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2016, Vol., No.99

  • 1.

    The Realization of Korean Adverbials - Focusing on ‘adjectival stem+ke’ and ‘adjectival root+i’ -

    BAK, JAEHEE | 2016, (99) | pp.7~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    There are two types of adverbial expressions derived from adjectival roots in Korean such as (i)the wordform that an adjective stem affixed by the inflectional morpheme ‘ke’ and (ii)the wordform that an adjective root affixed by the derivational morpheme ‘i/ hi’. This paper discussed the discrepancy of these two types of adverbials and the realization of them in the sentence. Comparing with other types of adverbials, these two types of adverbials show the general characteristics of adverbials in Korean. They are related to the meaning of verbs and modifies the meaning of verbs. However, these type of adverbials haver the different characteristics that cannot find in other types of adverbials. They can be read as the predicate in a clause. In addition, the sentences with these types of adverbials are ambiguous. Based on these distinctive characteristics, this study suggested that these types of adverbials can modify various “semantic units” (proposition, eventuality, and lexeme) rather than “syntactic units”(sentence, verb phrase, and verb). As a result, the sentences with these types of adverbials may be interpreted variously depending on the modifying semantic unit. In addition, the discrepancy between the ‘adjectival stem+ke’ adverbial expression and the ‘adjectival root+i’ adverbial expression was found in the discrepancy of their favorite modified units.
  • 2.

    Traces of the Gobayashi Hideo in Korean Linguistics

    Seo, Min-jeong | 2016, (99) | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studied how Gobayashi Hideo have influenced Korean linguistics, and how Saussure linguistics introduced through him was used at the beginning of the introduction. Gobayashi Hideo(小林英夫, 1903~1978) translated Cours de linguistique générale(Ferdinand de Saussure, 1916) into言語學原論(岡書院, 1928). And he introduced Western linguistics theory to Lee Soongnyung, Lee HuiSung, Korean liguistists. Gobayashi's theory has had a direct impact on setting the direction of the study of Lee Soongnyung. And in the writings of Lee Heeseung, I could confirm the traces of Kobayashi's theory. The influence of Kobayashi on Korean language is that the translation of Saussure linguistics is widespread over a long period of time and his translations such as " You can check. In the middle of the 20th century, which was hard to study in 'science', Lee, Soongnyung,, and Lee, Heeseung pursued 'scientific' research as a concept distinguished from 'scientific' research claimed in language ethnic studies such as Choi Hyunbae and Kim Yoonkeong. We can confirm that we have utilized linguistics actively. These considerations are based on what kind of legitimacy is the keyword of 'understanding of the language (internal) system' and 'study of scientific language' pursued in the Korean language, and the basic work to examine whysuch a concept is at the center of Korean language . Therefore, a thorough review of many of the Hideyoshi Kobayashi 's bosses and their evaluation in Japan is left to the remaining questions. I hope that the present situation of Korean language will be clarified when the acceptance aspect of Hideo Kobayashi's Korean language and the acceptance aspect of Saussure linguistics are clearly revealed.
  • 3.

