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2018, Vol., No.105

  • 1.

    On the Interrelationship of Palatalization betweenKorean Chinese Characters and Chinesee

    기혜민 | Kim Jeongtae | 2018, (105) | pp.7~39 | number of Cited : 0
    It is a discussion about the Palatalization between Korean and Chinese, which are same pronunciations of Korean traditional Chinese characters, such as ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’. The purpose is to find out the Interrelationship of Palatalization by the analyzing Korean and Chinese. In other words, the a dental consonants such as ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’ had been developed the palatal consonants. It is to establish the cause of sound changes whether are influenced by Chinese or Korean. As the Korean Chinese characters ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’, which are based on the middle archaic chinese, they had the same phonological environment ‘ㅈ[ch]’+[i, j]’ as the Chinese characters when they were accepted in korean chinese characters. The palatalization of ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’ happened in the internal factors of Korean language. The reasons are found in the timing of palatalization, glide-deletion, antipalatalization, overcorrection, etc. First, given the timing of palatalization, it was not very likely that the Korean chinese characters was influenced by the Chinese language. The Korean palatalization of ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’ happened in the 15th century and completed in the 17th century but the chinese palatalization started in the south China in the 15th century and in the north of China 18th century, completed it in the modern time. Second, [i], [j] had been existed from middle archaic China but the palatalization didn't occur. The cause of these differences was related to the Korea-Chinese consonant system. As a result, it was discovered that there are only in Korean caused by [i, j], is not related in modern chinese [y], [ɥ]. Third, considering the glide deletion during palatalization, it is hard to say that was influenced by the Chinese language. The reason is that the glide deletion has a different range of characteristics. In other words, the glide deletion of Chinese was antipalatalization not Korean case. Fourth, when we looked at the antipalatalization, Korean consonants ‘ㅈ[j], ㅊ[ch]’ had palatalized to ‘/ʦ/>/ʨ/, /ʦʻ/>/ʨʻ/’ in 17th century regardless of Chinses. However Chinese had antipalatalized dued to the of ‘[i]>[ɿ]’. Fifth, when Korean Chinese characters of ‘jeong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’, were over corrected, they appeared in ‘d/e/, t/ㅌ/’ in some cases but Chinses didn't. In the end, the Korean palatalization was based on the Korean inner changes. To conclude, ‘eong(精)·cheong(淸)·jongmo(從母)’ are based on middle archaic Chinese. Even though they had the same phonological environments as Chinese at that time, the Korean palatalization occurred in the inner factors.
  • 2.

    A study on the meaning extension of ‘iss-ta/eop-ta’

    JIN, MEIYING | Kim, Jin Soo | 2018, (105) | pp.40~70 | number of Cited : 3
    This study has a goal to analyse the direction of the meaning extension of complimental antonym words ‘iss-ta/eop-ta’. For the goal, this study applied on the cognitive theory. Complimental antonym words ‘iss-ta/eop-ta’ has five types of the meaning extension. The types of the meaning extension are as follows ① ‘object->space’ ②’object->behavior->space’, ③‘physical position-> social position-> psychological position’, ④‘content word->functional word’, ⑤‘concreteness->abstractness’. The aspects of the meaning extension are divided into two; one is symmetrical (as like as type①,②) and the other is asymmetrical (as like as type ③,④,⑤) The asymmetrical type of meaning extension made another imbalance of the productivity in the aspects of compounding lexical words, functional words and markedness. In the aspect of compounding words, ‘eop-ta’ is more productive than ‘iss-ta’, but in the side of functional words, ‘iss-ta’ is more productive. And in the aspect of markedness, ‘eop-ta’ is more productive than ‘iss-ta’, this means that the domain of the meaning of ‘iss-ta’ is wider than ‘eop-ta’.
  • 3.

