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2019, Vol., No.111

  • 1.

    A study on the addition of Sounds in North Korea ― Focusing on Linguistic Norms in Korean and Grammar Textbooks ―

    Song Miyoung | 2019, (111) | pp.7~34 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of the additions of sounds as a product of changing North Korean linguistic norms reflected in Korean and grammar textbooks. The writing of Saisiot from the Enlightenment period to the Japanese colonial period have been a topic of frequent discussion. The publication of “The Theory of Korean” in the Enlightenment period established the Hangeul writing system, so writings produced using various writing systems were found in contemporary textbooks. “A Proposal for a Unified Korean Spelling System” was later published by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, but Korean spoken in North Korea has changed since the national liberation from Japanese colonial rule. Today’s North Korean grammar textbooks differentiate between the addition of ㄴ and ㄷ. These additions are known as the Saisori phenomenon. After liberation, “jeoleumbu(絶音符)” or “saipyo(’)” were written between compound words, but this is no longer the case. This difference is one example of how Korean in North and South Korea differs with regard to the Saisori phenomenon, which is known as the addition of sound, and the writing of Saisiot. This study analyzed North Korean and grammar textbooks to determine how North Korean linguistic norms have changed over time.
  • 2.

    The Creation and Literature World of Buddhist Sosangpalgyeong in the Chosun Dynasty

    Ha, Seong-woon | 2019, (111) | pp.35~77 | number of Cited : 0
    As far as Sosangpalgyeong of Korean Buddhism goes, not much is known beyond the work by Cheonbong Manwu from Sejong era. Thus, this article intends to discover new Sosangpalgyeong works of Korean Buddhism that has not been known so far, and organize and analyze them in overall context. The analysis of each individual work had to be postponed for another time. In overall context, Sosangpalgyeong of Korean Buddhism can be organized as follows. First, this article has discovered 18 works by Woljeo Doahn (月渚道安, 1638~1715), 9 works by Seolahm Chubung (雪巖秋鵬, 1651~1706), 8 works by Donggye Gyeongil (東溪敬一, 1636~1695), 8 works by Wolpa Taeyul (月波兌律, 1695~?), 8 works by Euiryong Chehun (義龍體訓, circa 1822~circa 1895), and 1 work by Geummyeong Bojeong (錦溟寶鼎, 1861~1930). As the result, the Sosangpalgyeong poetry has been known to be 456 works by 62 authors, but at this time, it was expanded to 505 works by 69 persons. Moreover, Sosangpalgyeong of Korea has been considered exclusive to Confucian scholars. At this time, however, this discovery was able to confirm that Sosangpalgyeong in Korea had deep roots in Buddhism as well. The overview of the authors and works of Sosangpalgyeong of Joseon-era Buddhism is as follows. First, as for Sosangpalgyeong of early Joseon era, there is only Cheonbong Manwu (千峯 卍雨, 1357~?) who was active in Sejong era. He left 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong in the exchanges with Anpyeongdaegun and other Jiphyeonjeon scholars. His Sosangpalgyeong was made according to the order of works by Yeongjong of Namsong era, with poetry like a painting. And his work appeared Confucian rather than Buddhist. Most of Buddhist Sosanpalgyeong was made in the late Joseon era. First, Sosangpalgyeong was connected by teacher-student relations of Woljeo Doahn (月渚道安, 1638~1715), Seolahm Chubung (雪巖秋鵬, 1651~1706), and Heojeong Beopjong (虛靜 法宗, 1670~1733). Seolahm learned from Woljeo, and Heojeong learned from Woljeo and Seolahm. They all left Sosangpalgyeong poetry. Woljeo and Seolahm made 7律詩 with the same rhyming character, and Heojeong made 7絶句 with a different rhyming character. Woljeo Doahn (月渚 道安, 1638~1715) used the same rhyming character for each tense, leaving 2 works each, total of 16 works. Sosangpalgyeong of Woljeo all came from Confucian-Buddhist exchanges, and the poetic style was descriptive and transcendental. Seolahm Chubung (雪巖 秋鵬, 1651~1706) left 9 works following Sosangpalgyeong by Woljeo. Seolahm had the unworldly poetic style like Woljeo. The expression technique was descriptive like Woljeo, but had the characteristics of raising poetic esprit by using a lot of images. Heojeong Beopjong (虛靜 法宗, 1670~1733) was the student inheriting Woljeo and Seolahm, leaving 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong. He, however, did not follow the poetic cues of his teacher's Sosangpalgyeong, but created using other poetic cues while exchanging with Confucian scholars. His Sosangpalgyeong implicitly expressed the poetic subject, unlike the detailed descriptions of his teachers. Next, Donggye Gyeongil (東溪 敬一, 1636~1695), Wolpa Taeyul (月波 兌律, 1695~?), Euiryong Chehun (義龍 體訓, circa 1822 ~ circa 1895), and Geummyeong Bojeong (錦溟 寶鼎, 1861~1930) are Buddhist Sosangpalgyeong authors that has not been known so far. They were all Zennists who appears to have had exchanges with COnfucian scholars and made Sosangpalgyeong. They all had unique poetic styles. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Donggye Gyeongil from the late 17th century had a plain poetic style, and showed the tendency to formalize the work by using 典故 and 用事. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Wolpa Taeyul from the early 18th century had the novelty of attaching <Juksayawu> to <Sosangyawu>, and <Sansimojong> to <Yeonsamojong>. He had the characteristics of reproducing the scenery of Sosangpalgyeong by utilizing the imagery of vision and sound. The 8 works of Sosangpalgyeong by Euiryong Chehun from the late 19th century showed the characteristics of subjectively internalizing the poetic subject and embodying the Zennist stage. Geummyeong Bojeong from the 20th century left 1 work of <Wonpogwibeom> in 8 works of <西庵八勝>. This poetry is 禪機詩 for the state of reckoning outside the discernment prepossessed in our human consciousness through <Wonpogwibeom>. It can be evaluated as poetry that achieved the genuine Zennist stage with Sosangpalgyeong.
  • 3.