    A study on Korean history of 'n' insertion

    Yunja Jeong | 2016, (99) | pp.59~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper is aimed at considering the 'n'(ㄴ) insertion in Korean history, which is being used in modern national language. Though there have been a lot of research on the 'n'(ㄴ) insertion from the early years with various views, so far, the substantive study on Korean history to figure it out has not been found. Referring to the 'n'(ㄴ) insertion of modern national language, these words '첫여름, 홑이불, 나뭇잎, 옛일‘ as marked in general are historically intended as examples. In the 15th century, the each form of these words, ‘첫여름, 홑이불, 나뭇잎, 옛일’, was marked as '녀름, 니블, 닢, 일‘ respectively, which likewise, lasted over the 17th century. In the 18th century, there existed two forms of each word as ’녀름/여름, 니블/이블, 닢/잎, 일‘, which were used until the 19th century. The compounds of these words (including derivative) in modern national language are '첫여름, 홑이불, 나뭇잎, 옛일‘. However, in the 15th century, the each form of these words was '(x), 홋니블, 나못닢, 녯일’ (cf. The compound of ’여름‘ was not verified and ‘녯, 옛’ of '녯일‘ will be mentioned in the text.) and they showed until the 17th century. In the 18th century, the each form of these words was '첫녀름/쳣여, 홋니블, 나못닢, 녯일(옛일)/옛닐‘ respectively and was changed to '쳣여럼 , 홋니블/홋이블, 나못닢, 녯일(옛일)/옛닐(녯닐)' in the 19th century. In modern national language, they are '여름, 이불, 잎, 일‘ that omit the letter 'n''. Considering the examples above, the 'n' before the 'i or j' of an initial sound was omitted a little ahead of the 18th century. Seeing these examples, the 'n' insertion is presumed to be shown in the 18th century. The basic environment of the 'n' insertion is that the first syllable of the following letter begins with 'i or j' on the boundary of the morpheme in compounds.
  • 4.

    The character type of Anssimangin and inserted story appeard in <Shimcheongjeon>

    Kyung, Il-Nam | 2016, (99) | pp.83~104 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study examined the character type of Anssimangin and inserted story appeard in <Shimcheongjeon>. Anssimangin appears as three types of a person in <Shimcheongjeon> fortune teller, a maiden and widow grandma, depends on which different version is. Depending upon these differences of character forms, the feature of Anssimangin's inserted story shows clear distinction. The characteristic of the inserted story that Anssimangin appears as a fortune teller is fortunetelling oriented. This story develops its contents based on dreamreading realization through her fortunetelling. Contrarily, the feature of maiden type story is wedding oriented. It characterized the fact Anssimangin and Shimbongsa's meeting was made by wedding procedure. The traits of widow grandma's story is desire oriented. It features personal desire realization heavily and its contents is pretty conventional.
  • 5.

    A study on new Gasa works with reference to Kimhae Hur’s <Mangwunga> and Hyeonpung Kwak’s <Bugyeo>

    Gu Sawhae | Jae-Yeon Park | 2016, (99) | pp.105~126 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This article aims to introduce new Gasa works <Mangwunga> and <Bugyeo>. These Gasa works are Gyubang Gasa in Hapcheon and Goryeong area and the medium scale Gasa. <Mangwunga> belongs to Gyubang Gasa in which a female narrator misses her mother who gave birth and raised the narrator and lamented her destiny. To the contrary, <Bugyeo> is a kind of didactic Gyubang Gasa in which the narrator reminded the morality and duty of husband and wife to her marrying children. <Mangwunga> was composed by Mrs. Heo, who was the youngest sister of Husan Heo Yoo, a Confucian scholar in the later Joseon period. <Bugyeo> was written by Hyeonpung Kwak, who was wife of Heo Gyu, the second son of Heo Yoo. In terms of period of composition, it was estimated that <Mangwunga> was written in 1889 and <Bugyeo> in 1914. Though most Gyubang Gasa works were anonymous in the writers, these two works have clear identification of their writers. The following conclusions were drawn to the work. <Mangwunga> is one of Gyubang Gasa in the form of lamentation which was popular in late Joseon, but it was extremely wellmade and the identity of writer was known. To the contrary, <Bugyeo> is incomplete work. It may assume that the writer stopped in the course of writing, or some of the writings were missing in the course of transcription though it was complete work. However, it was noteworthy that the writer of <Bugyeo> was woman, but the narrator in the work was man, who seemed to be father.
  • 6.