    Goryoin’s Language Use and Language Environment : a case from Goryoin of Wolgok village in Gwangju

    Ju Yeon Suk | 박수연 | 추연 | 2018, (105) | pp.71~99 | number of Cited : 0
    Goryoin refers to Korean immigrants from the former USSR who have migrated back to Korea since the year 2000. In this study, I examine the motivation of Goryoin’s Korean learning, their institution based Korean learning experiences, their overall proficiency in Korean, Russian, their birthplace language, English, ultimate proficiency level in Korean which they eager to achieve, etc. I also measure how much they want their next generation to learn Korean as heritage language. More than 70% of Goryoin subjects in the experiment estimate that their proficiency in Korean is below mid-level. In contrast, more than 90% of Goryoin subjects in the experiment estimate that their proficiency in Russian is above upper mid-level. Almost 70% of Goryoin report that their proficiency in birthplace language is above mid-level. Unexpectedly more than 30% of Goryoin subjects report that their proficiency in English is above mid-level. More than 85% of Goryoin in the experiment hope they would like to speak Korean just like native Korean. 97% of Goryoin want their children to learn Korean as heritage language.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Composition Aspects and Meaning of Deficiencies in <Jusaengjeon>

    Kim, Hyun-Hwa | 2018, (105) | pp.100~120 | number of Cited : 0
    The narrative aesthetics of 〈Jusaengjeon〉 are remarkable in terms of following three composition aspects. First is the aspect regarding ‘Lack of subordinate relationship’. The narration in 〈Jusaengjeon〉 aims for exclusive composition that characters cannot perpetually possess one another. The breakdown of love triangle is due to the special circumstances represented by ‘Lack of subordinate relationship’, rather than ‘Lack of affection’. Second is the aspect of sexual discourse through colors. The showy colors surrounding the heroine reflected from the view of male character are the symbol of sexual discourse. It presents sensational description of sexual desires rather than avoiding direct exposure of sexual desires. The narration attempting to satisfy sexual sensations through colors is based on self-censorship of sexual desires, diluted in accordance with the ideology and convention of the period. Third aspect is ‘Choices to aim for destination-oriented life’. Jusaeng is a character who pursues a life on the road towards the destination. Followed by repeated failure in state examinations, he forgoes his confined mind and enters the road towards destination. Jusaeng’s road towards destination is triggered by spiritual limitations rather than material momentum. It can be presumed that he will continue his life on the road towards destination, looking for another place to find peace in mind, whenever he reaches the ideal limitation. That is the reason why Jusaeng shares affection with two women but leaves them without being able to depend on either one of those two women. The story delivers the message that, a life cannot be understood based on honors and love, thus happiness and desires pursued by a human should be variable and discontinuous. 〈Jusaengjeon〉 succeeded the deficiencies in life that had not been fulfilled in the previous narrations, such as collapse of an individual life followed by love affairs, ephemerality, and violent pressure of the world. Also, it leaves the reality as it is regarding conflicts in love and honors, while duplicating the fact that humans of the period faced limitations. The literary value of 〈Jusaengjeon〉is significant in a sense that it examined the realistic issues of a person living the period through narration of deficiencies.
  • 5.

    Approach on Sanseolgi-bon 「Nocheonyeo-ga」 as literary therapy text -Focusing on Emotional Bondage ties through the Perspective of Reception Esthetics

    손앵화 | 2018, (105) | pp.121~146 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I examined the aspect of the emotional bond between the heroine and the reader in terms of the aesthetic acceptance of the reader. The old woman's desire for marriage was emotional sympathy with the reader through the expression of honest emotions. At the beginning of 「Nocheonyeoga」, the old woman distorted by the intention of the narrator was targeted. The old woman 's feelings were expressed by external grudge and anger, which originated from "frustration" and "anger", but gradually controlled and showed a conscious transition to accept and affirm the deficiency condition of disability. The reader who was influenced by these emotional changes was also able to confirm the warm sympathy by observing the old woman's self-narrative with objective gaze. As a result, 「Nocheonyeoga」 was divided into the person-oriented story in the first half and the event-oriented story in the latter half. While the old woman in the first half was shaped as a humorous figure, In the middle and latter part, overcoming narratives appeared to overcome disability and achieve marriage. Through the narrative that overcomes disability of this 「Nocheonyeoga」, we were able to revive the old woman as an active and independent woman This narrative structure that is similar to heroic novels showed the conflict and resolution between self and world , which led to the empathy of the reader. Therefore, the unrealistic happy ending of the「Nocheonyeoga」 is a romantic ending achieved by emotional sympathy of the heroine and the reader.
  • 6.

