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2019, Vol., No.108

  • 1.

    A study on passivity in Jeju dialect ― focusing on ‘-eojida’―

    Kim Bohyang | 2019, (108) | pp.7~30 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present research aims to examine how passivity is realized in Jeju dialect by investigating its characteristics. Compared to common language, one unique feature of passivity in Jeju dialect is that passivity based on passive suffix has a very low productivity and shows a conspicuous form of passivity using ‘-eojida’. That is, in Jeju dialect, passive expressions combined with passive suffix are not that common whereas the form combined with ‘-eojida’ are widely prevalent. As a result of comparing the realization of passivity in Jeju dialect with the spoken corpus analyzed by Sehwan Kim(2007), lexical passivity of ‘doe-da, bat-da, dang-ha-da’ shows similar figures (27.3% and 28.5%) whereas there is significant difference in terms of derivative passivity (3.6% and 40.5%) and syntactic passivity (69.1% and 31%). In Jeju dialect, ‘-eojida’ is being realized at the level of approximately 70%, which demonstrates how widely the passive expression of ‘-eojida’ is being used in Jeju dialect. According to the result of classifying the meanings of ‘-eojida’ used in sentences of Jeju dialect introduced in <Jeju dialect oral source book>, they can be categorized into ‘passivity’, ‘possibility’, ‘perfect’, ‘change of status’, and ‘involuntary’. As in common language, there is no doubt that ‘-eojida’ in Jeju dialect is significant in the meanings related to ‘passivity’. However, in common language, passivity is realized by being combined with the passive suffix whereas in Jeju dialect, only a small portion of passivity forms are accompanied by the passive suffix, and syntactic passivity is more prevalent. Meanwhile, there are few cases in Jeju dialect where ‘-eojida’ is combined with adjectives. When ‘-eojida’ is combined with an adjective, it indicates the change of status. In Jeju dialect, this semantic function is replaced by ‘-am/eom’ combined at the end of an adjective. Therefore, when compared with common language, the portion of ‘status change’ in semantic function of ‘-eojida’ is low. In Jeju dialect, passivity based on passive suffix is limited. ‘Bbat-gi-da, ssoi-da, jjot-gi-da’ are the examples, and future research should focus on diachronic examination of the reason why certain verbs do not form syntactic derivatives.
  • 2.

    The Characteristics of Min Juhyeon’s Wansanga and Poems in Classical Chinese about Jeonju

    Kim, Seung-u | 2019, (108) | pp.31~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aimed to examine the scenery and culture of Jeonju province during the mid-19th century through Min Juhyeon’s Wansanga and his poems in classical Chinese. Although Min passed the state examination, he was appointed as a low-ranking official named Jogyeongmyo Byeolgeom and had to stay in Jeonju for three years. In a situation where he felt politically frustrated but difficult to resign, the only way of life he could choose was to explore the attractions of Jeonju and to compose poetry. Min’s view on the topography and history of Jeonju is gathered at the beginning of Wansanga. He outlined the major geographical features of Jeonju from the southeast to the southwest. It turns out that he was aware of the origin of each place’s name as well as the topography of Jeonju. In addition, Min explained the history of Jeonju that the confusion of Gyeonhwon’s era regained order in the age of Mokjo and that Mokjo’s influence remained in his own age. In the following part of Wansanga and several poems in classical Chinese, he revealed the characteristics and significance of Jeonju’s major attractions and expressed his emotions about them. Okryudong and Hanbyeokdang are the places where the traces of Choe Dam, a renowned scholar from Jeonju, remained, so Min paid attention to these places that not only recalled the character of Choe but also had outstanding scenery. Mangyeongdae is a hill where Jeong Mongju composed a famous poem missing his king. Min honored Jeong’s loyalty here and identified himself with Jeong. Then, after looking around the pavilions of Jeonju, Min especially highlighted Gongbukru, where the local officials of Jeonju regularly greeted the king, and Manhwaru, the main gate of Jeonju Local School. In this regard, a pavilion was a space for him to strengthen his self-recognition as a literary man, rather than a place for joy. Min took a solemn and temperate appearance in the preceding places, but when he reached Deokjinji, he began to reveal the exalted inspiration. He described the beautiful scenery of Deokjinji filled with lotus flowers and enjoyed the feeling of springtime. In addition, he expressed his longing for ascending to heaven by recalling Li Po. The last scenery of Jeonju in Wansanga is the appearance of women washing clothes in the stream, and Min showed off his excitement by drawing them in the form of beautiful fairies who wash silk. The criterion that Min arranged landscapes in Wansanga is related to the characteristics of each landscape rather than the geographical proximity. After first looking around the noble places in which the traces of the renowned literary men remained, Min visited the places to strengthen his self-recognition as a literary man, and then took the way to daily places full of fascination.
  • 3.