    Ways of Raising Opinion and World View of Right Obligations of a Wise Man in 'Wonga'

    Kim, Hyun-Hwa | 2016, (99) | pp.127~152 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper reviewed ways to raise opinion for appointment to and withdrawal from position in five paragraphs classified. It was reviewed that in the ways of newlyappointed servant (a wise man)'s raising opinion to the Monarch, the view point of the servant advising virtues of a wise man was in touch with Confucian consciousness, a wise man must follow rationals of nature. In the episode that deals with the period of a wise man and the bureaucratic period for Shinchung, the consciousness of raising wise opinion to the monarch was revealed when Shin chung was in agreement with the monarch only by the "pine tree event" without any help from any parties or outstanding persons. In the paragraphs on his life as a monk after the refuge, he seemed to have retired to Buddhist temple. However, caring mind of Shin chung who kept on opening door to advise to the monarch at palace could be found. In the paragraph that deals with 'Shin Chung Bong Sung Sa', he emphasizes the obligations and virtues of the monarch who must be spread throughout the real and ghost worlds. In the paragraph that deals with Lee Sun in 'Go Seung Jeon', Shin Chung was concerned in raising opinion related to political philosophy in the era of establishing Dan Sok Sa by Shin Chung in terms of its point, establishing temples built by a retired bureaucrat. In the last praising poem part, the ceremony is held to raise the premiere wise man's figure, leaving to mountains beyond achievements or fame. 'Wonga' realizes world view of a wise man's guidelines based on consciousnessguidelines is based on Confucian poetry. It formed and developed supernatural virtues and virtues about every issues. The former shows the ascendance to a wise man's state by understanding excellent virtues. The latter forms a wise man's guideline through comparison between human being and nature and harmony. From world view of a wise man's guidelines which connects human issues to natural principles and supports the world in addition to recognize individual consciousness and expand to universal virtues, virtues for every issues about human and nature, past and present, heaven and ground, intermittence and eternity, the center and the edge, substance and shadow, movement and stop, etc. are ubiquitous. The attractive characteristics of 'Wonga' lie in the realization of idealistic political philosophy and universal selfrealization created by pushing and pulling between the poetic speaker and the monarch. It is hoped that the argument in this paper, approaching the world view following Confucian right obligations of a wise man will be able to add more depth for the new literary value of 'Wonga'.
  • 7.

    British Diplomat in Korea, James Scott’s Theory of ‘the Origin of Hunminjeongeum( 訓民正音) and Manyeonsabon Jineonjip(萬淵寺本 眞言集)

    Lee Sang-Hyun | 2016, (99) | pp.153~186 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigates ‘the origin of Hunminjeongeum( 訓民正音)’ claimed by James Scott and his theory about the Cultural Ecologies of Korean Language and Classics in 19th century. Especially, this study is intended to examine the process and context that Scott learns about Buddhist civilization in Korea and the linguistic knowledge of Buddhist intellects in Korea through ‘Manyeonsabon Jineonjip’(萬淵寺本眞言集). The articles and materials in The Korean Repository(1892) reveal the fact that the Korean Protestant missionary group, too, did share the historical records on the Korean Alphabet and Hangeul(한글) materials from Buddhist temples. Scott, however, conducted precise research on ‘Manyeonsabon Jineonjip’ and gained differentiated result from that of the Korean Protestant missionaries. First, he did infer the lost letters of Hunminjeongum(訓民正音) and their phonetic value which were not commonly used then. Second, he realized the system chart about Hangeul consonants close to the Yeui Part(例義篇) of Hunminjeongum. Third, he examined the word forms of Korean Siddhamatika(悉 曇文字) to see how they are related with Hangeul. Lastly, he was able to conceive a structure to examine the history of Korean letters.
  • 8.

    The Time and the View of History in the Television Genre Drama <Signal>

    Seonhee Ko | 2016, (99) | pp.187~209 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study analyzes the humanistic value of TV genre dramas <Signal> which is the work of Kim Eunhee, who is estimated to have settled the Korean TV genre drama. The drama <Signal> is a crime investigation drama based on actual longterm unfair cases, and it adds a fantasy setting that uses timeshifting motifs. The process of connecting past and present figures and resolving longterm unfair cases is interpreted as a symbolic representation of the revolutionary history composition similar to W. Benjamin's time concept and historical philosophy. This drama emphasizes that the most important time is now, through fantasy narratives breaking the natural laws of time that lead to the past, present and future. It is to remind W. Benjamin's philosophy about time and history that he criticized the concept of modern time that the purpose of time flow was not to return to the past that had been left in the future. The drama is deemed to be the most important of the justice and truth of the real world. It tells us that the justice and truth is to remember no matter how time flows, and it is the most important conditions of human existence. As a result, the fantasy of this drama has not only been consumed as a new and enjoyable story while maintaining popular genre customs. It was meaningful that we were here to evoke our reality problems and to create the effect of sharing a more progressive historical awareness.
  • 9.