    Composition of Ko-Changnyeong Legend and Political Ethics of Folklore Community

    Han Jeong-hoon | 2019, (111) | pp.79~121 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine how Ko Yu (高裕), a real person in the late Joseon period, became a Ko-Changnyeong that was composed of colloquial language stories, and to find out the meaning. Ko Yu came to Changnyeong for an official post of Hyeongam and communicated intimately with the folklore community, distinguishing himself from other officials. The folklore community symbolized the behavior of Ko Yu's singularity by composing a colloquial language story. Ko Yu was a symbol of signifying the appearance of a positive local governor. At some point, Hwa-jung began to focus on the image of his positive local governor rather than the real person Ko Yu. Hwa-jung changed Ko Yu to Ko-Changnyeong and added symbolic meaning to Gi-pyo Ko-Changnyeong by adding various stories. When local governor Ko-Changnyeong treated people, he performed ‘asking-seeing-hearing’. The folklore began to organize the life of the community into stories through the ‘asking-seeing-hearing’ of local governor Ko-Changnyeong. Ko-Changnyeong, as a local governor, connected the life of individualized folklore with the life of a community, through which he constituted the political ethics of the folklore community. However, the symbol of local governor Ko-Changnyeong originally had certain limitations. The folklore could not overcome the limitations of local governor Ko-Changnyeong. Nevertheless, the Ko-Changnyeong legend shows that folklore stories can be words rather than sounds, and even more likely to be political subjects.
  • 4.

    Ethnic identity of Koreans in the CIS region through marriage culture

    Kim, Hyun-ju | Dukjoon Chung | Kim, Young-mi | 2019, (111) | pp.123~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of diaspora life of Koreans who have maintained their national identity for 150 years in the CIS region. Marriage is an encounter between individuals, but it is also a system of family and family meetings, and ultimately a system of maintaining national identity. In other words, any nation continues its generation through marriage, and on the one hand, it functions as a means of inheriting the individual's biological genes, but at the same time it is a unique function of maintaining the identity of the nation. Therefore, marriage can be a very useful measure in not only grasping a person's free will but also in identifying a nation's identity. To this end, the purpose of this study is to identify the causes of such changes by tracking the process of changing the perception of marriage among Koreans based on the socio-cultural background.
  • 5.

    Subordination to the capitalist system and its ills― Focusing on Lee Chung-joon's novel ―

    Ou Young-rock | 2019, (111) | pp.151~173 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to examine the process of dependency forced by capitalism in the 1960s and 1970s shown in Lee Chung-joon's novel, and the existence of an isolated individual. Lee Chung-Jun's novels show the individual pursuing sadistic existence by competition system. 「Ecstatic disappearance」 shows the double faces of the individual which include the masochistic aspect to accept what the capitalism system forces, and the sadistic aspect to harass others. 「Sadistic training」 shows the act of twisted evasion in which the masochistic existence wants to be another sadistic existence. Lee Chung-joon's novels reveal the problem of disconnected capitalist relation and the self-torture. 「Mr. Cho Man-deuk」 shows an individual who wants to protect the value of family in the system of capitalism becomes a patient. 「Dream of Mask」reveals that the act of wearing masks together with the contradictory situation of the capitalist system in which the true relationship with others is not possible is the essence of the relationship between individuals in the capitalist society.
  • 6.