    A Review of the Popular Interpretation of Lee Cheong‐jun’s “A Fool and an Idiot”

    Hyeon, Sun-Yeong | 2018, (105) | pp.147~174 | number of Cited : 1
    This study explored the issue of popular interpretation of Lee Cheong‐jun's “Fool and an Idiot", and discussed some points to be considered to educate his work properly. The popular interpretation of “A Fool and an Idiot" is widely accepted by the public and is an interpretation presented to students in the literary classes. The contents are as follows. Having suffered 6·25, the mentally (or heart‐brokenly) wounded brother is a fool whose sore part is obvious, and the younger brother is an idiot because he does not know the cause of the pain or is sick even though there is no reason to feel pain'. This interpretation seems to be a twisted result from some early mixed up interpretations of “A Fool and an Idiot". In particular, the popular interpretation of “A Fool and an Idiot" is that among other early interpretations, Cheong Yi du’s interpretation explicitly took a part in contrast with brother and younger brother. With that contrast, Cheon Yi du's explanation that Lee Cheong jun attempted to allegorically symbolize the literary or author’s consciousness in the 1950s and the criticism of the literary or author’s consciousness in the 1960s was erased. As such an explanation of Cheon Yi du was erased, a popular interpretation of “A Fool and an Idiot" can be mistaken for the result of reading “A Fool and an Idiot" as a realistic novel, and thus, many questions of formalism or reflectionism cannot be avoided. Reading novels properly in novel education means reading the text and internalizing the result of reading. As the popular interpretation of “A Fool and an Idiot" seems to be presented as a unique and valid interpretation of this work, it prevents students from reading and internalizing the work, “A Fool and an Idiot". To utilize “A Fool and an Idiot" as a material for novel education, students should be able to have the motivation and opportunity to read and internalize this work. To do so, we must first explain to the students what the popular interpretation of "A Fool and an Idiot" has been, and that the interpretation is not the only interpretation.
  • 7.

    A historical consideration on Korean phonemic alternation by Korean learners

    Park, Keeyoung | 2018, (105) | pp.175~202 | number of Cited : 0
    In this paper, I attempted to historical investigate the existing study on the applied aspect of Korean phonemic alternation. The discussion on the applied aspect of Korean phonemic alternation is hard to be based on the second language pronunciation acquisition study focused on English. Therefore, the research methodology on the applied aspect of Korean phonemic alternation should be confirmed through existing studies. In this paper, first of all, the list of Korean phonemic alternation, the experimental data, and the selection of subjects were critically examined in terms of research methodology. For the list of Korean phonemic alternation, I examined whether the “n" -insertion is valid for inclusion in the study. As for the experimental data, I argued that it is difficult to judge whether the phonemic alternation is learned or not, even though the phonemic alternation is applied within the word. As for the subject of the experiment, I examined the validity of subject focused on the correlation between the Korean proficiency and the timing of learning phonemic alternation. Second, I examined the results of previous studies in relation to the difficulty setting of phonemic alternation. The difficulty of phonemic alternation, I divided into studies on korean learner who is chinese native speaker and other language native speaker and examined it. And then I confirmed that the difficulty of phonemic alternation has a certain tendency irrespective of the learner’s native language.
  • 8.