    The meaning of the Road in the poem of Yoon Gongang

    KyoShik Kim | 2016, (99) | pp.211~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to reconsider the aesthetic meaning of Yoon Gong Gang’s poetry with attention on the aspect of “Road” in the Yoon’s poem. This problem setup bases on that eye of Yoon, who had worked during Japanese colonial and independent era, meets on the image of “Road” and that the poetic projection is done with it. The conflict aspect between colonial reality and ego, the traditionorient and groping of subjecthood, and the life aspect and hometown consciousness, etc. were extracted as inner drivers of Yoon’s poem. The summary of this study is below. First, the aesthetic meaning which extracted as a inner driver of Yoon’s poem is to reestablish conflict aspect between colonial reality and ego. The loneliness of poetic ego in his poem implies desire to get out of the colonial reality. Yoon shows conflict aspect of poetic ego about anguish and wandering in the colonial reality. The inner driver of “Road” motive in his poem is often expressed as ambivalence of poetic ego and the inner desire appears on the Road frequently. On this point, we can read the will of poet to accept the gloomy colonial reality critically and to grope progressive alternative. As a result, it is clear that the “Road” is the inner driver of him to grope conflict aspect of poetic ego. Second, the aesthetic meaning of the road motive on Yoon’s poem can be identified with traditionorient and groping of subjecthood. We can find a lot poems published on Piri and Saleori after independence, imitating Korean old songs such as Beakje gayo, Shilla hyangga, Goryo gayo. Yoon built his own poetic world on the process of selfreflection by imitating and accepting poetic diction, rhythm and rural area emotion actively. In Yoon’s poem, traditionorient is a central role on poetic transformation of independence area. Groping of subjecthood of poetic ego is understood as a will expression to conquest hopeless and boundless reality. Third, the Road motive on Yoon’s poem shows the life aspect and hometown consciousness, Human life is spoken as a twofold work of departure and comeback to hometown. So, the Road means not only superficial meaning on human life but also inner meaning as a path in life. As the Road on Yoon’s poem is on the land, the land would be a objective correlative which conceives infinite life like mother’s womb. Because the land, mother and hometown are located on central of Road motive, those make poetic space to consider aesthetic meaning of Yoon’s poem as a inner driver. Like this, the Road motive is located on the central space which constructs his poetic world, and he shows the life aspect and hometown consciousness with it.
  • 10.

    Groping for humanity by NeoidealismRevolved around Park Younghee's the Artificial Laborers

    Kim, Sang-mo | 2016, (99) | pp.237~263 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In this study, I consider Park Younghee's the Artificial Laborers in point of Neoidealism. Commonly, this work has been understood under Marxism and Class struggle. Because it is easy to replace artificial laborers for the proletariat, and then revolution of artificial laborer points contemporary Class revolution. But in this point of view, it is difficult to explain the ending of this work. In the ending of the work, artificial laborers annihilate human and make themselves to human, but they cannot make a decendant. Only two artificial laborers sense each other, feel love, and live together as human. So the important thing is not revolution itself, but the transition from nonhuman to human. This transition accord with Park Younghee' Neoidealism. Through the Neoidealism, he criticizes contemporary literary world. He thinks Many writers adapt Japanese Naturalism unquestioningly. And naturalism is just focused on outside of it doesn't associate with Korean reality. So Park Younghee claims Neoidealism that can overcome disillusive real world. It is important that recovery of humanity like love, life, sympathy in Neoidealism. Park Younghee thinks sense is heart of that recovery. People can imagine other's pain and empathize each other by sense. Without sense, people like as machines or robots. In the Artificial Laborers, humans that make artificial laborers, try to make them perfect human through liberation from labor. But they don't empathize artificial laborers, they deal artificial laborers with products. This neglect about sense makes humans to nonhumans like machines. So ultimately, Park Younghee expects recovery of humanity in the Artificial Laborers. To solve laborers' pain and problems, he thinks recovery of sense is first step. Because only if people can imagine other's pain by sense, they can see problems of society directly and act to solve that problems.
  • 11.