    The study on the utilization aspect of ‘rumors’ by Yeonam Park jiwon ― Focusing on Hojil, Kimsinseonjeon, Yeleohamyangparksijeon ―

    Youngmi Kim | 2019, (108) | pp.73~99 | number of Cited : 2
    This manuscript recognizes the importance of ‘rumors’ and analyzes Yeonam Park Jiwon’s Hojil, Kimsinseonjeon, Yeleohamyangparksijeon through ‘rumor’ as a motif. First, Hojil depicts the process of Sir Bukgwak known as a scholar with strong moral fiber changing into a ‘fox-like’ person through usage of rumors humorously and satirically. Next, in Kimsinseonjeon protagonist searches for Taoist hermit that only exists in ‘rumors’ and the author uses a descriptive technique that naturally reveals the properties of rumor in the process of searching. Furthermore, the protagonist makes a social interpretation that Taoist hermits are ‘depressed people because they have no use in the world’ by piecing ‘the rumors’ together. Finally, Yeleohamyangparksijeon acknowledges the lust humans possess by overcoming dichotomy of martyrdom for chastity and broken chastity through the ‘rumors’ about a widow with broken chastity. In the short stories of Yeonam Park Jiwon, ‘rumors’ are not just used in the simple material level. In Hojil, it acts as a crucial element that highlights sarcasm by emphasizing the ‘false consciousness of a Confucian scholar.’ In Kimsinseonjeon, it makes the whole story take off and acts as an important element that shapes the theme. Also, Yeoleohamyangparksijeon shows the interweaving of broken chastity and martyrdom for chastity, in which this dichotomic frame is overcome by the spread of ‘rumors’ and ‘messages.’
  • 4.

    An Investigation on Correlation between the Hierarchical Space and Needs Hierarchy in the <Tale of Hong Gildong>

    Shin hyo kyung | 2019, (108) | pp.101~125 | number of Cited : 0
    The paper has examined the hierarchical aspects and phased features of family, society and foreign space which become the spatial background of the <Tale of Hong Gildong> based on the theory of needs hierarchy by Maslow, the psychologist in the USA. Space is an element implying the inside details of the event and character, and the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is noted for its special significance in each space. In particular, the spatial change following the movement of Hong Gildong represents the process of Maslow's self-realization. The space in the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is hierarchical. The space shown in the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is significant as a space that implies social issues. First of all, family space institutes the conflict from polygamy (one husband with one wife and several concubines) and issues in discrimination between sons. Social space is a place where the corrective action was carried out for the negative feature of the privileged class squeezing people's blood out of them. Lastly, foreign space is an ideal place where there is no social discrimination and poverty and where the fundamental duty of a human being is realized. The hierarchical space in the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is closely related with the needs hierarchy. Maslow insisted that most creative people achieved what others did not realize, and the highest level of self-actualization needs realized the creative power of a human being. Family space of the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is a place for personal growth as Maslow's first and second needs, which are physiological and safety issues, have been satisfied to some extent. Social space is where Hong Gildong's third and fourth needs of Maslow, which are affiliation and will of respect, are resolved by participating in the society. Foreign space completes Maslow's fifth phase of self-realization as Hong Gildong constructed Yul-do, the ideal country, to solve mounting issues within the country. The space and desire in the <Tale of Hong Gildong> is epically remarkable. The <Tale of Hong Gildong> is regarded to have appropriately collected social issues in the Joseon Dynasty period. The phased space has been placed behind it, highlighting the literary imagery. Family space dealing with the main character's hardship and growth in the first part of the epic, social space where the main character achieved activities and performance in the middle of the epic, and foreign space that realized his ideal in the finale played parts in materializing this work. Thus, the spatial background contributes to the structure of this work. This also means that Maslow's five-phase needs have been sequentially realized.
  • 5.