    Approaches for Korean Education Regarding ‘-에, -에서’ Seen through Korean Native Speakers’ Articulative Usage

    eun jung park | 2018, (105) | pp.203~222 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to present Korean native speakers’ usage of ‘-에’ and ‘-에서’ so that foreign learners can use '-에' and ‘-에서' more effectively. According to the results of examining how Korean native speakers use '-에' and '-에서' in spoken and written language, verbs combined with ‘-에’ in spoken and written language are found to be ‘가다, 오다, or 나오다’ requiring the point of arrival after the movement and also ‘두다, 들다, 나오다, 있다, or 뜨다’ needing the point of adhesion at a particular place or spot. On the contrary, as verbs combined with ‘-에서’, there are various kinds of transitive verbs. Considering ‘-에/에서’ combined with auxiliary predicates, it is natural that ‘-에’ is combined with ‘-아/어 있다’ meaning the continuance of a state. There are also rare cases of it combined with ‘-go itda’. In such cases, wearing verbs are combined with ‘-고 있다’, and regarding their semantic functions, they reveal the meaning of ‘a state’; therefore, the meaning is not ‘progression’ but ‘the continuance of a state’. In most cases, ‘-eseo’ is combined with ‘-고 있다 ’ and ‘-아/어 오다 아/어 가다’’ which imply progression. This is because ‘-eseo’ implying ‘있다’ represents activity within the area. Based on the fact that Kim Yeong-hui (1973) deems that the meaning of ‘-서’ is grounded on ‘있다 (이시다, 시다)’ historically, this author, too, sees that ‘-eseo’ is often combined with auxiliary predicates like ‘-고 있다’ or ‘-아/어 가다, oda’ implying ‘progression’ because of the semantic properties of ‘itda’ which ‘-seo’ implies. From the use of verbs like ‘살다, 머무르다, 체류하다, 묵다, 구하다’ which both ‘-에’ and ‘-에서’ can be applied to, we can see that ‘-e’ is used to stress the meaning of ‘the point of arrival or point of adhesion’ in terms of placeness while ‘-eseo’ stresses the meaning of ‘activity or movement’ wtihin that. It is needed not just to inform intermediate and advanced Korean learners of ‘place name+에+가다/오다/있다’ and ‘place name+에서+various verbs’ but to teach them about the forms of ‘-에+verb+아/어 있다’ and ‘-에서+verb+고 있다’ as well. They also have to learn in written language, ‘-에서’ not only represents ‘activity’ in the place but has semantic functions like ‘a source or ground’ as well. Learners should also be taught about how to use them in written language, too.
  • 9.

    Analysis of Korean Language Assessment with 2015 Curriculum Revision

    Yang, Yeong - Hwan | Lee, Jeong-Ae | 2018, (105) | pp.223~248 | number of Cited : 2
    This study is designed to see how the changes in the assessment system affect Korean language assessment. For this, 184 middle school or highschool Korean language teachers were surveyed about their perceptions of and efforts for descriptive assessment and essay evaluation and process-based assessment. The analysis result is like follows. First, Korean language teachers recognize academic achievement and enhanced creativity of students as the most important goal of Korean language assessment. Second, although Korean language teachers think they are able to achieve detailed information about students’ Korean language ability and affective domains, they have a relatively passive attitude toward giving the information obtained from the process to students or parents. They also think they should change their teaching styles according to the introduction and expansion of descriptive assessment , and they are trying to do it. Third, many Korean language teachers recognize the need for process-based assessment and they consider it as a kind of complement of the existing result-oriented assessment. Forth, many teachers are against abolishing or minimizing optional questions in assessment, which shows that the change in the assessment system should reflect the attributes of Korean language assessment that it has wide-ranging answers and it is hard to make objectivity of the correct answers. Because the various and sometimes contrasting perceptions about the change in Korean language assessment are actually reflected in teaching and learning situations and affect students, it is meaningful to examine how Korean language teachers perceive the change as the actual assessors in exploring the direction of assessment for the attributes of Korean language.