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2020, Vol., No.114

  • 1.

    Reduplication and word formation

    Song, Jung-Keun | 2020, (114) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study classified the types of Korean reduplication into phonological reduplication and morphological reduplication, and examined the function of reduplication in word formation according to the type of reduplication. Morphological reduplication in which language units with meaning is deeply related to the formation of compound words. In particular, in Korean, onomatopoeia, mimicry, and roots overlap a lot. After reduplication, Korean onomatopoeia and mimic words are combined with ‘-hada(하다)’ and ‘-keorida(거리다)’ to form a derivative verb. The stem of an adjective is a compound root form that overlap after change and becomes a derivative adjective, which has the meaning of emphasizing the target state or attribute. On the other hand, phonological reduplication, which is an reduplication of units whose meaning cannot be confirmed, cannot be analyzed any more, so it is related to the formation of a single word. Phonological reduplication is an reduplication of language units that do not have meaning, but it was considered that even units without meaning can express 'repetition' or 'continuity' through reduplication. Phonological reduplication which is related with sensory expression is understood to exert an expressive function that accurately mimics the sound or state of the natural world, and words that show phonological reduplication can be seen as being created as reduplication when words are formed in the first place.
  • 2.

    A Phonological Study of North Korean defectors from Anak in the Hwanghae province

    Seungick Jang | 2020, (114) | pp.29~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the freely spoken language of North Korean defectors from Anak, Hwanghae province using the Hwanghae-do dialect, and identify its phonological characteristics. The informants of this study acquired the language after the division of the Korean peninsula, so it is expected that they will show the characteristics of the modern Hwanghae-do dialect well. This data identified a total of 19 consonants. This is generally similar to the central dialect, but it is characteristic that /c/(ㅈ) is realized as alveolar. Eight simple vowels were also identified, but most of /ӧ/(ㅚ) suggested in the existing Hwanghae-do dialect research was realized as [e] in this data. /ə/(ㅓ) > /ɨ/(ㅡ) high vowelization appeared in the word-initial and intervocalic, in the short vowels and long vowels, and in the lexical morphemes and grammatical morphemes. /e/(ㅔ) > /i/(ㅣ) has been identified limitedly in some words. Also, /o/(ㅗ) > /u/(ㅜ) appears in some parts of the lexical morphemes, and is overwhelmingly identified in the grammatical morphemes. Front-vowelization has a wider realization environment than Han Young-soon (1967). And in Kim Young-bae (1981), Anak is reported as a non-realized area of front-vowelization. However, in the speaker's speech, it appeared in a limited capacity. Umlaut was only partially identified within the morpheme and in derived words. The vowel harmony was as follows. First, in the case of the monosyllabic stems, the pattern was similar to the preceding Hwanghae-do dialect studies. However, in the case of the polysyllabic stems, numerous cases were found to differ from these studies. In addition, in the case of p-irregular stems, the pattern was similar to the Pyeongan-do dialect. The t-palatalization showed the same pattern as its general appearance in normal Korean. h-palatalization was confirmed only in ‘simdeulda’ (himdeulda, ‘to be hard’), and k-palatalization did not appear at all. Finally, The environment of h-deletion was ‘root + -hada(verb-derived suffix)' and ‘noun + hago(case marker)'. Even if the coda consonant in the root (or noun) is obstruent, ‘h' is usually deleted. The items covered in this study can be classified into three broad categories. The first is that which appears in both dialects. This is high vowelization, umlaut, and h-deletion. The second is maintaining the characteristics of the Hwanghae-do dialect. This includes the list of consonants, the place of articulation of /c/(ㅈ), and the t-palatation. This has long been the decisive criterion for distinguishing the Hwanghae-do dialect from the Pyeongan-do dialect. Because of this, Hwanghae-do dialect speakers could not easily accept the characteristics of the Pyeongan-do dialect. On the other hand, since there has been a tendency to pronounce /c/(ㅈ) as a phoneme in the Pyeongan-do dialect, it can be interpreted that speakers of the Hwanghae-do dialect did not accept the old form. Finally, there are certain aspects of the language that were influenced by the dialect of Pyeongan province. This includes a simple vowel list, front-vowelization, vowel harmony, h-palatalization, and k-palatalization. Unlike Hwang Dae-hwa (2007), these items appear in a very limited amount in this research. The speakers have a negative attitude toward these dialects, which can be understood as the acceptance of the Pyeongan-do dialect.
  • 3.