    A study to associate Literature Studies with Literary Map - centered on Daejeon, Chungnam region Literature -

    Kim Hyeon Jung | 2016, (99) | pp.265~288 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This study is to explore a way to publish an unprecedented 'Korea Literature Map' by associating Literature studies with Literary scene. Literature Map is not a thing that just presents the birthplace and burial ground of the writers or the locations of Literary monuments. Literature Map introduces and records detailed description of the writers including not only the birthplace, where they are buried but also the influential factors they experienced in their hometown, their home environment, relationships with friends and the backgrounds. Therefore, Literature Map differs from Literary travelogue since it requires the harmony of research and investigation which include careful investigation and review of the writer and their works. In this study, we took a close look to find a new method of drawing out 'DaejeonChungnam Literature Map' which is a separated section of Korea Literature Map. To publish 'DaejeonChungnam Literature Map' in a systematic and fashionable way, first, publishing committee must be organized. Second, research and investigation should be accomplished by region. Third, thorough review of the collected data is necessary. Finally, drawing out the memory of the bereaved and friends by sorting out appropriate inquiries and getting help from public offices(city hall/county office, cultural center) is the key to accomplish a proper 'DaejeonChungnam Literature Map'.
  • 12.

    Buddhistic thoughts implied in The Stone Cave Boy and ‘After’ Maninbo

    Park, Jong-deok | 2016, (99) | pp.289~312 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This thesis analyses Buddhistic thoughts in The Stone Cave Boy and, based on them, examines whether Ko un’s intentions are reflected on The Stone Cave Boy. This is about how Maninbo, the recordings of pains and Ko un’s intentions of calling the spirit of Buddhism are reflected on The Stone Cave Boy and imagine ‘after’ Maninbo based on them. It is found that Sure, The name of main character in The Stone Cave Boy, who ends Maninbo, means the teachings of Buddha. A book made by stone means scriptures carved on a stone. Also, it is found that a stone cave means the place where body and soul grow and are purified. These materials provided clues that the implicated meanings of The Stone Cave Boy can be found in Buddhism. Furthermore, it is established that the pointing spot of story ‘after’ whole series of Maninbo will be on the spirit of Buddhism. Sure’s behavior of reading books certainly has a meaning of healing. However, it is reckless to think that all of human’s conflicts will be solved through Sure’s behavior of reading. Ko un also says that as long as human’s history continues, new narrations ofManinbo will be created and they should be recorded. Especially, what really matters is that the stories of reconcilement and winwin which transcends conflicts and oppositions will be the next stories to be written on a stone book ‘after’ Maninbo.
  • 13.

    Rejection and Pursuit of Selfconsciousness and Consciousness in Lee Sang's Essays - focusing on Women, Boredom and Social group Ou