    Kim Deuk-yeon(金得硏)'s Gye(契) gathering and Writing Context of ‘Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)’

    Lee, Seung-jun | 2019, (108) | pp.127~157 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to establish a theoretical base for trying to analyze “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” by examining the context of creation of “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” focusing on Kim Deuk-yeon(金得硏)'s Gye(契) gathering. Today, “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” is considered as a work that reflects the development of siga(詩歌) history in the 16th and 17th century, but has not been able to draw a certain consensus within the dual aspects of succession and change in the prospects of the previous era. Therefore, the understanding of “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” faces the situation to overcome the problematic prospect of the history of research. For this purpose, This study pays attention to the review of the Gye(契) gathering, which has a certain consensus as the basis of the creation of “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)”. If “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” was enjoyed by the performance of particular group, the orientation of the work would be carried by the character of the group. This study examines the context of the creation of “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” on the basis of two things. At first, ‘NakGye gathering(洛契會)’ and ‘Gwangsan Kim family’s gathering(光山金氏姓會)’ that belong to Kim Deuk-Yeon were group activities that responded sensitively to the social historical environment of ‘Andong region’ in the 17th century. Second, the two groups show a character that can be distinguished on a certain level. As the result, This study set up two premises for understanding “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” based on the orientation of ‘NakGye gathering(洛契會)’ and ‘Gwangsan Kim family’s gathering(光山金氏姓會)’. At first, ‘NakGye gathering(洛契會)’ was operated for the purpose of enhancing collectivity by establishing the ethics tradition arranged from the previous era. This is closely related to the ethical orientation in “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)”. Secondly, ‘Gwangsan Kim family’s gathering(光山金氏姓會)’ was operated for the purpose of realization the moral laws in response to the ideological crisis of the collapsed Joseon and Andong after Imjin war. This appeared to enhance a sense of solidarity by causing pleasure among the members of groups in “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)”. Therefore, This study would like to carry out a follow-up work on the detailed analysis of individual works of “Sanjungjapgok(山中雜曲)” on the basis of such creative context.
  • 6.

    The Necessity and Implication of Empirical Interpretation of Oral Literature

    PYO IN JU | 2019, (108) | pp.159~192 | number of Cited : 0
    The research on oral literature has mainly been focused on historical geography, structuralism, and field research, the methods of which have been used together or combined, rather than being substituted. An empirical reading of the feng shui tale of Kim Dueok Ryeong, this study first found that the narrative structure of this story was to justify the steps the master took to obtain a propitious site. Second, the imaginary structure of this story shows that the feng shui tale of Kim Dueok Ryeong showed the importance of the values in the real life through the process of obtaining the propitious site. The narrative memory of oral narrative literature continues mainly through the changes in symbolic experiences, which leads to the formation of the symbolic horizon. The genealogy of signifiers could be understood through the symbolic horizon because various occurrence of signifiers form the symbolic horizon. The symbolic transition in oral literature continues, basically for the vitality of the symbols. Severing the symbolic transition signifies the extinction of a symbol, which leads to a severance of the culture.
  • 7.

    A Study on The Real of 『Vegetarians』 in the Han Gang

    이상우 | 2019, (108) | pp.193~212 | number of Cited : 2
    The Han River “Vegetarian” is a novel that portrays the harsh reality of a woman being born, growing up, and being forced to die from oppression and violence rather than having an imposing social identity in the process of starting a family. Young-hye suffered in the real world, and her struggle to escape the pain is a vegetable and a vegetarian as a way. When she has a warm understanding of her, she is naturally able to return to her daily life through the stabilization of her emotions. The men around her are all projecting desire into their work. However, Young-hye is not an everyday affair, but even a “vegetable" to maintain her existence is difficult. The “face" that Younghe has always suspected is lost when the root of the problem is treated with trauma. Sex with one's brother is more about healing than incest. In other words, sex is the combination of plants that connect with the purity of the Mongols. He attempted to overcome the trauma naturally, but failed to move forward with the opportunity to stabilize the main body by returning to the symbolic reality in the real world. After all, her hopeless perception does not find a way out of the world. “To be a tree" results in being driven to death's juxtaposition, the end of all despair.
  • 8.