    Poetic Representation and Meaning of Nature-oriented ― A Study of Joo Yong-il poetry's ―

    Kim Hongjin | 2020, (114) | pp.53~83 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Joo Yongil's poetry's orientation to nature begins with wounds and pain. Through nature, we search for ophthalmology and lyricism, and the ideal “norms and standards” of life. This paper finds a point beyond the universal interpretation of this meaning of natural representation in the proposition that'nature is like the mind'. His poetry understands that nature is the mind, accepts the necessity of nature and aims for freedom. This paper examines these natural representations and meanings that appear in Joo Yongil. Joo Yongil's poetry's was written on the road to freedom through the naturalization of life itself. Like most lyric poets nature provides the subject matter of poetry to him and sparks poetic imagination. Along with this his poems first reveal a sense of cosmic compassion for life through bonds with nature. Under the repressive conditions of the real principle, the direction of self and life was found to be the path to freedom and liberation by sensing the nature of nature, where the identity is secured. Second, the equal bond with nature and a sense of cosmic compassion for life continue in the direction of exploring the spectacle beauty and love of natural life through femininity and sensuality. At this time, the female image metaphors the place where life is born at the same time as wound and pain. This signifies a longing for the source of life, and directs the liberation of the suppressed natural nature and restoration of the source of damaged life. Third, Joo Yong-il's poetry focuses on discovering and recognizing the nature of objects and the principle of existence that appear in the various modes and attributes of the substance of nature. His poetry embodies a world of ethical aesthetics that is composed through a process of communion with nature and delicate enjoyment. In the end, Ju Yongil's poetic attitude of realizing and accepting that the mind and body are the products of causal necessity as a part of nature can ultimately be seen as toward freedom of existence. His poems seek freedom of mind while understanding everything as a part of the whole nature and recognizing the mind and body as the cause of the natural order and as a modal expression of nature.
  • 4.

    The Influence of Dominant Discourse On The Formation of Male and Female 'Self' - The Relativity of The Relationship Between Mother and Child through 『As Mom Knows』 -

    Park Sungkyoung | 2020, (114) | pp.85~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    After a long exploration and narrative work on body discourse and feminine discourse, Cheon Yeon-young shows a deep experimental spirit in terms of the influence of existing discourses and grand discourses and the correlation that has on the formation of ‘Ego’. The artist has come to the novels 『Ginger』, novel collections 『Myeongrang』, 『As you knows』, and closely explores the process of forming the 'self' through family relations father-and-daughter relations mother- and-son relations and mother-and-daughterd relations and the language and human existence. She is dealing with the essential problem of Her work, which reveals the true nature of 'self' and 'subject' by looking into the child's family relationship, which begins with the relationship of the body, is an achievement that must be reevaluated in that she is always heading for a more fundamental problem while pioneering a new narrative field. This paper examines the aspects of the' self, subject' that the artist identifies with the works of the recent work collection 『As Mom Knows』, and the relationship between the ego formation and the language of the system. The male protagonist at the position of the father in the triangular structure of family desires seen in the collections of works 「As Mom Knows」, 「Glass Lip」, and 「Twenty-Three Eyes」 is still in the arms of maternal women. It shows that you are staying at the level of being a boy. This is what the artist perceives as the “Ego” of a man under the patriarchal system of this land and the meaning that the work represents. In the appearance of staying in the child who stayed in the male protagonist's 'mother's arms' or returning to it, the mother's son, who exhibits perfect maternality, does not become a rational 'subject' that has achieved independence and individualization and is dependent on the 'boy' appearance. The author's clarification and insight that the existing men in this land did not become independent 'subjects' of complete separation, but rather became a dependent 'self' in real life such as food, clothing and shelter by staying in boys who need the care of women with motherhood. Could be confirmed I was able to face the artist's insight and representation of staying in the 'self'. In the mother's arms, who play the role of a strong guardian and male head in the patriarchal system, the “son” manifested an inner “anima” and stayed in the mother’s arms, showing that the mother and child relationship could continue to be completely united. This was to recreate the reality that the son was able to live without having to achieve 'separation' and 'personalization' because there is a mother who has been wholly devoted to a son born with a "phallus" in the patriarchy and has been a powerful fence. The author's clarification and insight that the existing men in this land did not become independent 'subjects' of complete separation, but rather stayed in boys who need the care of women with maternity, thereby having a dependent'self' in real life such as food, clothing and shelter. Could be confirmed. On the other hand, from the image of a girl who had to live alone, thrown out of her mother's arms or without any fence, from the triangle of family desire to the role of husband and father as guardians works ``Remaining Education,'' ``Closed Eyes '' and ``My Severe and sad children”. In the mother-daughter relationship, the mother gave a female hysteria to her daughter, and the girl had to accept it and protect her, but the girl showed an animus-like ego and played the role of the father (father) protecting the house and women. The reality of this narrative is not a story of a girl in a peculiar environment, but rather a mother-daughter relationship in our society where the idea of son preference was strong. Could In the works, the 'mother', who had to live a life of frustration under the existing patriarchal system, can pour out the resentment. I was able to face the author's insight that was a daughter. It was possible to examine the implications that the growth environment of “mother's mother”, which has not been revealed and has not been reproduced, is creating a furious mother-daughter relationship In addition, girls are psychologically separated from their mother and play the role of adult head, but this independent self is not a socially individualized 'subject', but a 'beast' self thrown into the wilderness, and the negative mother-daughter relationship will be resolved. There was no sign of it. Daughters and mothers – The process of forming their “self” was like a beast of self-reliance without parental care, apart from official culture and general social culture. It can be seen that it is living by downloading the “beast instinct” from the “kin” as the mother did. In contrast to the mother-son relationship centered on the social signifier of “Phallus ” it reproduces primitive mammalian relationships. This is a primitive and bodily beast relationship, and it could be noted that the 'beast' is not a rhetorical expression but a straightforward expression of the formation of a girl's 'self'.
  • 5.