    Ou Young-rock | 2016, (99) | pp.313~340 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    For more precise understanding of the literature of Lee Sang, an investigation of his essays is a prerequisite. The investigation can help identify the values that Lee Sang either rejected or searched for, which allows us to explore his consciousness in depth. Furthermore, the investigation is also significant in that it allows us to understand better the consciousness of modern man in general. Women is an important subject in Lee Sang’s essays. Lee Sang interprets women in the symbolic dichotomy of “whore” or “holy mother.” Lee Sang defines as “whore” those who engage in exchanges based on capitalistic value system. However, his aversion is closer to the hatred of the capitalistic aspect of the modern condition itself that forces him to perceive women as “whore.” Lee Sang represented as “whore” all tendencies for seeking materialistic values embedded in capitalism and expressed his renunciation of it. On the other hand, he used the term “holy mother” for women who are not polluted by such materialistic value of capitalism and respect the value of life and expressed his approval. There are two types of “weariness” that Lee Sang describes in his essays. One is the feeling of “numbness” resulting from the inundation of the repeated sensations produced by constant stimulations of capitalist society. This is clearly expressed in his essay Tokyo in which he describes his disappointment about the city of Tokyo, which was imitated by Seoul, when he visited the city in Japan. The other one is simply the “boredom” caused by not having enough stimulations. In his essay Weariness, Lee Sang expresses his attitude toward such weariness caused by boredom. Also, in his letter to Kim Kilim, he wrote that, compared to Tokyo, Seoul was closer to a farm village, which illustrates the relativeness of stimulations where one can only feel stimulated when one encounters a stimulation that is stronger than his previously experienced stimulations. In his essays, Lee Sang often shows his attitude toward the idea of the “crowd” and the “public,” the terms that represent social group in modern society. He calls the “crowd” the ignorant social group and feels humiliation and anger about the fact that they consist of the majority of people in modern society. On the other hand, he regarded as his true readers the “public,” which was an extreme minority at the time, who was capable of rational thinking. It is only the public who could understood his works. His strong anger toward the “crowd” is shown in his later confession that it even drove him to hate the idea of “minjok” and “family.” Later Lee Sang admits that it was an error on his part. However, he did not withdraw his negative attitude toward social group nevertheless.
  • 14.

    Knowledge structuring and Hypertext

    Lee Yong Wook | 2016, (99) | pp.341~360 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The researcher presents humanities that understands, interprets, and leads technology as a new methodology that will replace digital humanities. This challenging humanities research methodology, which can be conceptualized as “Humanities engineering,” declares the beginning of the 3.0 humanities era. If traditional humanities was humanities 1.0, digital humanities, which actively attempted to recruit IT as a research methodology is 2.0, and humanities engineering that aims to view humans and society from a deeper and broader viewpoint than technology by taking the help of technology is humanities 3.0. This process is organized in the following table . The ancient Greeks did not distinguish between art and technology. They used and applied the term “technology”to art and practice, that is, piece and stonemason. However, in this era, humanities has reached the highest level of achievement. As technology, which was a mere shadow of the arts so far, created a new form called information that is comparable to art, the meaning of the human, who is the creator of art, user of technology, consumer of information, and producer of knowledge, became more important. Now, humanities should interpret not only art but also technology. If the function of interpreting symbols has not been abandoned, the symbol of technology should also be the subject of humanities research. Art and technology are fraternal twins. Although both use tools, they are different in terms of form, content, function, efficiency, value, and orientation. So far, humanities only considered romance, emotion, and the aesthetic world as a subject of interpretation by having art as the target text. However, humanities engineering determines practice, efficiency, and convenience from the human perspective. The core of humanities engineering is to interpret technology as humanities. The reason this is important is that technology mimics humans and all technology is “expansion of humans” as pointed out by McLuhan. Viewing technology from the human perspective will be another way of thinking and reflecting on ourselves.
  • 15.

    A Study on the Truth of Mooks in Gwangju Area in the 1980s

    im si hyeun | 2016, (99) | pp.361~385 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines mooks in Gwangju in the 1980s, 30 years ago. The period of 30 years gives ample time for the objective criticism thereof. The historical magnitude of the criticism of 10 years of literary mooks in the 1980s is big, making it a great part of the literary ecosystem in Korean history of literature. In that magnitude, the emergence of mooks in Gwangju is the expression of the sublime will to positively, actively reflect and overcome the tragedy of the then history, specifically, the then literary history and spiritual history. With such a viewpoint, this study first examined the background behind the mook style emerging in Gwangju in the 1980s. Second, the contents of mooks, emerging in the 1980s, were examined. Third, the characteristics of all these mooks were examined. Gwangju mooks sought to widely deal with local culture as the fundamental field of the true national culture not from the sectism viewpoint. With the viewpoint that when a nation's culture is concentrated on Seoul (the center of the nation), it should face dangers, Gwangju mooks deeply thought of culture, and that culture seemed to be embraced as the sublime will to positively and actively reflect and overcome the tragedy of the then history, literary history and spiritual history, which were understood as the life energy or the entire community of the people.
  • 16.