    National Violence and Hate System

    Myoung-Jung Jeong | 2019, (111) | pp.175~197 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper proposes a relatively new term ‘Hate System’ to explain and analyze the contradictions of Korean society. In particular, by examining the many problems of national violence in modern Korean history in terms of the formation(production) and fixation(reproduction) of the hate system, it was judged that a different approach was possible from the existing discussions of national violence. Under this consciousness, this paper first explored the implications of the 20th-century Total-War system and its ideology as the origin of the formation of the hate system in Korean society. Then, I analyzed Im Chul-Woo's novel 『Gokdu Undonghoi(곡두운동회)』, which clearly shows the original narrative of the process of hate system formation.
  • 7.

    An Analysis of the Satisfaction Survey on the <Creative Writing Subjects> of Kunsan University

    KyoShik Kim | Choi Hyun-Jai | Jeong, Hun | 2019, (111) | pp.199~233 | number of Cited : 1
    Education on university writing began with early 'Korean writing' and now it has varied from ‘top-level writing’ to ‘writing for foreigners.’ However, most of the teaching methods are unilaterally applied to learners the effective writing style that the professor thought of. This paper explored the effective method of subject management through data analysis showing students' satisfaction with the subject of writing. This paper made the results of the Curriculum Satisfaction Survey, which was conducted on students with a strong degree of creative writing, subject to analysis. The survey analysis was carried out by itemizing 1) participation in the class, motivation for learning and interest-inducing, 2) satisfaction level and evaluation method of the textbook, 3) improvement in communication skills and writing skills. The analysis results of the survey data are as follows. First, there is a deviation in the satisfaction score according to the opening semester of the subject. Second, the higher the percentage of students who responded to the survey, the higher the satisfaction score, and the lower the response rate, the lower the satisfaction score. Third, the satisfaction score was low for the semester or division with a large number of students. Fourth, there was a difference in satisfaction score depending on the professor in charge. Therefore, the following improvement measures were proposed for the effective operation of the Creative Writing course. 1) Design and operation of lectures according to a common class plan; 2) "Complete one piece of writing" and "Strengthening the teacher's closing map"; 3) Right-level students are assigned; 4) Confidence and objectivity of survey data.
  • 8.

    Korean language education undergraduate students' perception of the class observation component of their practicum

    Hyunjin Park | 2019, (111) | pp.235~256 | number of Cited : 0
    This study focuses on analyzing perceptions, expectations and worries that Korean as a foreign language education students have about the classroom observation, which is a component of their required practicum. The goal is to apply the results of this research to the administration of the practicum course. Results from the analysis of the perceptions that students have in relation to class content and method show that students consider suitable the content of grammar, vocabulary and speaking. The students also consider suitable observing classes of beginners, intermediate and advanced learners in this order, and for a total of three times (9 hours), one time and two times. Students viewed appropriate conducting their observation in a university-affiliated language institute. Regarding the modalities of classroom observation preferences are towards an offline mode. The analysis of the emotional aspect of classroom observation revealed that expectations are more frequent than worries. The most relevant expectation was related to the observation of class steps and teacher talk. Among worries, there was the fear for unconscious mistakes. On the basis of this analysis, we suggest that the practicum supervisor strengthens the class outline drafting exercise in the pre-observation stage, asks in particular to record teachers' talk and movement in the observation diary, and requests to the teacher conducting the class to demonstrate clearly grammar, vocabulary and speaking parts. The meaning of this study lies in a holistic consideration of students' perceptions and expectations which broadens our understanding of the practicum situation, and we hope that it will contribute to improve the organization practicum course.
  • 9.

    Writing to explore Identity Crisis and Self-identity of University students

    ki-cheol jung | 2019, (111) | pp.257~282 | number of Cited : 0
    On these days, Korean university students are facing an identity crisis due to changes in the industrial structure such as the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the “AI era." In addition, the expansion of cyber space, which expands the domain of virtual reality (VR) and communication, makes the students difficult to distinguish from reality. Identity is a critical factor in identifying and developing ‘oneself’ in human relations. At the same time, one’s identity is an important key to living a happy life with others but also a view of the world, and it creates attitudes and values that determine future life and happiness. Therefore, it is crucial to educate university students in order to establish their own concepts and explore their identity. The students have attempted to write for specific self-concept establishment and self-identity exploration in order to overcome the identity crisis they were facing. They were asked to describe ‘relationship,characteristics, preferences, exploration, interventions, values and future’that are important elements of self-identity exploration and induced the use of ‘I’ to integrate those elements. Through ‘Repeating’ and ‘Deleting’ techniques,the self-concept was clarified, and self- identity was explored. In order to utilize the 'Recognizing' and 'Carving' technique, they were required to write ‘subjective emotions’ and ‘feelings.’ As a result, 71 percent of university students said they were “most likely," 29 percent said they were ‘likely’ helped in terms of establishing self-concept and exploring self-identity. Of course, these are not all or conclusion of identity formation. In the future, many studies and experiments will be needed to create the self-identity for the students, and all studies, including this study, will be a process, not a result. That is because our lives will be constantly changing, and at the same time, it will be constantly throwing research subjects at us.