    A study on Jeong han mo’s early poetry

    Yang So Young | 2020, (114) | pp.127~149 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the realization of existence and the aspect of life that appeared in Jeonghanmo's early days. First of all, darkness appears in his early days, when darkness allows the poet to experience the innermost experience, which means hope and vitality beyond the passage of time. This situation allowed the poet to confront a war of masculine and destructive power. Therefore, darkness served as an image that strengthened the poet's vitality. Many stones come out in the early days. In particular, his stone acts as a driving force that embodies the manifestation of existence. The poet is lonely and anxious due to the experience of war, but he spurs on the realization of existence to overcome this situation. Therefore, ordinary stones are themselves but such stones make them escape the boundaries of human beings. Gradually becoming a stone becomes transcendental beyond the realization of one's own existence. In the early days erosive imagination emerges when eros act as a solidarity rather than as a simple principle of pleasure. Human beings themselves are in a state of discontinuity, and beyond this sense of isolation or anxiety, the sense of continuity is figuratively present as sexual pleasure. In his poem, Eros goes beyond the question of sex and has continuity and emphasizes solidarity.
  • 6.

    An experimental study on the production of Korean affricates by Chinese learners of Kore

    Ji-Young Kim | See-Gyoon Park | 2020, (114) | pp.151~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to analyze pronunciation errors and acoustic characteristics on Korean affricates produced by Chinese learners of Korean. To do so, listening judgement tests by Korean natives and acoustic analysis were conducted against produced tokens by Chinese learners. Listening judgement results showed that Chinese learners did not articulate lenis accurately in the ‘zha’ and ‘zhi’ groups and had difficulties in pronouncing lenis with being confused with fortis sounds in word-initial. They did show some confusions with lenis and fortis sounds reciprocally in the ‘azha’ and ‘azhi’ groups in word-medial position. On the aspect of pronunciation improvement, produced tokens of the ‘zha’ group showed an improvement to some degree with the accumulation of learning experience but those of the ‘zhi’ group rarely showed the effect of learning experience. In word-medial, produced tokens of the ‘azha’ group showed some improvement with the accumulation of learning experience. The ‘azhi’ group, however, was not affected by learning experience at all. According to the results of acoustic analysis Chinese learners of Korean distinguished types of affricates in the ‘zha’ group by CF-VOT. For the ‘zhi’ group, CF-VOT was the main factor to distinguish aspirated from lenis and fortis sounds while distinguishing lenis from aspirated using f0 (Chinese females). In word-medial, The Chinese learners’ production cues for the affricates in ‘azha’ and ‘azhi’ groups were almost the same as those of the Korean group. One more thing to mention is that Chinese males distinguished lenis from fortis and aspirated sounds by means of f0.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Quantitative Analysis of the Vocabulary of Yoon Heung-gil “Under the bell tower”

    Hwang hye ran | 2020, (114) | pp.185~210 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper has analyzed by the quantitative approach to the Vocabulary shown in “under the bell tower” of Yun Hung-gil. “Under the Bell Tower” is a growth novel about the process of healing a girl's tragedy under the theme of division, and Yun Heung-gil aims to make the world see and understand through indirect experience by objectively portraying the party's social problems through a child's eyes and not revealing them directly. However, cultural vocabulary such as dialect and colloquialisms that deviate from the category of standard language strongly reveals the artist's character, but it is a difficult factor for learners of the Korean language to understand the text. These expressions should clarify the cultural context of these words because they can stimulate translation to be misleading. They should also be annotated when replaced by original, standard, or easy vocabulary. This paper analyzed the vocabulary of the text “under the bell tower” based on the list of [Korean Language Education Vocabulary Content Development]. As a result, the paper revealed that vocabulary, dialect, vocabulary of war and social and cultural background vocabulary appeared in “under the bell tower”. And grammar also shows spoken language and dialect. The study is meaningful in that the quantitative analysis of the language of the novel's text provided the basis for its use in Korean literary translation and literary education.