    A Study on ‘the children & Adolescence fictions’ of Cho, seonJag and Choi, InHo - About the focalization of the type and the meaning -

    채희윤 | 2016, (99) | pp.387~422 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This thesis is to study on ‘the children & Adolescence focalization“ of Cho, SeonJag& Choi, InHo’s fictions. As 1970’s prominent writers, Cho, SeonJag & Choy, Inho wrote many fictions, especially ’the warexperience fictions’ and ‘popular novels’. But, Many other 70’s writers, using ‘the children &Adolescence“ as the character of their fictions, in contrast with, they used to ‘the children & Adolescence“ as the narrator, or the focalizer in his works. The Focalization, G. Genette’s term, denote the viewer and perceiver of the narrative situation. Why did they use his younger characters as the focalization agent of their fiction? Perhaps, is it the key that diagnose their peculiar world view and creating writing intentions? In this Thesis I find out What’s a type of focalization they adopted, usually. And, what’s the meaning of ‘the Children & Adolescence focalization’ on Cho and Choi’s fictions. and the next aim of the thesis, what the genuine purpose of the fatherson’s conflict in their fictions as the warexperience authors. To begin with, I take three texts of Cho’s short fiction and novelette, <Mobumjagmoon, A model composition>, <SengByuk, A castle wall>, <Sisahoe, a preview>. In addition, in the case of Choi, I take only short fictions, <Sulggun, A drunkard boy>, <ChoeSeSulGaeLon, An introduction to the artof living>, <UhewDaeHan YooSan, An Great inheritance>. Because, Children & Adolescence are characters in the stories, and they are technical agents as the narrators in these texts. On my examination, I find two conclusions. First, Cho used to “internal focalization” in the point of view stance. And the internal focalization has three types, ‘fixed’, ‘variable’, ‘multiple’ focalization. Among of the three type, he used to ‘fixed focalization’, mostly. Because he indicatively confessed his discontents that a structural contradiction in our society was brought. And, the father as the character of fictions is an “objective correlative’ in this chaos world to overcome in the long run. Otherwise, on the focalization Choi used to freely focalization according with his intention. On the contrary when he used to the internal focalizer, but, he chosen the growup narrator to say the stories that the children &Adolescence have perceived. Also he utilized the variable focalization throughout his fictions, freely. On the aspect of conflict between the father and son is different from Cho’s fiction. In the end of fictions, sons approved of their father as an a man of family, and appreciated his efforts and services, indeed. Consequently, mere severe ideological situation of the 70’s, Cho’s ‘the Children & Adolescence focalization’ is very useful technique to avoid the censorships of the ‘redcomplex’. While, under the capitalism economic suppression, Choi suggested the important of humanity, especially as the father roles of a family member.
  • 17.