    The Patterns and Poetic Orientation of ‘Stigma’ in the Poetry of Yoo Chi-Hwan ― Focusing on Nussbaum’s Theory of Shame ―

    Ji-won,Lee | 2019, (108) | pp.213~242 | number of Cited : 1
    This study attempts to address the patterns and poetic orientation of ‘Stigma’ revealed in 『Chungmasicho』 and 『Sangmyeongeuiseo』, poets by Yoo Chi-Hwan, with emphasis on Nussbaum’s theory of shame. Stigma is usually done to others in order to conceal his/her own shame or to get rid of a fear about an incomplete self. However, Yoo Chi-Hwan was trying to introspect his self or transform his existence by stigmatizing himself. The text of a stigma, realized by aesthetics of symbols, is a unique property of the poetry of Yoo Chi-Hwan, which cannot be fully understood with the approach of life. In his poem, ‘Cain’s Descendant’ not only represents the negative lineage, inherited to him, but also the most evident stigma, made as a sort of guilty conscience. The stigma of Cain is an imagery of the ethical shame, inherited to generations, but its meaning, of original shame, could extend further to the existence of an incomplete human being. Especially, the method of inheriting sadness and sorrow is the ground that Yoo Chi-Hwan accepted the fundamental incompleteness of human being as a sorrow-but-inevitable fate for every human being. The approach of expanding an incomplete self to an incomplete human being through the inherited shame is a distinctive feature of Yoo Chi-Hwan. A stigma, meant for a fallen animal, is a way of self-punishment based on self-deprecation. ‘Falling’ and ‘animal’ are symbols chosen to rationalize his self-deprecation. He punished himself by expressing the animals abandoned, concealed, or lost. Especially, wings are a symbol of the heaven so the wings of fallen animals represent the confinement to the earth, which is another expression of punishment. The punishment for shame aims at psychological indulgence. By punishing his feeling of shame, he is trying to approve his moral value by himself. ‘Sick being’ is a manifestation of being useless, which is the self-diagnosis of being fallen into being worthless, and an instrument of stigmatization. For Yoo Chi-Hwan, pursuing life as the highest value, being sick works as a sort of criterion for judging an worthless being. The fact that he consistently stigmatizing ill beings paradoxically reveals that he is pursuing his own dignity since shame, a criteria of being worthless, is originated from self-dignity. Yoo Chi-Hwan is trying to inspect the essence of human existence using symbolic stigmas and to enhance himself as a more valuable being. Since shame causes a significant pain of looking into its own weaknesses, people generally try to conceal or avoid it, but not Yoo Chi-Hwan. On the contrary, he uses the feeling of shame as his source of energy to explore the meaning of existence in his poetry. The pattern of stigma not only effectively presents the direction of his poetry, but also becomes an aesthetics factor, contributing to the establishment of his unique poetry world.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Common Usage of Korean Adverb Written by Korean Undergraduate and Foreign Undergraduate

    Seo, Huijeong | 2019, (108) | pp.243~292 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the common usage of Korean adverbs written by Korean undergraduates and foreign undergraduates in order to suggest educational contents for teaching adverbs in Korean language education. First of all, 207 kinds of adverbs 4,237 are collected from 43,919 words in 140 self-reflective writings, 108 book reports, and 102 persuasive writings written by 70 foreign undergraduates. 74 kinds of adverbs 483 turn out to be errors among 207 kinds of adverbs 4,237. At the same time, 452 kinds of adverbs 5,756 gathered from 73,032 words in 350 writings written by 70 Korean undergraduates are utilized as comparative data for analyzing the usage of adverbs written by foreigners. Through the analysis on adverbs, a couple of features are found out as follows: (1) Korean undergraduates use more adverbs of manner than foreigners. Meanwhile, errors of concordance frequently show up in adverbs of manner written by foreigners. (2) Foreigners use more conjunctive adverbs than Korean undergraduates. And, conjunctive adverbs are used the most in persuasive writings. (3) Adverbs of degree or time show up the most in adverbs written by foreigners as well as Korean undergraduates. (4) Foreigners use more negative adverbs than Korean undergraduates. This means foreigners prefer short negative sentence to long negative sentence. (5) Substitutive errors show up the most in adverbs written by foreigners.
  • 10.

    A Study on the systematization curriculum of Korean language for Academic purpose

    HONG SEUNG AH | 2019, (108) | pp.293~321 | number of Cited : 0
    While the number of foreign students studying at universities in Korea is steadily increasing, there are many problems in adapting to college life and classes. Foreign students' entrance to college is too low as the TOPIK level 3, and they are not actively operating Korean language education for students who are not able to meet these standards. In addition, Korean language education for academic purposes run by each university is not systematic. This study examines the representative cases of several universities and examines lectures that foreign students can take to improve their academic ability at Korean universities. In addition, the system of the Korean language curriculum for academic purposes is summarized from the intermediate level to the university course, and the language functions to be handled are summarized. In order to improve the academic ability of foreign students and adapt to Korea as well as improve the external credibility of Korean universities, it is necessary to operate a systematic Korean language course for academic purposes.