for enhancing the value of his stories by exploring the tragic world view and will to overcome the tragic reality in Kim’s short stories.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Material Image and Imagination of the Jo-Un’s Sijo

    Yeom Chang Gwon | 2016, (97) | pp.219~249 | number of Cited : 2
    The material imagery leads to questions about the origin of life beyond archetypes and universality of the literature. The material Imagery and Meaning in the Jo-Un‘s Sijo are as followed: The work appearing ‘fire image’ primarily has the subject matters of the flowers and plants. The imagery of the flowers is the world of the passivity without any speech. Flowers blooming as a body is a self-expression of the will. The indirect speech through the metaphorical equivalent raises the level of the Sijo's metaphor. It works corresponding to the type of portulaca) , old plum , plantain , pomegranate etc. In the work showing 'air image’, ‘Lighter air image' reveals the directivity of the poet acting without hesitation. It works corresponding to the type of Hwang-Jini , × month × day, pure , Bulgap-temple, Ilgwang-dang , cool evening etc. ‘Water Image’ in Kuryong fall shows the praise to the actual limit and the transcendental self-will. It works corresponding to the type of white snow and clear sky , Kuryong fall . The work showing ‘soil image’ does not show the pursuit of the shelter or relaxation place. This represents the volitional life attitude and appearance of the reality-oriented life. It works corresponding to the type of to my friend came the rain , rain of autumn , look around the road again , Golden one million yirang field etc.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Real appeared in the movie Woman on the Beach '해변의 여인' by Sang Soo, Hong

    이상우 | 2016, (97) | pp.251~272 | number of Cited : 2
    Human subjects create culture and civilization through forming relationships between themselves and others. The center of daily life created by Sangsoo, Hong is made by human being. Movements of human generate incidents, and they become culture. Characters in Women on the beach visualizes contemporary culture (modern culture) exposed by psychopathological daily life. Though their psychological problems do not create social problems in everyday life, but appear as wounds in each character's consciousness. Daily lives leave many traumas to humans, and people have their own ways to treat them. His movie is based on his philosophy that people’s mental traumas can only be healed by other humans. Humans endlessly hurt others and are hurt by other people. Women on the beach shows the intention of healing the hurt individuals, caused by another relationship. Chungrae, the character restores his psychological wounds through the relationship with Moonsuk. Sunhee is a character that blames on her mother of her difficult life. She thinks that her mother ruined everything from her. Characters are normal humans that suffer from the wounds from the relations. Sangsoo, Hong, therefore, shows his reaseoning that even though there are other ways to cure people's psychological problems and wounds, but the wounds hurt by other people should be remedied by humans.
  • 10.

    A study on method of literature class centre of the Reader's Interaction by the strategic question

    김미선 | 2016, (97) | pp.273~299 | number of Cited : 1
    Reader's reading and interpreting the literature is process of thinking structurally twisted by complicated various factors. The process of thinking is newly reconstructing out the meaning of literary text in level of readers. Depending on how the process of communication with a literary text of the Reader progressed, Readers can reach the object of the literature to understand human life overall. This study conducted for the thinking that The learner who focus on the Interaction and question of the readers can make literature class actively and improve Literary ability. Therefore by improving the text-centered literature class system now and turning to the class for interaction by the debate with changing teacher-centered question to the student-centered question. the reader can learn actively in literature class. After reading the text, this literature class' point is in the debate of communities about reader's response This study based on reader-centered literature education theory about Reader's response, Dialogism, Social constructivism and Strategic questions. By using the study on the method of literature class centered of the reader's Interaction for Designing and class, Developing instructional model, Application to actual class, First the readers can reassemble the meaning of the literary texts themselves. Second, Readers can understand collectively the human life shown in literature. Third, literature can improve reader's ability that can improve their lives so that Readers can to be close the objectives of the aim of education literature. In closing, by continuing the activity for a literature class research, literature education class is to be testing ground for the application of how good class should be.
  • 11.

    The Development of Narrative Skills in Korean as a Second Language

    LeeJeehae | 2016, (97) | pp.301~337 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper presents the acquisition process in L2 Korean learners with regards to narrative skills. Data from 55 adult Korean learners acquiring Korean as their second language (L2) were used to investigate their narrative structures and interlanguage. Narratives were elicited through a film retelling task, usingAlone and Hungry segment fromModern Times and the data was analyzed with Stein & Glenn(1979)’s Story Grammar and Mean length of Utterance. The results showed adult leaners' narrative skills are mostly in the process of development along with their Korean language skills. However, the results also show adult learners construct a fine narrative structure even with their insufficient Korean language skills with the help of narrative universality. Furthermore, learners' interlanguage shows they use more words, morphemes, and cohesive devices as their Korean language skills developed. Based on the results of this study, empirical implications for the improvement of L2 narrative skills are discussed.