    Study of aspects that make up the subject of Lee, Bumsun ´s novel

    Hyeweon Hong | 2016, (99) | pp.423~449 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In this paper I tried to consider the compositional aspects of the subject using the method corresponding to war trauma for the early Lee, Bumsun ´s novel. The study of the earlier novel Lee, Bumsun focused mainly on discriminating lyric novels and realism novels and considering each aspect. In this article, we will adapt how the subject cured the war trauma through several neurosis aspects displayed in the early novel and how it was applied to the postwar society on the basis of this I tried to find out whether he was composing the subject. The research method is Lacan 's theory. According to Lacan, the subject is composed of ‘the Real’‘ the Symbolic’‘ the Imaginary' works perfectly. The novel, which is repeatedly given to the homelands of the lost people, is the "HakmaulSaramdle," "Sushimga," "Kalmaegi". In this work, the hometown is a space where the subject and the others are unified, It is possible to have a comfortable, nursinglike identity, which is similar to the fact that children have a mothertointerest relationship in the area of ‘the Imaginary' and constitute an unbreakable ego by experiencing an identity with the others. In the case of ‘the Imaginary', which was made in the image of the hometown, it is the absence of the signifiant in the village where the language of the ‘the Symbolic’ is not yet infested. Therefore, the mother of the "ovaltan" and the elderly of "Dalpangee" loses the language and does not learn it, so they bring up the imaginary system. In the case of a person who has entered ‘the Symbolic’, ‘the Symbolic’ geologist of the subject beyond the intention of the subject, that is, through the symptom. The male characters that appear in the novels "Sunday" and "Miguragi" are passive and show selfdepressing symptoms. These passives are symptomatic of the outside world, that is to say, unjustifiable and unreasonable. The male character of "ovaltan" the representative of the passive figure, shows the urge to die. This is resistance to ‘the Symbolic’. The real world also protects the scars of the subject through illusions, and the illusions of the novel "illusions" and "219", the illusions of consciousness of the subject, It is a defensive mechanism. Ultimately, the early novels of Lee, Bumsun can be an effort to cure and adapt the main trauma caused by the impact of the Korean War and the unreasonable state of the postwar society. But the strong force of trauma have shown that inappropriate division and neuropathy are caused by the destruction of the balance of life, and the divisions and symptoms of the subject are the novel form of inappropriate and neurosis can be seen.
  • 18.

    Study on the Korean Language Teachers’ Realization in Pronunciation Education

    백소영 | 2016, (99) | pp.451~466 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Purpose of this study is to find teaching pronunciation method and contents that helps in learners communication for Korean language teacher by researching the present condition of pronunciation education in Korean today. The accurate pronunciation is important to communicate naturally with native Korean speaker, and verbal communication have effect on writing as well. That is why the pronunciation education is not only for acquiring one skill. To find out the present condition of pronunciation education, the survey was done to Korean language teachers about how they teach pronunciation in the class. Most of teachers answered that they don’t make extra time for teaching pronunciation separately, they teach it when pronunciation hinder in communication while practice other skills, or it is done by repeating pronunciation after teacher when pronunciation part is given in the text book. The reasons why pronunciation education is not carried out properly in Korean education are as follows. Firstly, lack of technical knowledge of teachers in phonology. Secondly, there is no extra time for teaching pronunciation because pronunciation class is not allocated in curriculum. Thirdly, Korean language teachers don't know how to deliver their knowledge with bringing learners interest. Therefore, this article argues that regular refresh training is needed to Korean language teachers, To do that, it offers necessary education contents.
  • 19.

    Sense investigation of the Korean wordinitial plain consonant by Japanese mother language learner - Issue of teaching the wordinitial plain consonant by voiceless sounds -

    히라타 에미 | 2016, (99) | pp.467~490 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Korean mother language’s unvoiced sound by the interview of Japanese speakers, and this study purpose is investigating the future tendency. The interview result is arranged by following. ①The voicing’s sex difference did not effect Japanese speakers’ sense. ②Stimulus sound is as the voice sound, the probability which can be sensed is by following’s turn, close vowel >close–mid vowel > open vowel. Close vowel is about 4 times higher than open vowel. ③Without the velar, the voice sounds can be sensed more and more clearly when the point of articulation is close to the glottis. Comparing with the open syllable ,the probability that closed syllable can be sensed is high. When we consider this result of the point of articulation by particularly ,there is no change in bilabial and alveolar, though there is a big change in velar and palatal. When the result of above is checked, we can generalize the Japanese speakers’s interview intension by following. The conditions of being to sense the voice sounds: Close vowel, Palatal, Closed syllable. The conditions of easy to sense the voiceless sounds: Close-vowel, Velar, Open syllable Like those viewpoints in this paper, Japanese learners listen it and discriminate it by unconsciousness, correct it. The first step is to arrange the initial plain consonant systematically ,and we did the interview of initial plain consonant. In this paper, it is necessary to clarify the tendency above of Japanese’ interview in the future. And the result can be became the date used by Japanese language learner whose mother language is Korean. It is the future subject detailed proving of syllable, final consonant, generation, the different of area, and phonetic characteristics of voicing which we could not search in this study.